A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms


William Edward Soothill


Lewis Hodous


Digital Dictionary of Buddhism

Preface to the Digital Edition

Why Digitize Soothill?

Like all other graduate students for the past generation or so who chose to embark on a professional career in the study of East Asian Buddhism, I was, in my early days of study, strictly warned by my mentors against relying on the Soothill and Hodous' Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms as a primary research tool. There were two main reasons for this. First, the dictionary is an extremely dated work, having reached completion during the mid 1930's, several decades before a serious profession of Buddhology had formed itself in the West. Western language information on Buddhism available to its compilers was extremely limited, and even in East Asian there were few reliable and comprehensive lexicons available. Thus the understanding of the philosophical terminology coming out of such systems as Mādhyamika and Yogācāra—which had only barely come to be understood in the West, tended to be simplistic, if not completely erroneous. It was a time in the history of the discipline when "Hīnayāna" was still considered to be something of a distinct historical Buddhist tradition. Beyond this, even concepts contained in the dictionary that were adequately understood were often expressed in archaic terms.

The second reason for pushing graduate students away from this work is related to the necessity of getting them involved as quickly as possible in dealing with resources from the original Asian traditions—in this case, the original texts and secondary resources from China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam. Beyond this, the constraints imposed by the printing technology of the 1930's have always made the dictionary somewhat difficult to use, with many of the entries in the dictionary being embedded inside other entries. There is also the difficulty brought about by the usage of vertical bars to indicate the repetition of Chinese characters. There is also somewhat of a dearth of useful indexing.

Despite these shortcomings, the fact is that just about every serious scholar of East Asian Buddhism has a copy of the Soothill/Hodous dictionary in her/his personal library (perhaps stashed somewhere next to a copy of Mathew's). This is an indication of an important fact about the dictionary: there is a large amount of information contained within it that can't readily be found elsewhere. Most notably information on Indian and Central Asian place names, personal names, temple names and so forth, but also lots of information on hybrid Sanskrit and transliterations that one will not find in any other dictionary, East Asian or otherwise.

I made the decision to digitize the dictionary upon finding out that it had fallen into the public domain, coupled with the realization that its content could do much to supplement that of my own long-term Buddhist lexicographical project, the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism [DDB (http://www.acmuller.net/ddb)]. Obtaining a grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science [JSPS] I spent, along with a number of assistants, two years in the task of digitizing this material and adding it to the DDB.

I became, in the process of this task, quite likely the only other person besides Soothill, Hodous, and their editorial staff, to read the dictionary in its entirety, and as a result of this concentrated exposure to it, I was led, as a fellow lexicographer, to come away with an immense respect for efforts of its compilers. Very early in the age of attempts at mixed Chinese-Roman typesetting, and several decades before the advent of copy machines, these two men, working on different continents, sent their handwritten manuscript back and forth by ship over the Atlantic ocean no less than four times.

Serious scrutiny has led me to the conclusion that the work is, at least in terms of its translations from Chinese sources, fairly sound. Using modern computing technology in the process of adding this material to the DDB, we were able to benefit from the presence of digitized versions of the Fanyi mingyi ji and the Ding Fubao, which were checked (along with a wide range of other digitized resources) on the addition of each entry. This allowed us to add a good amount of information to the DDB from these sources that Soothill and Hodous—no doubt in the interest of economy—left out. This also allowed us to see clearly that both men held a very solid command of classical Chinese. Their renderings from these sources are accurate, insightful, and nuanced. They also extensively and paintakingly consulted the other reference works that were available to them at the time, such as the lexicons by Eitel and Monier-Williams (see Soothill's Preface for a discussion of sources). Making extensive use of Eitel, they were able to add a sizeable amount of geographical location information for place names contained in the various travel records of Chinese monks who went to India and Central Asia.

As noted above, the most obvious area of difficulty in terms of content was that concerned with Buddhist philosophy. They were not aware at all of the complex nature of the relationship between the "Paramarthan" and Xuanzang Yogācāra (the "schools of Idealism"), but more telling (and historically, interesting) is the fact that they had not yet even sufficiently grasped the distinctions between Yogācāra and Vajrayāna, as these two traditions are conflated in a number of places. Also, not surprising for the time period in which they worked and their backgrounds, much of their thinking was informed by Christian theology, and this is sometimes reflected in their renderings of Buddhist concepts. On the other hand, since Soothill was one the early translators of the Lotus Sutra, it is not surprising to note that there is a strong presence of Lotus and Tiantai related terminology in this work, most of it rendered with sufficient accuracy.

Status of the Digital Document and Treatment of its Contents

I started this project with only the intent of absorbing its data into the DDB in a supplementary fashion, and it was not until halfway through the process of digitization that it occurred to me that a separate digital version of the dictionary made publicly available on the internet could be of sufficient value to merit paying attention to the proper preservation of its original format. Thus, unfortunately, during the early stages, almost all attention was paid to devising the most efficient strategies for preparation of the material for entry into the DDB. This preparation included the changing of Chinese transliterations into Pinyin, as well as correction of Sanskrit diacritics, and amendments in diacritical style according to the modern norms used the DDB. However, even this was not done with consistency, as sometimes these changes were made in the Dictionary source files, and sometimes only after they had been added to the DDB.

The major format change one will see in this version is that of the places where Soothill/Hodous had included numerous entries under a single entry heading. For ready absorption into the DDB using computer programming, these were broken down into separate entries. As it turns out, it makes the dictionary much more readable, so I don't see that this will be a problem. Also, our replacement of the vertical bars with the actual Han characters they were used to indicate will make for much easier reading than in the printed original.

Most corrections to the material are usually only found in the equivalent DDB entry. Since we have already gone through the correcting and editing process once while adding the material to the DDB, it does not seem worth it, for our purposes, to go back and try to return to Soothill material to its precise original format. But if someone would like to do that job, they are certainly welcome to do so. There is little doubt that the addition of the material to the DDB in a more readily accessible, searchable format is something that Profs. Soothill and Hodous would have themselves happily welcomed. Prof. Soothill's attitude toward the usage of his work in future projects is well expressed as follows:

Lack of time and funds has prevented our studying the Canon, especially historically, or engaging a staff of competent Chinese Buddhist scholars to study it for the purpose. We are consequently all too well aware that the Dictionary is not as perfect or complete as it might be.
Nevertheless, it seems better to encourage the study of Chinese Buddhism as early as possible by the provision of a working dictionary rather than delay the publication perhaps for years, until our ideals are satisfied—a condition which might never be attained.
We therefore issue this Compendium—for it is in reality more than a Dictionary—in the hope that many will be stimulated to devote time to a subject which presents so fascinating a study in the development of religion.

The basic digital document is structured in XML, using the recommendations for print dictionaries provided by the Text Encoding Initiative [TEI]. This will allow for its transformation into various formats for implementation on the Web, and elsewhere. While the major portion of the work of development of the structure in the usage of TEI2 was done by Charles Muller, a significant housecleaning of this structure was done by Michael Beddow in the process of final production. The XSLT transformation was done based on the TEI style sheets developed by Sebastian Rahtz.


The work of digitizing A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms was made possible by a research grant from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. The scanning and OCR work was done in its entirety by Yasuko Suzuki. Ms. Suzuki also did almost all of the editing and correction of Chinese characters contained in the text. Proofreading of the English text, and especially the insertion of diacritical marks was done by Heather Blair, Juhn Ahn, Amanda Goodman, Gina Cogan, James Mark Shields, and Thomas Dreitlein. Please note that due to certain processes of the project, not all of these corrections appear in the present text, but are reflected in their entirety within the Digital Dictionary of Buddhism.

Charles Muller

Tokyo, March 2003


AS compilers of the first Dictionary of Chinese Mahāyāna Terms, we are far from considering our attempt as final. Our desire has been to provide a key for the student with which to unlock a closed door. If it serves to reveal the riches of the great Buddhist thesaurus in China, we will gladly leave to others the correction and perfecting of our instrument. It was Dr. E. J. Eitel, of The London Missionary Society, who over sixty years ago, in 1870, provided the first means in English of studying Chinese Buddhist texts by his Handbook for the Student of Chinese Buddhism. It has been of great service; but it did not deal with Chinese Buddhist terminology in general. In form it was Sanskrit-Chinese-English, and the second edition unhappily omitted the Chinese-Sanskrit Index which was essential for the student reading the Chinese Sutras. [Note: 1. A reprint of the second edition, incorporating a Chinese Index, was published in Japan in 1904, but is very scarce.]

Lacking a dictionary of Chinese Buddhist terms, it was small wonder that the translation of Chinese texts has made little progress, important though these are to the understanding of Mahāyāna Buddhism, especially in its Far Eastern development. Two main difficulties present themselves: first of all, the special and peculiar use of numerous ordinary Chinese terms; and, secondly, the large number of transliterated phrases.

In regard to the first difficulty, those who have endeavoured to read Chinese texts apart from the apprehension of a Sanskrit background have generally made a fallacious interpretation, for the Buddhist canon is basically translation, or analogous to translation. In consequence, a large number of terms existing are employed approximately to connote imported ideas, as the various Chinese translators understood those ideas. Various translators invented different terms; and, even when the same term was finally adopted, its connotation varied, sometimes widely, from the Chinese term or phrase as normally used by the Chinese. For instance, kleśa undoubtedly has a meaning in Sanskrit similar to that of 煩惱, i. e. affliction, distress, trouble.

In Buddhism affliction (or, as it may be understood from Chinese, the afflicters, distressers, troublers) means the passions and illusions; and consequently fan-nao in Buddhist phraseology has acquired this technical connotation of the passions and illusions. Many terms of a similar character will be noted in the body of this work.

Consequent partly on this use of ordinary terms, even a well-educated Chinese without a knowledge of the technical equivalents finds himself unable to understand their implications.

A difficulty equally serious is the transliteration of Sanskrit, a difficulty rendered far greater by the varied versions of many translators. Take, for instance, the word "Buddha" and its transliteration as 佛; 佛陀; 浮陀, 浮圖, 浮頭, 勃陀, 勃馱, 部陀, 母陀, 沒馱, and so on. The pages of the Chinese canon are peppered with such transliterations as these from the Sanskrit, in regrettable variety. The position resembles that of Chinese terminology in Modern Science, which was often transliteration twenty or thirty years ago, when I drew the attention of the Board of Education in Peking to the need of a regulated terminology for Science. Similarly, in pages devoid of capitals, quotation-marks, or punctuation, transliterated Sanskrit-into-Chinese may well seem to the uninitiated, whether Chinese or foreign, to be ordinary phrases out of which no meaning can be drawn.

Convinced, therefore, that until an adequate dictionary was in existence, the study of Far Eastern Buddhist texts could make little progress amongst foreign students in China, I began the formation of such a work. In 1921 I discovered in Bodley's Library, Oxford, an excellent version of the 翻譯名義 集 Fan I ming I Chi, i.e. Translation of Terms and Meanings, composed by 法雲 Fa-y n, circa the tenth century A.D. At the head of each entry in the volume I examined, some one, I know not whom, had written the Sanskrit equivalent in Sanskrit letters. These terms were at once added to my own card index. Unhappily the writer had desisted from his charitable work at the end of the third volume, and the remaining seven volumes I had laboriously to decipher with the aid of Stanislas Julien's M thode pour d chiffrer et transcrire les noms sanscrits qui se rencontrent dans les livres chinois, 1861, and various dictionaries, notably that of Monier Williams. Not then possessed of the first edition of Eitel's Handbook, I also perforce made an index of the whole of his book. Later there came to my knowledge the admirable work of the Japanese 織田得能 Oda Tokunō in his 佛教大辭典; and also the Chinese version based upon it of 丁福 保 Ding Fubao, called the 佛學大辭典 in sixteen volumes; also the 佛學小辭典 in one volume. Apart from these, it would have been difficult for Dr. Hodous and myself to have collaborated in the production of this work. Other dictionaries and vocabularies have since appeared, not least the first three fascicules of the H b girin, the Japanese-Sanskrit-French Dictionary of Buddhism.

When my work had made considerable progress, Dr. Y. Y. Tsu called upon me and in the course of conversation mentioned that Dr. Hodous, of Hartford Theological Seminary, Connecticut, U.S.A., who had spent many years in South China and studied its religions, was also engaged on a Buddhist Dictionary. After some delay and correspondence, an arrangement was made by which the work was divided between us, the final editing and publishing being allotted to me. Lack of time and funds has prevented our studying the Canon, especially historically, or engaging a staff of competent Chinese Buddhist scholars to study it for the purpose. We are consequently all too well aware that the Dictionary is not as perfect or complete as it might be.

Nevertheless, it seems better to encourage the study of Chinese Buddhism as early as possible by the provision of a working dictionary rather than delay the publication perhaps for years, until our ideals are satisfied—a condition which might never be attained.

We therefore issue this Compendium—for it is in reality more than a Dictionary—in the hope that many will be stimulated to devote time to a subject which presents so fascinating a study in the development of religion.

My colleague and collaborator, Dr. Hodous, took an invaluable share in the draft of this work, and since its completion has carefully read over the whole of the typed pages. It may, therefore, be considered as the common work of both of us, for which we accept a common responsibility. It seemed scarcely possible for two men living outside China, separated by 2,000 miles of ocean, and with different mentalities and forms of expression, to work together to a successful conclusion. The risky experiment was hesitatingly undertaken on both sides, but we have been altogether happy in our mutual relations.

To Dr. F.W. Thomas, Boden Professor of Sanskrit, Oxford University, I am deeply indebted for his great kindness in checking the Sanskrit terminology. He is in no way responsible for the translation from the Chinese; but his comments have led to certain corrections, and his help in the revision of the proper spelling of the Sanskrit words has been of very great importance. In the midst of a busy life, he has spared time, at much sacrifice, to consider the Sanskrit phrases throughout the entire work, except certain additional words that have since come to my notice. As an outstanding authority, not only on the Sanskrit language, but on Tibetan Buddhism and the Tibetan language, his aid has been doubly welcome. Similarly, Dr. Hodous wishes specially to thank, his colleague at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., Dr. LeRoy Carr Barret, for the generous assistance he rendered in revising the Sanskrit terms in his section of our joint work, and for his well-considered and acceptable comments and suggestions.

Dr. Lionel Giles, Keeper of the Department of Oriental Printed Books and MSS., British Museum, illustrious son of an illustrious parent, has also our special appreciation, for he magnanimously undertook to read the proofs. He brings his own ripe scholarship and experienced judgment to this long labour; and the value and precision of the Dictionary will undoubtedly be enhanced through his accurate and friendly supervision.

Next, we would most gratefully acknowledge the gift of Mrs. Paul de Witt Twinem, of Trenton, New Jersey, UṢ.A. She has subscribed a sum of money which has made the publication of our work possible. To this must be added further aid in a very welcome subvention from the Prize Publication Fund of the Royal Asiatic Society. Such a practical expression of encouragement by fellow-orientalists is a matter of particular gratification.

Our thanks are due to Mr. Zu-liang Yih 葉樹梁, who with accuracy, zeal, and faithfulness has written the large number of Chinese characters needed. To the Hon. Mrs. Wood I am grateful for help in the exacting task of transcribing. As to my daughter, Lady Hosie, I have no words to express my personal indebtedness to her. Without her loving and unflagging aid as amanuensis, I should have been unable to finish my part in this work, which-so the authors hope-will once again demonstrate the implicit and universal need of the human spirit for religion, and its aspirations towards the Light that "lighteth every man that cometh into the world".


Oxford, England, 1934.


After the Dictionary went to press, Professor Soothill died. The work on the Dictionary, however, was completed. For ten years we worked together, he at Oxford and I at Hartford, and the manuscript crossed the Atlantic four times. During his semester in New York as Visiting Professor in Columbia University and on my brief visit to Oxford, we had opportunity to consult together on some outstanding problems. The work of organizing the material and harmonizing the differences was done by Professor Soothill. He was well equipped to undertake the task of producing a Buddhist Dictionary, having a thorough knowledge of the Chinese language. His Pocket Chinese Dictionary is still in use. He knew Chinese culture and religion. He possessed a keen sense for the significant and a rare ability to translate abstruse terms into terse English. But even more valuable was his profound insight into and deep sympathy with the religious life and thought of another people.

The text and the indexes were again finally revised during his last long illness by Lady Hosie under his supervision. He was able also to appreciate the kind collaboration of Dr. Lionel Giles on the earlier proof-sheets. But his death meant a vastly increased amount of work for Dr. Giles who, on the other side of the Atlantic from myself, has had to assume a responsibility quite unexpected by himself and by us. For two to three years, with unfailing courtesy and patience, he has considered and corrected the very trying pages of the proofs, while the Dictionary was being printed. He gave chivalrously of his long knowledge both of Buddhism and of the Chinese literary characters. He adds yet another laurel to the cause of Chinese learning and research. And in the same way Professor F.W. Thomas bore the brunt of the Sanskrit proof-reading. We have indeed been fortunate to have had our work checked in extenso by such exacting scholars.

To Sir E. Denison Ross, who kindly looked over the proofs, and added certain welcome corrections, our thanks are due. Also we would wish to acknowledge the help of Mr. L. M. Chefdeville, who, putting his experience of various Oriental languages at our disposal, made many helpful suggestions, especially as regards the Indexes. Nor do we forget the fidelity and careful work of the printers, Messrs. Stephen Austin and Sons, who collaborated with us in every way in our desire to produce a volume a little worthy of its notable subject.

Our object is well expressed by my late colleague. The difficulties in the production of the book were not small. Buddhism has a long history. Its concepts were impregnated by different cultures, and expressed in different languages. For about a thousand years

Buddhism dominated the thought of China, and her first-rate minds were occupied with Buddhist philosophy. For a period it lagged; but today is in a different position from what it was a generation ago. Buddhism is no longer a decadent religion and in certain countries it is making considerable progress. It is therefore to be hoped that this Dictionary will help to interpret Chinese culture both through the ages and today.


Hartford, Connecticut, 1937.


1. The rule adopted has been to arrange the terms, first, by strokes, then by radicals, i. e.: -

(a) By the number of strokes in the initial character of a term; then,

(b) According to its radical.

Thus 佛 will be found under seven strokes and under the 亻 radical; 法 under eight strokes and the 氵 radical; 愛 under thirteen strokes and the 心 radical. A page index is provided showing where changes in the number of strokes occur.

2. A list of difficult characters is provided.

3. An index of the Sanskrit terms is given with references to the Chinese text.

4. A limited number of abbreviations have been used, which are self-evident, e.g. tr. for translation, translator, etc.; translit. for transliteration, transliterate, etc.; abbrev. for abbreviation; intp. for interpreted or interpretation; u.f. for used for. "Eitel" refers to Dr. Eitel's Handbook of Chinese Buddhism; "M.W." to Monier-Williams' Sanskrit-English Dictionary; "Keith" to Professor A. Berriedale Keith's Buddhist Philosophy; "Getty" to Miss Alice Getty's The Gods of Northern Buddhism; B.D. to the 佛學大辭典; B.N. to Bunyiu Nanjio's Catalogue.

5. Where characters are followed by others in brackets, they are used alone or in combination; e. g. in 十善 (正法) the term 十善 may be used alone or in full 十善正法.

6. In the text a few variations occur in the romanization of Sanskrit and other non-Chinese words. These have been corrected in the Sanskrit index, which should be taken as giving the correct forms.

In this Dictionary it was not possible to follow the principle of inserting hyphens between the members of Sanskrit compound words.




eka. One, unity, monad, once, the same; immediately on (seeing, hearing, etc.).

一一 One by one, each, every one, severally.

一丈六像 Sixteen 'feet' form, or image, said to be the height of the Buddha's body, or 'transformation' body; v. 丈六金身.

一三昧 ekāgra, aikāgrya. Undeflected concentration, meditation on one object; v 一行三昧.

一中 A hall of spread tables; idem一普.

一中一切中 One being recognized as 'mean' then all is of the 'mean'; the three aspects of reality, noumenon, phenomenon, and madhya, are identical in essence; v. 止觀 5.

一乘 ekayāna, One yāna, the One yāna, the vehicle of one-ness.

一佛乘 The one Buddha-yāna. The One Vehicle, i.e. Mahāyāna, which contains the final or complete law of the Buddha and not merely a part, or preliminary stage, as in Hīnayāna. Mahāyānists claim it as the perfect and only way to the shore of parinirvāṇa. It is especially the doctrine of the 法華經 Lotus Sūtra; v. 大乘.

一乘之珠 The pearl of the One yāna, i.e. The Lotus Scripture.

一乘圓宗 The Tiantai, or Lotus School of the perfect teaching, or the one vehicle; v. 天台宗.

一乘家 The one-vehicle family or sect, especially the Tiantai or Lotus School.

一乘法 (一乘法門) The one vehicle method as revealed in the Lotus Sūtra.

一乘究竟教 The One Vehicle in its final teaching, especially as found in the Lotus Sūtra.

一乘經 一乘妙典 (or 一乘妙文) Another name for the Lotus Sūtra, so called because it declares the one way of salvation, the perfect Mahāyāna.

一乘菩提 The one-vehicle enlightenment.

一乘顯性教 One of the five divisions made by 圭峯 Guifeng of the Huayan 華嚴 or Avataṃsaka School; v. 五教.

一九 A Shingon term for Amitābha.

一九之生 Future life in the Amitābha Pure Land.

一人作虛萬人傳實 One man's untruth is propagated by a myriad men as truth; famae mendacia.

一代 A human lifetime; especially the lifetime of Śākyamuni on earth.

一代三段 The three sections, divisions, or periods of Buddha's teaching in his life- time, known as 序分, i.e. the 華嚴, 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; 正宗分, i.e. 無量義, 法華, and 普賢觀 sūtras; and 流通分, i.e. the 湼槃經; they are known as introductory, main discourse, and final application. There are other definitions.

一代五時佛法 The five period of Buddha's teachings, as stated by Zhiyi 智顗 of the Tiantai School. The five are 華嚴, 阿含, 方等, 般若, 法華湼槃, the last two being the final period.

一代教 The whole of the Buddha's teaching from his enlightenment to his nirvāṇa, including Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna teaching.

一位一切位 idem 一門不門.

一佛世界 A Buddha-cosmos; a world undergoing transformation by a Buddha.

一佛乘 The Mahāyāna, or one-Buddha vehicle, especially the teaching of the Lotus Sūtra.

一佛土 (一佛國土); idem一佛世界 A Buddha-domain; or a one-Buddha region; also the Pure Land.

一佛多佛 One Buddha or many Buddhas, i.e. some Hīnayāna Schools say only one Buddha exists in the same aeon; Mahāyāna says many Buddhas appear in the same aeon in many worlds.

一佛淨土 A Buddha's Pure Land, especially that of Amitābha.

一來 (一來向) sakṛdāgāmin. Only one more return to mortality, v. 斯 and 四向.

一來果 v. 四果.

一個半個 A particle, the very least.

一光三尊 Three honoured ones in one light or halo—Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta; or Śākyamuni, Bhaiṣajya the 藥王 and 藥上 his younger brother.


一兎毛塵 An atom of dust on a hare's down (śaśorṇa). A measure, the 22,588,608,000th part of a yojana.

一囘忌 The first anniversary of a death; any such anniversary; also 一周忌.

一刀三禮 In carving an image of Buddha, at each cut thrice to pay homage to the triratna. 一筆三禮 and 一字三禮 indicate a similar rule for the painter and the writer.

一分家 A school founded by 安慧 Anhui, teaching 心識之一分說 that cognition is subjective.

一分菩薩 A one-tenth bodhisattva, or disciple; one who keeps one-tenth of the commandments.

一切 sarva. All, the whole; 普, 遍, 具.

一切一心識 That all things are mind, or mental.

一切世尊最尊特身 The most honoured of all the world-honoured; a title of Vairocana; v. 毘.

一切人中尊 The most honoured among men, especially Vairocana; v. 毘.

一切佛心印 trikona. The sign on a Buddha's breast, especially that on Vairocana's; the sign of the Buddha-mind; it is a triangle of flame pointing downwards to indicate power overall temptations; it is also 一切徧智印 the sign of omniscience.

一切佛會 The assembly of all the Buddhas, a term for the two maṇḍalas, or circles; v. 胎藏界 and, 金剛界, i.e. the Garbhadhātu and the Vajradhātu.

一切卽一 v. 一卽一切.

一切如來 sarvatathāgata, all Tathāgatas, all the Buddhas.

一切如來定 The highest of the 108 degrees of samādhi practised by bodhisattvas, also called 大空三昧 śūnyasamādhi, i.e. of the great void, or immateriality, and 金剛三昧 vajrasamādhi, Diamond samādhi. A samādhi on the idea that all things are of the (same) Buddha-nature.

一切如來寶 The talismanic pearl of all Buddhas, especially one in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala who holds a lotus in his left hand and the talismanic pearl in his right.

一切如來必定印 The sign of the assurance of attaining Buddhahood.

一切如來智印 A sign of the wisdom of all buddhas, a triangle on a lotus in the Garbhadhātu group.

一切如來眼色如明照三摩地 A Vairocana-samādhi, in which the light of the Tathāgata-eye streams forth radiance. Vairocana by reason of this samādhi is accredited with delivering the 'true word' which sums up all the principles and practices of the masters.

一切如來諸法本性淸淨蓮華三昧 A lotus-samādhi of Vairocana from which Amitābha was born. It is a Tathāgata meditation, that the fundamental nature of all existence is pure like the lotus.

一切如來金剛誓誡 The original oath of every Tathāgata, when as with the roar of a lion he declares that all creatures shall become as himself.

一切智 sarvajña; v. 薩, i.e. 佛智Buddha-wisdom, perfect knowledge, omniscience.

一切智地 The state or place of such wisdom.

一切智藏 The thesaurus of 一切智; Buddha.

一切智人 or 一切智者 Buddha.

一切智舟 or 一切智船 The vehicle of 一切智 (Mahāyāna), which carries men to the 一切智地.

一切智相 sarvajñatā, omniscience, or the state or condition of such wisdom.

一切智經 The 59th chapter of the 中阿含經.

一切智智 The wisdom of all wisdom, Buddha's wisdom, including bodhi, perfect enlightenment and purity; 大悲 great pity (for mortals); and 方便 tact or skill in teaching according to receptivity.

一切智句 The state or abode of all wisdom, i.e. of Buddha; 句 is 住處.

一切智天 薩婆愼若提婆 Sarvajñadeva, the deva (i.e. Buddha) of universal wisdom.


一切智心 The Buddha-wisdom mind.

一切智慧者 The all-wise one, a title of Vairocana; v. 毘.

一切普門身 The one who completely fills all the 'four realms' (dharmadhātu), a doctrine of the 華嚴 School.

一切有 sarvabhāva. All things or beings; tr. of the name of Viśvabhū; v. 毘.

一切有情 一切衆生 All sentient beings.

一切有根本 The Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, a branch of the Sarvāstivādin sect, which asserted the reality of things.

一切有爲 All phenomena, the phenomenal; all that is produced by causative action; everything that is dynamic and not static.

一切有部 The realistic School, Sarvāstivādaḥ, a branch of the Vaibhāṣika, claiming Rāhula as founder, asserting the reality of all phenomena: 說一切有部; 薩婆多部; 薩婆阿私底婆拖部; 一切語言部. It divided, and the following seven schools are recorded, but the list is doubtful: — Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ 一切有根本部. Kāśyapīyaḥ 迦葉毘維, also known as Suvarṣakāḥ 蘇跋梨柯部; 遊梨沙部; 蘇梨沙部; and 善歲部. Dharmaguptāḥ 法密部; 法藏部; 法護部. Mahīśāsakāḥ or Mahīśāsikāḥ 摩醯奢婆迦部; 彌喜捨婆阿部; 彌沙塞部; 化地部; 正地部. Tāmraṣāṭīyāḥ. Vibhajyavādinaḥ 分別說部. Bahuśrutīyāḥ 婆收婁多柯 or 多聞部.

一切施 sarvadā. 薩縛達 One who gives his all; all-bestowing.

一切法 一切萬法; 一切諸法 sarvadharma. All things; all laws, existences, or beings.

一切法界生印 One of the three signs in the maṇḍala of the Shingon School — the sign of producing all things or realms.

一切法界決定智印 The 'true word' of assurance of Vairocana and of all the eight classes of beings, as the symbol through which all may attain the sure Buddha-wisdom.

一切法界自身表 Buddha's self-manifestation to all creation.

一切法空 sarvadharma-śūnyatā, the emptiness or unreality of all things.

一切無障法印明 A sign for overcoming all hindrances, i.e. by making the sign of a sword through lifting both hands, palms outward and thumbs joined, saying Hail! Bhagavat! Bhagavat svāhā!

一切無障礙 Absolutely free or unhindered, e.g. like air; illimitable, universal.

一切皆成 All beings become Buddhas, for all have the Buddha-nature and must ultimately become enlightened, i.e. 一切衆生皆悉成佛. This is the doctrine of developed Mahāyāna, or universalism, as opposed to the limited salvation of Hīnayāna and of undeveloped Mahāyāna; 法華經方便品; 若有聞法者無一不成佛 if there be any who hear the dharma, not one will fail to become Buddha.

一切皆空宗 The sects which maintain the unreality of all things; v. 十宗.

一切眞言王 All the 'true word' rulers, shown in the Garbhadhātu and Vajradhātu groups.

一切眞言心 The first Sanskrit letter 'a'; it is pronounced 'an' by the Shingon School and emphasized as the heart of all wisdom. In India 'a' is the 'name of Vishṇu (especially as the first of the three sounds in the sacred syllable oṃ or aum), also of Brahmā, Śiva, and Vaiśvānara (Agni)' M. W.

一切種妙三昧 The samādhi, or trance, which brings every kind of merit for one's adornment.

一切種智 see 三智.

一切種識 The 8th of the 八識 q.v.

一切經 The Tripiṭaka 大藏經 or 藏經, i.e. the whole of the Buddhist Canon. The collection was first made in China in the first year of 開皇 A.D. 581. See B. N.

一切義成 Sarvārthasiddha, or Siddhārtha; all wishes realized, name given to Śākyamuni at his birth; v. 悉, 薩.

一切萬 一切諸法; 一切物 All things, idem 一切法.

一切處 samanta. Everywhere, universal; a universal dhyāna.

一切處無不相應眞言 The Shingon or 'True word' that responds everywhere.

一切衆生之父 The Father of all the living, Brahmā 梵王.

一切衆生喜見佛 Sarvasattva-priya-darśana. The Buddha at whose appearance all beings rejoice. (1) A fabulous Bodhisattva who destroyed himself by fire and when reborn burned both arms to cinders, an act described in the Lotus Sūtra as the highest form of sacrifice. Reborn as Bhaiṣajyarāja 藥王. (2) The name under which Buddha's aunt, Mahāprajāpatī, is to be reborn as Buddha.

一切衆生精氣 Sarvasattvāujohārī. Lit. subtle vitality of all beings; the quintessence or energy of all living beings. A certain rākṣasī, wife of a demon.


一切衆生離諸惡趣 sarvasattva-pāpa-prahāṇa. A samādhi on a world free from all the evil destinies.

一切語言部 idem 一切有部.

一切諸佛 All Buddhas.

一切遍智印 trikoṇa. A triangle above a white lotus, apex downward, of pure white colour, representing wisdom as a flame which burns up all passion and overcomes all opposition; the symbol of every Tathāgata. It is specially connected with Vairocana. Also 一切佛心印; 諸佛心印.

一刹 v. 掣. A kṣetra, a land, a Buddha-realm or chiliocosm.

一刹那 A kṣaṇa, the shortest space of time, a moment, the 90th part of a thought and 4,500th part of a minute, during which 90 or 100 are born and as many die.

一化 The teaching and influence of a Buddha during one Buddha-period; also the teaching of the whole truth at once; also an instantaneous reform.

一化五味之教 The Five Tastes or periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by the Tiantai School, i.e. the 華嚴; 阿含; 方等; 般若 and 法華湼槃 q.v. and v. 五味.

一千 sahasra; a thousand.

一千二百 1,200.

一千二百功德 The 1,200 merits or powers of the organs of eye, tongue, and mind predicted in the Lotus Sutra, but, generally, the merits therein predicted to all six organs.

一印 A seal, sign, symbol.

一印會 The sixth of the nine Vajradhātu groups.

一卽一切一切卽一 'One is all and all is one.' Expressing the essential unity of all things; a tenet of the Huayan and Tiantai schools.

一卽三 One is (or includes) three; especially the one yāna (the Buddha vehicle) is, or includes the three vehicles, i.e. bodhisattva, pratyekabuddha, and śrāvaka.

一卽十 One is ten, or, if one then ten, one being the root or seed of numbers, and containing all the rest. There are many other forms, e.g. 一心卽一切心 and so on.

一叉鳩王 Ikṣvāku Virūḍhaka or Videhaka, translated by 甘蔗王 Sugar-cane king, also 日種善生 Sūryavaṃśa, an ancient king of Potala and ancestor of the Śākya line.

一句 A word, or sentence; 一句子 a subordinate or explanatory word or sentence; 句 is also used for 處.

一句投火 For but one sentence of the Truth willingly to cast oneself into the fire.

一句道盡 With one word to make clear the whole Law.

一合相 An organism, a cosmos, or any combined form, e.g. a man, a world.

一向 One direction, each direction; with single mind, the mind fixed in one direction undistracted; e.g. 一向淸淨無有女人 (The land of that Buddha is) everywhere pure; no women are there.

一向宗 The 眞宗 Shin or Pure-land Shin Sect founded by Shinran, in Japan, whose chief tenet is unwavering reflection on Amida (by repeating his name).

一向小乘寺 A monastery wholly Hīnayāna.

一向大乘寺 A monastery wholly Mahāyāna.

一向記 A confirmatory reply to a question, e.g. Do not all die? All die.

一吹 v. 一唾.

一味 One, or the same flavour, kind or character, i.e. the Buddha's teaching.

一味瀉甁 Completely, exhaustively, e.g. as water can be poured from one bottle to another without loss, so should be a master's pouring of the Law into the minds of his disciples.

一品 (一品經) varga 跋渠; a chapter, or division (of a sūtra).

一周忌 Anniversary of a death; also 一周關 and 一囘忌.

一唾一吹 A spit or a puff, i.e. as futile as thinking that a man could puff out a burning world and blow it again into complete existence, or could with a spit or a puff put it out.

一喝 A call, shout, deafening shout.

一四句偈 A four-character line of a gāthā, or verse.

一四天下 A world of four great continents surrounding a Mt. Sumeru.

一因 A cause; the cause from which the Buddha-law arises.


一地 The one ground; the same ground; the Buddha-nature of all living beings i.e. as all the plants grow out of the one ground, so all good character and works grow from the one Buddha-nature.

一坐食 One meal a day taken before noon and without rising from the seat; it is the 5th of the 12 dhūtas.

一境 One region, realm, order, or category.

一境三諦 The three axioms in the one category; the three are 空, 假, and 中, which exist in every universe; v. 三諦. It is a principle of the Tiantai 圓教.

一境四心 Four different ways of looking at the same thing. Similar to 一水四見 i.e. one and the same reality though seen from different aspects.

一塵 A grain of dust, an atom, a particle.

一塵法界 The whole in an atom, a universe in a grain of dust, one grain of dust is a microcosm of the universal whole.

一增一減 A kalpa during which a human lifetime increases from ten years to 80,000 years and then decreases back to ten. At the end of the first century the increase is to 11 years; at the end of the second century to 12 years, and so on till a lifetime lasts 80,000 years; then decrease follows in the same ratio till 10 is reached. The whole period of accretion and declension covers a small kalpa, i.e. 16,800,000 years; also called 中刧.

一壇構 The setting up of altars before the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu maṇḍalas, each erected and worshipped separately; also 一檀構.

一夏 The summer retreat in India of, 90 days, from the 16th of the 4th moon to the 15th of the 7th; v. 雨.

一大三千世界 A great chiliocosmos or universe of the three kinds of thousands of worlds. The three 千 are termed 一千; 中千; 大千. A great chiliocosmos is also termed 三千大千世界 q.v. Each world consists of its central mountain Sumeru, surrounded by four continents, its seas being surrounded by a girdle or wall of iron; 1,000 such worlds make a small chiliocosmos; 1,000 of these make a medium chiliocosmos; 1,000 of these make a great chiliocosmos, or 1,000,000,000 worlds. Later Buddhists increased this number to a figure with 4,456,489 digits. It is a Buddha-universe.

一大宅 The great house, i.e. the burning house (of the world) in the Lotus Sūtra; also 火宅.

一大車 The one great salvation vehicle of the Lotus Sūtra, the Mahāyāna.

一大事 The one great work of a Buddha, universal enlightenment and release; also a life, or lifetime.

一如 The one ru, i.e. the bhūtatathatā, or absolute, as the norm and essence of life. The 眞如 true suchness, or true character, or reality; the 法性 nature of things or beings. The whole of things as they are, or seem; a cosmos; a species; things of the same order. Name of a celebrated monk, Yiru. V. 一眞; 一實.

一如觀音 One of the 33 representations of Guanyin ascending on the clouds.

一如頓證 Immediate experiential enlightenment by the Tathāgata truth; the immediate realization that all is 眞如 bhūtatathatā.

一字 One word; a magic or esoteric word.

一字三禮 Three homages at every word one copies of the sūtras.

一字文殊 The 'Single-word Mañjuśrī', the magic word is 齒 M063830; or 體哩呬 淫; or 叱洛呬燄, and is used to avoid difficult parturition and to heal arrow-wounds. The image used is of a youthful smiling Mañjuśrī, wearing the felicitous pearl, with one tress on his head, hence also called 一髻文殊.

一字禪 A cryptic single-word reply to a question, requiring meditation for its apprehension; it is a Chan or Zen method.

一字金輪法 (一字金輪頂法) The one word golden-wheel magical method (Shingon), the one word is bhrūṃ; also 一字金輪佛頂法.

一家宴 A monasterial family party, i.e. when a monk, on becoming head of a monastery, invites its inmates to a feast.

一寧 Yining, a monk who went to Japan in 1299; v. 一山.

一實 The one reality; the bhūtatathatā; idem 一如, 一眞.

一實乘 The one method, of salvation, the 一實 School.

一實圓乘 The Tathāgata's perfect vehicle, i.e. that of the Lotus Scripture.

一實圓宗 The one real and perfect school, i.e. the Tiantai or Lotus School.

一實境界 The state or realm of 一實; the realization of the spirituality of all things; it is the 如來法身 the tathāgata-dharmakāya.

一實相 The state of bhūtatathatā, above all differentiation, immutable; it implies the Buddha-nature, or the immateriality and unity of all things; 眞如之理無二無別, 離諸虛妄之相; it is undivided unity apart from all phenomena.


一實無相 The one reality being indivisible is apart from all transient (or empty) forms, and is therefore styled the formless, e.g. the invisible.

一寶 The one precious thing, the spirit, or intelligent nature; the intelligent mind (behind all things).

一小劫 A small kalpa; a period of the growth and decay of a universe. See 一增一滅 and 劫.

一山 A hill; a monastery; Yishan, the name of a Chinese monk who voyaged to Japan in A.D. 1299 and who was also styled 一寧 Yining.

一形 An appearance, a lifetime, the period of an individual existence, also 一期 and 一生涯.

一往 One passage, or time, once; on one superficial going.

一微塵 A particle of dust; an atom, the smallest particle, a microcosm of the universe.

一心 With the whole mind or heart; one mind of heart; also the bhūtatathatā, or the whole of things; the universe as one mind, or a spiritual unity.

一心稱名 With undivided mind to call on the name (of Guanyin).

一心三惑 同體三惑The Tiantai 'three doubts' in the mind of a bodhisattva, producing fear of illusion, confusion through multiplicity of duties, and ignorance, i.e. 見思; 塵沙 and 無明 q.v.

一心三智 One mind and three aspects of knowledge. The 別教 separates the three aspects into 空, 假, and 中 q.v.; Tiantai unifies them into one immediate vision, or regards the three as aspects of the one mind.

一心三觀 The Tiantai insight 一心三智; also simultaneous vision of past, present, and future; also called 圓融三觀; 不可思議三觀.

一心金剛寶戒 圓頓戒 The infrangible-diamond rules of all bodhisattvas and Buddhas, a term of Tiantai School, founded on the 梵網經.

一念 A kṣaṇa, or thought; a concentration of mind; a moment; the time of a thought, of which there are varying measurements from 60 kṣaṇa upwards; the Fan-yi-ming-yi makes it one kṣaṇa. A reading. A repetition (especially of Amitābha's name). The Pure-land sect identify the thought of Buddha with Amitābha's vow, hence it is an assurance of salvation.

一念不生 Not a thought arising; beyond the necessity of thinking, as in the case of a Buddha.

一念三千 In one thought to survey or embrace the 3,000 worlds, or a chiliocosmos with all its forms of existence; to see the universe as a thought; it is a Tiantai mode of meditation.

一念業成 At one thought the work completed; karma complete in one thought. One repetition, or sincere thought of or faith in Amitābha's vow, and entrance into the Pure Land is assured.

一念萬年 In a moment's thought to obtain a myriad years and no return to mortality.

一性宗 Monophysitic or 'pantheistic' sects of Mahāyāna, which assert that all beings have one and the same nature with Buddha.

一息 A breath, i.e. inspiration-cum-expiration; a rest, or cessation.

一息半步 Half a step at a breathing on arising from meditation.

一恒河沙 (一恒) As one Ganges, i.e. as the sands of one Ganges river.

一成一切成 The Huayan doctrine that the law of the universal runs through the phenomenal, therefore a speck of dust is a microcosmos; also that with the Tathāgata's enlightenment all beings were enlightened in him; in the perfection of one all are perfected; one deed includes all.

一持 Adherence to one Buddha and one sūtra.

一拶 A sudden remark, or question, by a monk or master to test a disciple, a Chan (Zen) method.

一指頭禪 The one finger-tip contemplation used by a certain monk to bring to another a conception of the universe. Also a parable in the 楞伽經 Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra. The Chan or Zen sect 禪宗 regard the sūtras merely as indicators, i.e. pointing fingers, their real object being only attained through personal mediation.

一揣食 A ball (or handful) of food; one helping; a frugal meal, the sixth of the 12 dhūtas; also called 節量食 and 一摶食.

一日 A sun, or day from sunrise to sunset.

一日一夜 ahorātra. One day one night, a day and night, a division of time.

一日三時 The three divisions of a day, morning, noon, evening.


一日佛 A one-day Buddha, i.e. he who lives a whole day purely.

一日經 A sūtra copied in one day (perhaps by many hands); also styled 頓寫.

一明 ming (i.e. bright, clear, illuminating) is the Shingon word for a dhāraṇī, or magical formula; especially applied to a magical acts.

一時 ekasmin samaye (Pali: ekaṃ samayaṃ); 'on one occasion,' part of the usual opening phrase of a sūtra— 'Thus have I heard, once,' etc. A period, e.g. a session of expounding a sūtra.

一普 A company; a general assembly of monks in a monastery.

一月三舟 The one moon represents Buddha, the three boats represent varying ways of viewing him, e.g. according as those in a anchored boat and those in two others sailing in opposite directions see different aspects of the moon, so is it in regard to the Buddha.

一月三身 The allegorical trikāya or three bodies of the moon, i.e. form as 法身, its light as 報身, its reflection as 應身; the Buddha-truth 法 has also its 體 body, its light of wisdom 智, and its application or use 用, but all three are one, or a trinity; see trikāya, 三身.

一期 A date, fixed time; a life time.

一極 The one ultimate, or finality; ultimate enlightenment; the one final truth or way; the 一實 or Absolute.

一業 A karma; a 業困 karma-cause, causative of the next form of existence.

一機一境 The 機 is subjective; the 境 is objective, e.g. smoke is the objective phenomenon, fire the subjective inference.

一段事 The unity or continuity in the unbroken processes of nature; all nature, all being is but one continuous process.

一殺多生 To kill one that many may live.

一毛端 A hair's tip; the smallest division (of space or time).

一水四見 The same water may be viewed in four ways— devas see it as bejewelled land, men as water, hungry ghosts as pus and blood, fish as a place to live in. Cf. 一境四心.

一法 A dharma, or law; an ordered something, a thing, a matter.

一法印 The seal or assurance of the one truth or law, see 一如 and 一實; the criterion of Mahāyāna doctrine, that all is bhūtatathatā, as contrasted with the Hīnayāna criteria of impermanence, non-personality, and nirvāṇa.

一法句 The one-law abode, i.e. the sum of the 29 particular 句 or states of perfection in the Pure-land śāstra of Vasubandhu.

一法界 The bhūtatathatā considered in terms of mind and as a whole; a law-realm; a spiritual realm; a universe.

一法界心 A mind universal, above limitations of existence or differentiation.

一浮漚 A floating bubble (on the ocean), a man's life, or body.

一流 In one, or the same flow; of the same class.

一炷 One burning of incense; a candle, or lamp.

一無礙道 The one way without barrier, i.e. the end of reincarnations in nirvāṇa; a meditation on it.

一物不將來 A Chan sect idea— not a thing to bring or carry away, empty-handed, i.e. nothingness.

一生 All one's life, a whole life time.

一生不犯 Life-long innocence— especially sexual.

一生入妙覺 A Tiantai doctrine that Buddha-enlightenment can be attained by any in one lifetime, i.e. the present life.

一生所繫菩薩 idem 一生補處菩薩.

一生果遂 In this one life to accomplish the three stages for final entry; it is associated with the 20th vow of Amitābha; cf. 三生果遂.

一生補處 Eka-jāti-prati-baddha; a name or Maitreya, who is to be the next Buddha in this world. Another definition is— from one enlightenment to attain to Buddhahood.

一生補處菩薩像 A 30-armed image of Maitreya.

一異 Unity-cum-differentiation; monism and pluralism; one and many; ekatva-anyatva, oneness and otherness.


一白三羯磨 One announcement, or reading, and three responses, or promises of performance (karman); it is the mode of ordaining monks, three responses to the one call of the abbot.

一百 śata. A hundred.

一百八 百八 aṣṭaśatam. The 108 kleśa, distresses, disturbing passions, or illusions 煩惱 of mankind, hence the 108 beads on a rosary, repetitions of the Buddha's name, strokes of a bell, etc., one for each distress. Also, one of the Mahārājas, with 108 hands, each holding a different implement.

一目多伽 itivṛttaka; stories of the lives of saints, part of the canon; also 一曰多伽.

一相 lakṣana. One aspect, form, or side; ekatva, unity as contrasted with diversity; monism; the bhūtatathatā; the one mind in all things; cf. 一異.

一相一味 The term 一相 is defined as the common mind in all beings, or the universal mind; the 一味 is the Buddha's Mahāyāna teaching; the former is symbolized by the land, the latter by the rain fertilizing it.

一相三昧 A state of samādhi in which are repressed hate and love, accepting and rejecting, etc., and in which the mind reaches an undivided state, being anchored in calm and quiet.

一相智 The wisdom that all is bhūtatathatā and a unity.

一相法門 The unitary or monistic method is interpreted in more than a dozen ways; in general it means to reach a stage beyond differentiation where all is seen as a unity.

一相無相 One-ness means none-ness; in ultimate unity, or the unity of the absolute, there is no diversity.

一眞 The whole of reality, the universe, the all, idem 眞如; cf. 一如, 一實 bhūtatathatā.

一眞地 The state of meditation on the absolute.

一眞法界 The dharma realm of the one reality, i.e. of the bhūtatathatā, complete in a speck of dust as in a universe; such is the dharmakāya, or spiritual body of all Buddhas, eternal, above terms of being, undefinable, neither immanent nor transcendent, yet the one reality, though beyond thought. It is the fundamental doctrine of the 華嚴宗. The 法界 is 諸佛平等法身, 從本以來不生不滅, 非空非有, 離名離相, 無內無外, 惟一眞實, 不可思議, 是名一眞法界; see 三藏法數 4.

一眞無爲 The 一眞法界 one reality, or undivided absolute, is static, not phenomenal, it is effortless, just as it is 自然 self-existing.

一眼之龜 A sea turtle with only one eye, and that underneath, entered a hollow in a floating log; the log, tossed by the waves, happened to roll over, whereupon the turtle momentarily saw the sun and moon; an illustration of the rareness of the appearance of a Buddha; also of the difficulty of being reborn as a man.

一禿乘 A bald-pated 'vehicle'— an unproductive monk or disciple.

一空 All is empty, or of the void, non-material.

一等 Equal, all equal; of the first stage; a grade, rank, step.

一筆三禮 Three salutations at each (use of the) pen, on painting a picture of the Buddha, or copying a scripture; cf. 一刀三禮.

一筆勾 (一筆勾銷) 'Crossed out' with a stroke of the pen; expunged; forgiven.

一篋四蛇 Four snakes in one basket, i.e. the four passions in one body, cf. 四大.

一箭道 An arrow's flight, two li.

一縷一觸 'A thread, a butt'; the dragon which snatched a thread of a monk's robe and was consequently protected from a dangerous bird; the ox which butted a monk's robe and became a monk at its next transmigration; e.g. the virtue of the robe.

一翳 A film on the eye; a hindrance to enlightenment.

一臈 一臘 The end of the monastic year at the summer retreat; a monastic year; also called 法臈? or 法歲, the religious year; cf. 一夏.

一色 A colour, the same colour; the same; especially a thing, or a form, v. rūpa 色; minute, trifling, an atom.

一色一香無非中道 An atom or an odour is a complete microcosm of the 中道 middle way or golden mean; the Mean is found in all things.

一莖草 A blade of grass—may represent the Buddha, as does his image; it is a Buddha-centre.

一葉 A leaf; a palm-leaf or page of a sūtra.


一葉觀音 One of the 33 forms of Guanyin, standing on a lotus leaf.

一蓮 The Lotus-flower of the Pure-land of Amitābha, idem 蓮臺.

一蓮之實 The certainty of being born in the Pure-land.

一蓮托生 One lotus bearing all the living, i.e. the Pure-land of Amitābha.

一蟣 A likṣā, a nit, the 131,712,000th part of a yojana, seven times the smallest atom.

一行 One act (of body, mouth, or mind); holding to one course; devoted. Yixing, A.D. 672-717, a celebrated monk whose secular name was 張遂 Zhang Sui, posthumous title 大慧禪師; he was versed in mathematics and astronomy, a reformer of the Chinese calendar, and author of several works.

一行一切行 In one act to do all other acts; the act which includes all other acts. e.g. the first step; the one discipline which embraces all discipline; the fourth degree of a samādhi.

一行三昧, 眞如三昧, 一相三昧 A samādhi for realizing that the nature of all Buddhas is the same; the 起信論 says all Buddhas and all beings. Another meaning is entire concentration of the mind on Buddha.

一角仙人 Ekaśṛṅga ṛṣi; also 獨角仙人 The unicorn ṛṣi, an ascetic born of a deer; ensnared by a woman, he lost his power, and became a minister of state; he is one of the previous incarnations of Śākyamuni.

一觸 See 一縷.

一訶子 haritaki. A fruit of the yellow myrobolan. Also阿黎勒果 (or 訶黎勒果).

一說部 Ekavyāvahārika 猗柯毘與婆訶利柯 or (Pali) Ekabyohāra 鞞婆訶羅 One of the 20 Hīnayāna schools, a nominalistic school, which considered things as nominal, i.e. names without any underlying reality; also styled 諸法但名宗 that things are but names.

一諦 The doctrine of fundamental unity; an abbrev. for 一實諦 the Mādhyamika fundamental doctrine; also, generally, in the sense of an axiom, or fundamental truth; there are varying definitions of the one fundamental truth.

一識 One sense or perception; the one individual intelligence or soul which uses the various senses, likened to a monkey which climbs in and out of the various windows of a house— a Satyasiddhi and Sautrāntika doctrine. Also, a Vairocana maṇḍala.

一識外道 Followers of the一識 heretical view.

一轉語 A turning word; a fateful word.

一遍 Once, one recital of Buddha's name, or of a sūtra, or magic formula; style of 智眞 Zhizhen, founder of the 時宗 Ji-shū (Japan)..

一道 One way, the one way; the way of deliverance from mortality, the Mahāyāna. Yidao, a learned monk of the Pure-land sect.

一道法門 The 'a' school (Shingon) which takes a as the alpha (and even omega) of all wisdom; the way by which all escape mortality.

一道無爲心 Mind apart from all ideas of activity or inactivity. Also styled, or explained, by 如實一道心, 如實知自心, 空性無境心, 一如本淨心. The third of the ten mental resting places of the esoteric school.

一道神光 Inner light; intuitive wisdom.

一門 The one door out of mortality into nirvāṇa, i.e. the Pure-land door.

一門普門 The one door is the all-door; by entering the one door all doors of the faith are opened.

一間 ekavīcika 翳迦鼻致迦 Still one final stage of mortality before nirvāṇa. Also wrongly styled bījaka 鼻致迦, a seed 一種 which leads to one more reincarnation.

一間聖者 The holy ones who have only one interval, or stage of mortality before nirvāṇa.

一闡提 (一闡提迦) icchantika. Also 一顚迦, 阿闡底迦 One without desire for Buddha enlightenment; an unbeliever; shameless, an enemy of the good; full of desires; 斷善根者 one who has cut off his roots of goodness; it is applied also to a bodhisattva who has made a vow not to become a Buddha until all beings are saved. This is called 大悲闡提 the icchantika of great mercy.

一際 Of the same realm or boundary, i.e. the world and nirvāṇa are one.

一雨 A rain, i.e. a lesson from the Buddha, or his teaching, see Lotus V.

一音教 The one-sound teaching, i.e. the totality of the Buddha's doctrine; a school founded by Kumārajīva and Bodhiruci.


一願建立 The one vow, i.e. the 18th of the 48 vows of Amitābha, on which his sect is established.

一顚迦 idem 一闡提迦.

一食 A meal a day, one of the twelve dhūtas.

一體 Though externally differing, in nature the same; the fundamental unity of the universe. 天地與我同根, 萬物與我一體 Heaven, earth, and myself have the same root; all things are one corpus with me.

一體三分 The trinity of 摩醯首羅 Maheśvara (Śiva), 那羅延 Nārāyaṇa (Viṣṇu), and 梵天 Brahmā. One being in three manifestations.

一體三寶 In the one body of the saṅgha is the whole triratna, Buddha, Dharma, and saṅgha. Also, Mind, Buddha, and the living, these three are without differentiation, 心佛與衆生是三無差別, i.e. are all one.

一體三身自性佛 In one's own body to have the trikāya of the self-natured, Buddha, i.e. by personal surrender to the Buddha.

一體速疾力三昧 A samādhi in which instantaneous powers are acquired.

一髻 A topknot.

一髻文殊 The one topknot Mañjuśrī; there are other representations with 5 and 8; cf. 一字文殊.

一髻羅刹女 The female rakṣaḥ styled 'Single top-knot', wife of a great rakṣaḥ who dwells by a great ocean; on scenting blood, she can fly to it in a night 80, 000 yojanas.

一髻羅刹王菩薩 The four-handed, dark-blue rakṣaḥ with the flame of fire coming out of his head, a bodhisattva in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala.

一麻一米 A hempseed and a grain of rice a day, the scanty diet to which Śākyamuni reduced himself before his enlightenment.

一魔萬箭 One demon a myriad arrows, i.e. to listen to one Māra-temptation opens the way for a myriad Māra-arrows.


sapta, seven.

七七 The period of forty-nine days after death, when masses are said every seventh day till the seventh seventh day.

七七忌 The seventh seventh day of the masses for the dead.

七七齋 Masses for the dead on every seventh day for seven times. During this period the deceased is in the antarābhava or intermediate state, known as 中有 and 中陰; at the end of forty-nine days, judgment having been made, he enters upon his next state. By observing the proper rites, his family may aid him in overcoming his perils and attaining to a happy destiny.

七丈夫 also 七士夫趣; v. 七賢七聖.

七不可避 The seven unavoidables— rebirth, old age, sickness, death, punishment (for sin), happiness (for goodness), consequences (cause and effect 因緣).

七事隨身 The seven appurtenances of a monk— the three garments, bowl, censer, duster (or fly-brush), stool (niṣīdana), paper, and material for washing.

七佛 sapta Buddha. The seven ancient Buddhas, viz. Vipaśyin 毘婆尸, Śikhin 尸棄, Viśvabhū 毘舍婆, Krakucchanda 拘樓孫, Kanakamuni 倶那含牟尼 or 拘那含, Kāśyapa 迦葉, and Śākyamuni 釋迦. The last four are said to be of the present kalpa.

七佛藥師 The seven healing Buddhas, also 七躬醫王, of whom there are two descriptions, one representing them as at various places in the eastern regions of space; another gives five in the east and two in the south.

七使 The seven messengers, agents, or kleśas—desire 欲愛; anger, or hate 瞋恚; attachment, or clinging 有愛; pride or arrogance 慢; ignorance, or unenlightenment 無明; false views 見; and doubt 疑.

七例句 v. 七轉九例.

七倶胝佛母尊 Saptakotibuddha-mātṛ. The fabulous mother of seven koṭīs of Buddhas; i.e. Marīci 摩利支; also 準提 Cundī, or Cundā; or 準提觀音 Cundī-Guanyin, q.v., who is represented as of whitish color, with eighteen hands and three eyes.


七條 (衣 or 袈裟 ) The outer mantle, or toga, of a monk, composed of seven pieces; the Uttara-sanga, v. 鬱.

七僧 A monastery is supposed to possess the following seven monks: 咒願師 invoker; 導師 leader; 唄師 intoner, or leader of the chanting; 散花師 flower-scatterer; 梵音師 master of sacred words, or Sanskrit; 錫杖師 shaker of the rings on the metal staff, or crozier; 堂達 distributor of missals, etc. Another division is 講師 expounder; 讀師 reader; 咒願師; 三禮師 director of the three ceremonies; 唄師; 散花師; and 堂達.

七僧法會 An assembly of a monasterial fraternity.

七僧齋 A 'western″ term meaning an endowment for a complete monastic fraternity of seven monks.

七八行 The practice of the seven bodhyaṅga 七菩提分, and the 八正道 eight marga or noble paths.

七加行 idem 七方便 .

七勝事 The seven surpassing qualities of a Buddha; v. also 七種無上; they are his body, or person, his universal law, wisdom, perfection, destination (nirvana), ineffable truth, and deliverance.

七十 saptati' seventy.

七十三尊 The 'Diamond world' maṇḍala, or pantheon, of the esoteric sect, containing seventy-three honoured ones.

七十二天 The seventy-two devas, namely, sixty-nine devas, the lord of Tai Shan, the god of the five roads, and 大吉祥天 Mahāśrī .

七十二字 Brahma obtained seventy-two words with which to save the world, but failing he swallowed seventy, leaving one at each side of his mouth 阿 and 漚 , i.e. 無 and 有 things are, things are not, being and non-being.

七十二歳 The age, 72, at which Buddha is reputed to have preached the Lotus Sutra.

七十五 pañcasaptati; '75.

七十五法 The seventy-five dharmas of the Abhidharmakośa-bhāsya, which classifies all phenomena under seventy-five categories or elements, divided into five groups; cf. 五根, 五境, 無表色. (1) Material 色法 rūpāṇi, 11 . (2) Mind 心法 cittam, 1. (3) Mental qualities 心所有法 citta-saṃprayukta-saṃskārāḥ, 46. (4) Non-mental 心不相應行法 cittaviprayukta-saṃskārāḥ, 14. These are the seventy-two Sarvastivadin divisions (v. Keith, B. I. , p. 201 ). (5) In addition there are three unconditioned or non-phenomenal elements 無爲法 asaṃskṛta dharma, 3 (v. Keith, p. 160) .

七善 The seven exce1lences claimed for the Buddha's teaching good in its 時 timing or seasonableness, 義 meaning, 語 expression, 濁法 uniqueness, 具足 completeness, 淸淨調柔 pure adaptability, and 凡行 its sole objective, nirvana. There are other similar groups.

七喩 The seven parables of the Lotus Sutra.

七垢 The seven defilements―desire 欲, false views 見, doubt 疑, pride 慢, arrogance 憍 torpor 隨眠, and 慳 stinginess; cf. 七使.

七夢 Ānanda's seven dreams, which are explained in the 七夢經.

七大 Earth , water, fire, wind, space (or ether), sight, and perception 地, 水, 火, 風, 空, 見, 証識; cf. 大, 五大and 六境; 見大 and 六根; 識大 and 六識.

七如衆 sapta-tathāgatāḥ. The seven tathāgatas whose names are inscribed on a heptagonal pillar (七如來寶塔) in some Buddhist temples. One list 阿彌陀, 甘露飯王, 觀音, 毘耶娑, 色妙身, 羅担納担羅耶and 寶勝. Another list gives Amitābha, Kan-lu-wang, 離怖畏, 廣博身, Miaoseshen, Baosheng (Ratnasaṃbhava) 多寶 (Prabhūtaratna).

七子 The parable in the Nirvana Sutra of the sick son whose parents, though they love all their sons equally, devote themselves to him. So does the Buddha specially care for sinners. The seven sons are likened to mankind, devas, sravakas, pratyeka-buddhas, and the three kinds of bodhisattvas of the 藏, 通 and 別教.

七宗 The seven Japanese sects of 律 Ritsu (or Risshū), 法相 Hossō, 論 Sanron 華嚴Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon, and 禪Zen.


七寶 sapta ratna 薩不荅羅的捺 The seven treasures, or precious things, of which there are varying descriptions, e.g. 金 suvarna, gold; 銀rūpya, silver; 鐂璃 vaiḍūrya, lapis lazuli; 玻瓈sphaṭika, crystal; 硨磲 musāragalva, agate; 赤珠 rohita-mukta, rubies or red pearls; 瑪瑙 aśmagarbha, cornelian. Also the seven royal (cakravartin) treasures―the golden wheel; elephants; dark swift horses; the divine pearl, or beautiful pearls; able ministers of the Treasury; jewels of women; and loyal generals.

七寶樹林 The grove of jewel trees, or trees of the seven precious things―a part of the "Pure-land", or Paradise.

七微 The seven atoms composing an aṇu 阿耨; 阿拏, 阿菟色. Eitel's definition is seven atoms of dust, but the definition is doubtful. This molecule is larger than an "atom" , and according to the Sarvāstivāda it is the smallest visible particle. It is also a division of a yojana.

七心界 The seven realms of vijñāna, or perception, produced by eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, mind, to which is added thought, 意 根 q.v.

七情 The seven emotions : pleasure, anger, sorrow, joy, love, hate, desire.

七慢 The seven pretensions or arrogances 慢 asserting superiority over inferiors and equality with equals, 過慢 superiority over equals and equality with superiors, 慢過慢 superiority over manifest superiors, 我慢 egotism or overweening pride, 增上慢 vaunting assertion of possessing the Truth, 卑慢 vaunting one's inferiority (or false humility), and 邪慢 vaunting lack of virtue for virtue.

七摩怛里 saptamātṛ. The seven divine mothers, or personified energies of the principal deities; they are associated with the worship of the god Śiva, and attend on his son Skanda or Kārttikeya, to whom at first only seven Mātṛs were assigned, but in the later mythology an innumerable number, who are sometimes represented as having displaced the original divine mothers M.W. Their names are given as (1) Cāmuṇḍā 遮文茶 or 左問拏 (2) Gaurī嬌吠哩; (3) Vaiṣṇavī 吠瑟拏微 (4) Kaumārī 嬌麼哩; (5) Indrāṇī, Aindrī, or Māhendrī 燕捺利 or 印捺哩; (6) Raudrī 勞捺哩; and (7) Vārāhī 末羅呬弭; cf. 七母天.

七支 The seven (spreading) branches—three sins of the body and four of speech, 身三 killing, robbing, adultery; 口四 lying, slander, abuse, double-tongue (or vain conversation). These are the first seven of the ten evils 十惡.

七支念誦 A method of invocation in which only seven kinds of signs and magical words are required. It is explained in the 七支念誦隨行法 part of the Vairocana Sutra.

七支業 The karma resulting from the above seven sins.

七方便 (七方便位) (1) The seven "expedient" or temporary attainments or positions of Hīnayāna, superseded in Mahayana by the 七賢 (位) or 七加行 (位) all preparatory to the 七聖 (位) (2) The seven vehicles, i.e. those of ordinary human beings, of devas, of śrāvakas, of pratyekabuddhas' and of the three bodhisattvas of the three teachings 藏, 通 and 別. (3) Also, 藏教之聲縁二人, 通教之聲縁菩三人, 別教and 圓教之二菩薩; (2) and (3) are Tiantai groups.

七星 Ursa major; Worshipped in Japan as 妙見菩薩 Wonderful Sight Bodhisattva who protects this world.

七曇 Siddham, idem. 悉曇.

七曜 The seven brilliant ones — the sun and moon, together with the five planets which are connected with fire, water, wood, metal, and earth. Their essence shines in the sky, but their spirits are over men as judges of their good and evil, and as rulers over good and evil fortune. The following list shows their names in Chinese and Sanskrit: Sun 日, 太陽; aditya 阿彌底耶
Moon月, 太陰; soma 蘇摩
Mars火星, 勢惑勞; aṅgāraka 盎哦囉迦
Mercury水星, 辰星; budha 部陀
Jupiter木星, 歳星; bṛhaspati 勿哩訶娑跛底
Venus金星, 太白; śukra 戌羯羅
Saturn土星, 鎭星; śanaiścara 賖乃以室折羅

七最勝 The seven perfections, see唯識論, 9. 安住最勝 Perfect rest in the bodhisattva nature. 依止最勝 perfect reliance on, or holding fast to the great bodhi (awakened mind). 意果最勝 perfect resultant aim in-pity for all 事業最勝 Perfect in constant performance. 巧便最勝 Perfect in able device (for spiritual presentation). 廻向最勝 Perfect direction towards the highest bodhi. 滿淨最勝 Perfect purity and peace.


七有 七生 The seven stages of existence in a human world, or in any 欲界 desire-world. Also (1) in the hells, (2) as animals, (3) hungry ghosts, (4) gods, (5) men, (6) karma 業, and (7) in the intermediate stage.

七生 same as 七有.

七有依福業 The seven grounds for a happy karma through benevolence to the needy―almsgiving to visitors, to travelers' to the sick, to their nurses, gifts of gardens and groves to monasteries, etc., regular provision of food for them, and seasonable clothing and food for their occupants.

七歩蛇 A snake whose bite brings death before seven steps can be taken.

七母天 The seven divine mothers, also styled the seven sisters 七姉妹; v. 七摩怛里.

七姉妹 The seven sisters. See 七摩怛里.

七毘尼 The seven vinaya, v. 七滅諍法.

七治 Seven forms of punishment for monks. v. 七羯磨.

七法The seven (unavoidable) things, v. 七不避.

七法財The seven riches, or seven ways of becoming rich in the Law : 信 faith, 進 zeal, 戒 moral restraint, 漸愧 shame, 聞 obedient hearing (of the Law), 捨 abnegation, and 定慧 wisdom arising from meditation.

七淨華 See 七華.

七滅諍法 saptādhikaraṇa-śamatha. Seven rules given in the Vinaya for settling disputes among the monks. Disputes arise from causes : from arguments; from discovery of misconduct; judgment and punishment of such; the correctness or otherwise of a religious observance. The seven rules are : 現前毘尼 saṃmukha-vinaya, face to face evidence, or appeal to the law; 憶念毘尼 smṛti-vinaya, witness or proof; 不痴毘尼 amūḍha-vinaya, irresponsibility, e.g. lunacy; 自言毘尼 tatsvabhavaiṣīya-vinaya, voluntary confession; 多語毘尼 pratijñākāraka-vinaya, decision by majority vote; 罪處所毘尼 yadbhūyasikīya-vinaya, condemnation of unconfessed sin by the 白四 or jñapticaturthin method, i.e. to make a statement and ask thrice for judgment; 草覆地毘尼 tṛṇastāraka-vinaya. , i.e. covering the mud with straw, i.e. in protracted disputes the appointment by each side of an elder to spread the straw of the law over the mud of the dispute.

七災難 v. 七難 prajñā.

七無上道 idem 七種無上.

七珍 idem 七寶.

七生 idem 七有.

七百賢聖 The 700 disciples who met the second synod at Vaiśālī; also 七百結集.

七如眞The seven aspects of the bhūta-tathatā , v. 如眞 One list is 流轉如眞 實相如眞, 唯識如眞, 安立如眞, 邪行如眞, 淸淨如眞, 正行如眞. From the 唯識論 8.

七知 The seven knowings - to know the Law, its meaning, the times for all duties, moderation, oneself, the different classes of people, and people as individuals.

七祖 (1) The seven founders of the 華嚴 Huayan School, whose names are given as 馬鳴 Aśvaghoṣa, 龍樹 Nāgārjuna 杜順 (i.e. 法順) , Zhiyan 智儼, Fazang 法藏, Chengguan 澄觀 and Zongmi 宗密; (2) the seven founders of the 禪Chan School, i.e. 達磨 or 菩提達磨 Bodhidharma, Huike 慧可, Sengcan 僧璨, Daoxin 道信, Hongren 弘忍, Huineng 慧能 and Heze 荷澤 (or Shenhui 神曾); (3) The seven founders of the 淨土 Pure Land School, i.e. Nagarjuna, 世親 Vasubandhu, Tanluan 曇鸞, Daochuo 道綽, Shandao 善導, Yuanxin 源信 and Yuankong 源空 (or Faran 法然), whose teaching is contained in the Qizushengjiao 七祖聖教.

七種不淨 seven kinds of uncleanness, derived from the parental seed, parental intercourse, the womb, the prenatal blood of the mother, birth, one's own flesh, one's own putrid corpse.

七種布施 The seven kinds of almsgiving—to callers, travelers, the sick, their nurses, monasteries, regular food (to monks), general alms; v. 七有, etc.

七種懺悔心 The seven mental attitudes in penitential meditation or worship : shame, at not yet being free from mortality 慚愧心; fear, of the pains of hell, etc.; turning from the evil world; desire for enlightenment and complete renunciation; impartiality in love to all; gratitude to the Buddha; meditation on the unreality of the sin-nature, that sin arises from perversion and that it has no real existence.


七種捨 Seven abandonments or riddances―cherishing none and nothing, no relations with others, riddance of love and hate, of anxiety about the salvation of others, of form, giving to others (e.g. supererogation), benefiting others without hope of return. Another form is―cherishing nothing, riddance of love and hate, of desire, anger, etc., of anxiety about, etc., as above.

七種無上 The seven peerless qualities of a Buddha:―his body 身 with its thirty-two signs and eighty-four marks; his way 道 of universal mercy; his perfect insight or doctrine 見; his wisdom 智; his supernatural power 神 力; his ability to overcome hindrances 斷障, e.g. illusion, karma, and suffering; and his abiding place 住 i.e. Nirvana. Cf. 七勝事.

七種無常 sapta-anitya. The seven impermanences, a non-Buddhist nihilistic doctrine discussed in the 楞 伽 經 4.

七種生死 The seven kinds of mortality, chiefly relating to bodhisattva incarnation.

七種禮佛 Seven degrees of worshipping Buddha, ranging from the merely external to the highest grade.

七種自性 The seven characteristics of a Buddha's nature, v. 自性.

七種般 v. 不還.

七種衣 The seven kinds of clothing, i.e. of hair, hemp, linen, felt, fine linen, wool, or silk.

七種語 Buddha's seven modes of discourse: 因語 from present cause to future effect; 果語 from present effect to past cause; 因果語 inherent cause and effect; 喩語 illustrative or figurative; 不應説語 spontaneous or parabolic; 世界流語 ordinary or popular; 如意語 unreserved, or as he really thought, e.g. as when he said that all things have the Buddha-nature.

七種辯 The seven rhetorical powers or methods of bodhisattvas :― direct and unimpeded; acute and deep; unlimited in scope; irrefutable; appropriate, or according to receptivity; purposive or objective (i.e. nirvana); proving the universal supreme method of attainment, i.e. Mahayana.

七種食 The seven kinds of food or āhāra, sustenance :―sleep for eyes, sound for ears, fragrance for nose, taste for tongue, fine smooth things for the body, the Law for the mind, and freedom from laxness for nirvana.

七空 The seven unrealities or illusions,v.空. There are two lists:(1)相空,性自性空,行空,無行空,一切法離言説空,第一義聖智大空 and彼彼空; v.Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra 1.(2) 性空, 自相空, 諸法空, 不可得空,無法空, 有法空, and 有法無法空.智度論36.

七等覺支 See 七菩提分.

七羯磨 karmavācā; the 七治The seven punishments of a monk.

七聖v.七賢七聖, 七聖財.saptadhana. The seven sacred graces variously defined, e.g. 信 faith, 戒 observation of the commandments, 聞hearing instruction, 慙 shame (for self), 愧 shame (for others); 捨 renunciation; and慧 wisdom.

七聖覺 See 七菩提分.

七聲 See 七轉九列.

七菩提分 saptabodhyaṅga, also 七菩提寶, 七覺分, 七覺支, 七等覺支. Seven characteristics of bodhi; the sixth of the 七科七道品 in the seven categories of the bodhipakṣika dharma, v. 三十七菩提分 it represents seven grades in bodhi,viz,(1)擇法覺支(or 擇法菩提分 and so throughout), dharma-pravicaya-saṃbodhyaṇga, discrimination of the true and the fa1se : (2) 精進 vīrya-saṃbodhyaṇga, zeal, or undeflected progress;(3) 喜prīti-saṃbodhyaṇga., joy, delight; (4) 輕安 or 除 praśrabdhi-saṃbodhyaṇga. Riddance of all grossness or weight of body or mind, so that they may be light, free, and at ease; (5) 念 smrti-saṃbodhyaṇga, power of remembering the various states passed through in contemplation; (6) 定 samādhi-saṃbodhyaṇga.the power to keep the mind in a given realm undiverted; (7) 行捨 or 捨 upekṣā-saṃbodhyaṇga or upekṣaka, complete abandonment, auto-hypnosis, or indifference to all disturbances of the sub-conscious or ecstatic mind.

七華 The seven flowers of enlightenmenmt, idem. 七善提分. Another versionispure in the commandments, in heart, in views, in doubt-discrimination, in judgment, in conduct, and in nirvana.

七葉巖 The crag at Rājagṛha on which the "seven-leaf tree" grew in the cave beneath which the first "synod" is said to have been held after the Buddha's death, to recall and determine his teaching.

七處八會 The eight assemblies in seven different places, at which the sixty sections of the 華嚴經 Avataṃsaka-sūtra are said to have been preached; the same sutra in eighty sections is accredited to the 七處九會. 七處平等相 One of the thirty-two signs on the Budda's body—the perfection of feet, hands, shoulders, and head.


七衆 The seven classes of disciples:―(1)比丘 bhikṣu,monk;(2) bhikṣuṇī a female observer of all commandments; (3) 式叉摩那śikṣamāṇa, a novice, or observer of the six commandments; (4) 沙彌 śrāmaṇera, and (5) 沙彌尼 śrāmaṇerika, male and female observers of the minor commandments; (6) 優婆塞 upāsaka, male observers of the five commandments; and (7) 優婆夷upāsikā, female ditto. The first five have left home, the last two remain at home. Tiantai makes nine groups by dividing the last two into four, two remaining at home, two leaving home and keeping the eight commandments. Others make four groups, i.e. (1), (2), (6), and (7) of the above. Tiantai also has a four-group.

七衆溺水 The seven types who fall into the waters of this life—the first is drowned, the seventh is a Buddha; the seven are icchantika, men amd devas, ordinary believers, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas; also ca11ed 七衆人.

七見 The seven heretical views, v. 見. They are 邪見 , 我見 , 常見 , 斷見 , 戒盜見, 果盜見, and 疑見.

七覺分 or 支, v. 七菩提分.

七證 (師) v. 三師七證.

七識住v. 九有情層.

七識十名 The ten names of the seventh vijñāna, v. manas 未那識.

七財 v. 七法財.

七賢 (七賢位) Also七方便位, 七加行位 The seven grades or steps in virtue preceding the entry into見道faultless wisdom, or faultlessness in its first realization. These seven are preliminary to the七聖 (七聖位). Both are grades of the倶舍 Kośa school of Hīnayāna.

七賢七聖 The 七聖 are the seven developments of holiness, which follow the 七賢. In the Huayan 華嚴school they are called 七士夫, 七大夫 or七聖人. Cf. 倶舍論25.

七趣 The seven gati or states of sentient beings- nārakagati, in hell; preta, hungry ghost; tiryagyoni, animal; manuṣya, man; ṛṣi, a genius or higher spiritual being; deva, god; asura, demon of the higher order.

七躬醫王 v. 七佛藥師.

七轉九例The seven Sanskrit cases and nine conjugations. The former are also styled 七聲 and 七例 subanta 蘇漫 (or 盤多); sometimes with the Vocative called 八轉彈. The九例 or tiṅanta 丁彦多 are also styled 二九韻, i.e. nine parasmai and nine ātmane.

七逆 (七逆罪) The seven rebellious acts, or deadly sins — shedding a Buddha's blood, killing father, mother, monk, teacher, subverting or disrupting monks, killing an arhat. V. 梵綱經下.

七遮罪 concealing, or non-confession of, any one of the seven deadly sins 七逆, for which it is also used.

七重行樹 The seven avenues of gem trees in Paradise.

七金山 The seven concentric mountain ranges around Sumeru, the central mountain of a universe, each range separated from the others by a sea; see 九山八海. Their names are 持隻, 持軸, 雙木 (雙木樹), 擔見, 馬耳 , 障礙 (or 象鼻), 持地 (or 遠) 山.

七難 The seven calamities in the仁王經, 受持品 during which that sūtra should be recited: sun and moon losing their order (eclipses), conste11ations, irregular, fire, flood, wind-storms, drought, brigands Another set is — pestilence, invasion, rebe11ion, unlucky stars, eclipses, too early monsoon, too late monsoon. Another is — fire, flood, rakṣas, misrule, evil spirits, cangue and prison, and robbers.

七顚倒 v. 顛倒; viparyaya, the seven inversions, or upside-downs, i.e. contrary or false positions — 想, 見, 心, 常無常, 苦築, 淨不淨, 我無我.

乃至 (1) A translation of antaśas meaning "at least"; and (2) of yāvat, as far as.

乃至一念 Even, or at least, a thought.

乃往 As far as the past (is concerned).

Navan; nava. Nine.

九上緣惑 The nine kinds of error or illusion 見, i.e. views or mental processes, found also in higher conditions of development.

九世 In past, present, and future worlds, each has its own past, present, and future, hence nine worlds or ages.


九世間 The nine lower of the ten worlds, the highest or tenth being the Buddha-world; the nine are always subject to illusion, confused by the senses.

九住心 Nine stages of mental concentration when in dhyāna meditation, viz, 安, 攝 , 解, 轉, 伏, 息, 滅, 性, and 持 (住心).

九條衣 九條袈裟 The lowest rank of the patch-robe, v. 九品大衣.

九儀 The nine "Indian" ways of showing respect, according to Xuanzang — asking about welfare; bowing the head; holding high the hands; bowing with folded hands; bending the knee; kneeling; hands and knees on the ground; elbows and knees ditto; the whole body prostrate.

九人 v. 九孔.

九劫 The nine kalpas; though Śākyamuni and Maitreya started together, the zeal of the first enabled him to become Buddha nine kalpas sooner; see 大賓積經 111.

九十六術 Also 九十六種外道. Ninety-six classes of non-Buddhists or heretics and their practices, i.e. their six founders and each of them with fifteen schools of disciples; some say 九十五種外道.

九十八使 Also 九十八隨眠 The Hīnayāna ninety-eight tempters, or temptations, that follow men with all subtlety to induce laxity. They are the ninety-eight kleśas, or moral temptations in the realm of 見思 view and thought, or external and internal ideas.

九句因 A term in Buddhist logic; the nine possible combinations of like and unlike examples in a syllogism.

九品 Nine classes, or grades, i.e. 上上, 上中, 上下 upper superior, middle superior, lower superior, and so on with 中 and 下. They are applied in many ways, e.g. 上品上生 the highest type of incarnate being, to 下品下生, the lowest, with corresponding karma; see 九品淨土. Each grade may also be subdivided into nine, thus making a list of eighty-one grades, with similar further subdivision ad infinitum.

九品上 An abbreviation for 上品上生 the highest grade in the Pure Land, see 九品淨土.

九品大衣 The 僧伽梨 saṇghāṭī. There are nine grades of the monk's patch robe; the three lowest ranks have 9, 11, and 13 patches, two long patches to one short one; the three middle 15, 17, 19, three long to one short; and the three superior 21, 23, 25, four long to one short.

九品安養之化生 Those born by transformation from the (heavenly) lotus into the ninefold 安養 Paradise, idem 九品淨土.

九品彌陀 The nine forms of Amitābha, corresponding to the nine departments of the Pure Land; chiefly used with reference to the manual signs of his images.

九品往生 The ninefold future life, in the Pure Land, v. 九品淨土. It is detailed in the sutra of this name whose full title is 阿彌陀三摩地集陀羅尼經.

九品惑 Also九品煩惱 The four 修惑, i.e. illusions or trials in the practice of religion, i.e. desire, anger, pride, ignorance; these are divided each into 九品 q.v.; hence desire has all the nine grades, and so on with the other three.

九品淨土, also 九品淨刹 , 九品安養, 九品蓮臺, 九品往生 The nine grades, or rewards, of the Pure Land, corresponding to the nine grades of development in the previous life, upon which depends, in the next life, one's distance from Amitābha, the consequent aeons that are needed to approach him, and whether one's lotus will open early or late.

九品行業 The nine karma to be attained by the conduct or practice through which one may be born into the above Pure Land.

九品覺王 The king or lord of the bodhi of the Pure Land, Amitābha.

九喩 The nine similes: stars, eye-film, lamp, prestidigitation, dew, bubble, dream, lightning, cloud. There is also another group.

九因一果 Nine of the 十界 ten dhātu or regions are causative, the tenth is the effect or resultant.

九地 The nine lands, i.e. the 欲界 realm of desire or sensuous realm the four 色界 realms of form or material forms; and the four 無色界 formless realms, or realms beyond form; v. 九有, 九有情居, 禪 and 定. The nine realms are:—(1) 欲界五趣地; the desire realm with its five gati, i.e. hells, hungry ghosts, animals, men, and devas. In the four form-realms are:— (2) 離生喜樂地 Paradise after earthly life, this is also the first dhyāna, or subject of meditation, 初禪. (3) 定生喜樂地 Paradise of cessation of rebirth, 二禪. (4) 離喜妙樂地 Land of wondrous joy after the previous joys, 三禪. (5) 捨念淸淨地 The Pure Land of abandonment of thought, or recollection (of past delights), 四禪. The four formless, or infinite realms, catur arūpa dhātu, are:—(6) 空無邊處地 ākāśānantyā-yatanam, the land of infinite space; also the first samādhi, 第一定. (7) 識無邊處地 vijñānānamtyāyatanam, the land of omniscience, or infinite perception, 二定. (8) 無所有處地 ākiñcanyāyatana, the land of nothingness, 三定. (9) 非想非非想處地 naivasaṁjñānā-saṁjñāyatana, the land (of knowledge) without thinking or not thinking, or where there is neither consciousness nor unconsciousness, i.e. above either; this is the 四定. Eitel says that in the last four, "Life lasts 20,000 great kalpas in the 1st, 40,000 in the 2nd, 60,000 in the 3rd, and 80,000 great kalpas in the 4th of these heavens."


九地九品思惑 v. 八十一品思惑.

九域 idem 九地 and 九界.

九執 The nine graha, i.e. "seizers" or upholders, i.e. luminaries or planets, idem 九曜.

九士生地 idem Kuśinagara; v. 拘.

九孔 Also 九入, 九竅, 九漏, 九流, 九瘡 the nine orifices, cavities, entrances, leakages, or suppurations, i.e. the two eyes, two ears, two nostrils, mouth, and two lower organs.

九字 The nine magical characters 臨兵鬪者皆陳列在前 implying that the armed forces are arrayed against the powers of evil. After reciting these words, four vertical and five horizontal lines, forming a grid, are drawn in the air to show that the forces are arrayed. It was used among Taoists and soldiers, and is still used in Japan, especially when going into the mountains.

九字曼荼羅 The nine character maṇḍala, i.e. the lotus, with its eight petals and its centre; Avalokiteśvara may be placed in the heart and Amitābha on each petal, generally in the shape of the Sanskrit "seed" letter, or alphabetic letter.

九宗 The eight sects 八宗 (q.v.) plus the 禪宗 Chan or Zen, or the Pure-land or Jōdo sect.

九尊 The nine honoured ones in the eight-petalled hall of the Garbhadhātu, i.e. Vairocana in the centre of the lotus, with four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the petals, the lotus representing the human heart; v. 五佛.

九居 v. 九有情居.

九山八海 The nine cakravāla, or concentric mountain ranges or continents, separated by eight seas, of a universe. The central mountain of the nine is Sumeru 須彌 and around it are the ranges Khadiraka 佶提羅, Īṣādhara 伊沙陀羅, Yugaṃdhara 遊乾陀羅, Sudarśaṇa 蘇達梨舍那, Aśvakarṇa 安濕縛竭拏, Nemiṃdhara 尼民陀羅, Vinataka 毘那多迦, Cakravāda 斫迦羅; v. 七金山. The Abhidharma Kośa gives a different order: Sumeru, Yugaṃdhara, Īṣādhara, Khadiraka, Sudarśana, Aśvakarṇa, Vinataka, Nemiṃdhara, with an "iron-wheel" mountain encompassing all; there are also differences in the detail.

九參上堂 The nine monthly visits or ascents to the hall for worship, every third day.

九徧知 The nine forms of complete knowledge of the four axioms and the cutting off of passion, delusion, etc., in the processes of 見 and 修, as distinct from 無學.

九徹 The nine penetrating fames of the sword of Acala, 不動明王, emblem of the destruction of illusions and hindrances in the nine realms, v. 九地; also used for the 九尊 q.v.

九心輪 The nine evolutions, or movements of the mind in perception.

九想 (九想觀) or 九相 navasaṃjñā. Meditation on a corpse in order to curb desire; one of the meditations on the unclean: vyādhmātakasaṃjñā, its tumefaction; vinīlakas., its blue, mottled colour; vipadumakas., its decay; vilohitakas., its mess of blood,etc.; vipūyakas., its discharges and rotten flesh; vikhāditakas., its being devoured by birds and beasts; vikṣiptakas., its dismembering; asthis., its bones; vidagdhakas., their being burnt and returning to dust.

九惱 also 九難, 九橫, 九罪報 The nine distresses borne by the Buddha while in the flesh, i.e. the two women Sundarā and Cañcā; others from Devadatta, Ajātaśatru, etc.; v. 智度論 9.

九慢 The nine forms of pride: that I surpass, am equal to, not so bad as others; that others surpass, are as bad as, are inferior to me; that none surpass, are equal to, or worse than me.


九方便 The nine suitable stages in religious service; cf. 大日經, 7; 作禮 salutation to the universal Triratna; 出罪 repentance and confession; 歸依 trust (in the Triratna); 施身 giving of self (to the Tathāgata); 發菩提心 vowing to devote the mind to bodhi; 隨喜 rejoicing (in all good); 勸請 beseeching (all Tathāgatas to rain down the saving law); 奉請法身 praying for the Buddha-nature in self and others for entry in the Pure Land; 迴向 demitting the good produced by the above eight methods, to others, universally, past, present, and future. This form of service is generally performed before engaging in esoteric observances. The verses in which these nine stages are presented are of a commendably devotional character.

九方便十波羅蜜菩薩 Of the ten pāramitā bodhisattvas, q.v., in the tenth or empyrean court of the Garbhadhātu, the first nine are associated with the above nine progressive steps, the tenth is associated with the last four of the nine.

九會 (九會曼陀羅) The nine groups in the diamond-realm maṇḍala.

九會說 The Huayan sutra 華嚴經 in its older sixty chuan version is said to have been delivered at eight assemblies in seven places; the newer eighty chuan at nine assemblies in seven places; cf. 九處.

九曜 九執 q.v. Navagraha. The nine luminaries: 日 Āditya, the sun; 月 Sōma, the moon; the five planets, i.e. 火星 Aṅgāraka, Mars; 水 Budha, Mercury; 木 Bṛhaspati, Jupiter; 金 Sukra, Venus; and 土 Śanaiścara, Saturn; also 羅睺 Rāhu, the spirit that causes eclipses; and 計都 Ketu, a comet. Each is associated with a region of the sky and also with a bodhisattva, etc., e.g. the sun with Guanyin, Venus with Amitābha, etc.

九有 The nine realities, states, or conditions in which sentient beings enjoy to dwell, v. next.

九有情居 (or 九有情處), 九衆生居, 九居, 九門, see also 九有, 九地, 九禪 and 九定; the nine happy abodes or states of sentient beings of the 長阿含經 9; they are the 七識住seven abodes or stages of perception or consciousness to which are added the fifth and ninth below: (1) 欲界之人天 the world and the six deva-heavens of desire in which there is variety of bodies (or personalities) and thinking (or ideas); (2) 梵衆天the three brahma heavens where bodies differ but thinking is the same, the first dhyāna heaven; (3) 極光淨天 the three bright and pure heavens where bodies are identical but thinking diners, the second dhyāna heaven; (4) 遍淨天the three universally pure heavens where bodies and thinking are the same, the third dhyāna heaven; (5) 無想天 the no-thinking or no-thought heaven, the highest of the four dhyāna heavens; (6) 空無邊處 limitless space, the first of the formless realms; (7) 識無邊處 limitless percepton, the second ditto; (8) 無所有處 nothingness, the place beyond things, the third ditto; and (9) 非想非非想beyond thought or non-thought, the fourth ditto.

九梵 The nine heavens of the fourth dhyāna heaven.

九業 The nine kinds of karma, i.e. the desire realm and the form realm each has conduct that causes karma, does not cause karma, or is neutral, making 6; in the formless realm there are non-causative deeds, neutrality, and immortality, making 9; 成實論 8.

九橫 See also 九惱.

九橫死 The nine kinds of irregular death; there are two groups, one connected with improper food or meals, another with improper medical treatment, law‐breaking, drowning, etc. .

九橫經 A sūtra translated in the later Han dynasty by 安世高 An Shigao.

九次第定 The samādhi of the nine degrees, i.e. the four dhyānas 四禪, the four realms beyond form 四無色, and the samādhi beyond sensation and thought 滅受想定; see 九有情居 and 九地.

九流 九漏 idem | 孔.

九無學 The nine grades (of arhats) who are no longer learning, having attained their goal.

九無爲 The nine kinds of, and meditations on, 無爲 q.v. There are two somewhat different groups; one has 擇滅, 非擇滅, 虛空, 空無邊處, 識無邊處, 無所有處, 非想非非想處 (v. 九有情處), 緣起支性, and 聖道支性.

九無間道 In every universe there are nine realms, in every realm there are nine illusions in practice 修, and nine ways of relief; hence the nine ways of overcoming hindrances; also there are nine uninterrupted ways of advance from one stage to another of the nine stages of the 三界 trailokya, by the wisdom of overcoming delusion in each stage; also 九無礙道 ; and cf. 九解脫道.

九界 (九界情執) The nine realms of error, or subjection to the passions, i.e. all the realms of the living except the tenth and highest, the Buddha-realm.


九瘡 idem 九孔.

九祖 (相承) The succession of nine founders of the Tiantai School; v. 天台九宗.

九種大禪 The nine kinds of Mahāyāna dhyāna for bodhisattvas, given in the 菩薩地持經 6 and in other works; they are associated with the patience 忍 pāramitā and with the dhyāna of the super-realms. The nine are meditations: (1) 自性禪 on the original nature of things, or mind as the real nature, from which all things derive; (2) 一切禪 on achieving the development of self and all others to the utmost; (3) 難禪 on the difficulties of certain dhyāna conditions; (4) 一切禪 on the entrance to all the (superior) dhyāna conditions; (5) 善人禪 on the good; (6) 一切行禪 on all Mahāyāna practices and actions; (7) 除煩惱禪 on ridding all sufferers from the miseries of passion and delusion; (8) 此世他世樂禪 on the way to bring joy to all people both in this life and hereafter; (9) 淸淨淨禪 on perfect purity in the termination of all delusion and distress and the obtaining of perfect enlightenment.

九竅 v. 九孔.

九結 The nine bonds that bind men to mortality: love, hate, pride, ignorance, (wrong)views, possessions (or grasping), doubt, envy, meanness (or selfishness). They are the 六隨眠 plus grasping, envy, and meanness.

九經 idem 九部經.

九縛一脫 The nine states of bondage and the one state of liberation. The nine states are the hells of fire, of blood, of swords; asuras, men, devas, māras, nirgranthas, form and formless states; these are all saṃsāra states, i.e. of reincarnation. The one state of freedom, or for obtaining freedom, is nirvāṇa.

九罪報 v. 九惱.

九蓮 The paradise of Amitābha, i.e. 九品蓮臺.

九華山 Formerly called 九子山, which was changed by the Tang poet Li Bai to the above; it is one of the four sacred mountains of Buddhism, situated in Anhui, and its patron Bodhisattva is Dizang 地藏.

九衆 The 七衆 q.v. plus junior monks and nuns, i.e. novices who have received the eight commandments.

九衆生居 v. 九有情居.

九解脫道 In the nine stages trailokya三界 each has its possible delusions and erroneous performances; the latter are overcome by the九無間道q.v.

九道 The nine truths, or postulates: impermanence; suffering; voidness (or unreality of things); no permanent ego, or soul; love of existence or possessions, resulting in suffering; the opposite (or fear of being without them), also resulting in suffering; the cutting off of suffering and its cause; nirvāṇa with remainder still to be worked out; complete nirvāṇa.

九識 The kinds of cognition or consciousness (vijñāna); those of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, mind, mānas (or阿陁那識 ādāna), i.e. mental perception; 阿賴耶 ālāya, bodhi-consciousness, and 阿摩羅識 amala, purified or Buddha-consciousness. There is considerable difference as to the meaning of the last three.

九輪 The nine wheels or circles on the top of a pagoda, also called 空輪the wheels of space; the nine should only be on the stūpa of a Buddha, others are entitled to as many as eight and a few as one.

九轍 Kumārajīva's nine divisions of the meaning of the Lotus Sūtra, whence he was styled the 九轍法師.

九道 idem 九有情居.

九部 (九部經) Nine of the Hīnayāna twelve classes of sūtras, that is, all except the 方廣, 授記 and 無門自說. Generally the term is thus interpreted, but there is also a Mahāyāna division of nine of the twelve sūtras, i.e. all except the 緣起, 譬喩, 論議. These are: sūtras, the Buddha's sermons; geyas, metrical pieces; vyākaraṇas, prophecies; gāthās, chants or poems; udāṇas, impromptu or unsolicited addresses; ityuktas, or itivṛttakas, marratives; jātakas, stories of former lives of Buddha, etc.; vaipulyas, expanded sūtras, etc.; adbhutadharmas, miracles, etc.; v. 十二部經.


九門 v. 九有情居.

九難 v 九惱.

九類生 The nine kinds of birth; the four from the womb, egg, moisture, transformation are common to devas, earth, and the hells; the five others are birth into the heavens of form, of non-form, of thought, of non-thought, and of neither (i.e. beyond either).

九鬼 The nine classes of ghosts are of three kinds: without means, small means, rich. The first group have 炬口 burning torch-like mouths, or 鍼口 narrow needle mouths, or 臭口 stinking mouths; the second group have hair like needles, or stinking hair, or tumours; the rich ghosts haunt sacrifices to the dead, or eat human leavings, or live truculently.

九陰 The five elements together with time, space, mind (manas), and soul (ātman) according to the teaching of the "heretical" Vaiśeṣika sect; v. 鞞.

九齋日 the nine kinds of days of abstinence on which no food is eaten after twelve o'clock: noon and the commands are observed. They are: Every day of the first month, of the fifth month, of the ninth month, and the following six days of each month, 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. On these days Indra and the four deva-kings investigate the conduct of men.

To end, see through, understand, thoroughly, know, make clear, thoroughly, completely, final.

了了見 The complete vision obtained when the body is in complete rest and the mind freed from phenomenal disturbance.

了因 A revealing cause, v. 二因 , i.e. 生因 a producing or direct cause, e.g. a seed; and 了因 a revealing "cause", e.g. a light, as indicating the effect; knowledge or wisdom.

了因佛性 The second of the three Buddha-nature "causes", i.e. 正因佛性 is the 眞如 as direct cause of attaining the perfect Buddha-nature, associated with the 法身; 了因佛性 is the revealing or enlightening cause, associated with the Buddha-wisdom; 緣因佛性 is the environing cause, e.g. his goodness and merits which result in deliverance, or salvation.

了徹禪定 The mastery of abstract contemplation.

了悟 Complete enlightenment, or clear apprehension.

了教 A noted disciple named Ajñāta-Kauṇḍinya, v. 阿, also known as拘鄰鄰,了本際 and 知本際. He is described as "a prince of Magadha, maternal uncle of Śākyamuni, whose first disciple he became". He is "to be reborn as Buddha under the name of Samanṭa-Prabhāsa". Eitel.

了知 Parijñā, thorough knowledge.

了義 Revelation of the whole meaning, or truth, as 不了義 is partial revelation adapted (方便) to the capacity of the hearers.

了義教 Teaching of the whole truth.

了義經 The sūtras containing it. Mahāyāna counts all Hīnayāna sutras as 不了義經; Mahāyāna sūtras are divided into both kinds according to different schools.

了達 Thorough penetration, clear understanding.

Dvā, dvau. Two; dvitīya, second.

二三 The six non-Buddhist philosophers, 二三邪徒.

二世 This life and the hereafter.

二世尊 Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna, the Buddha 多賓 in the eleventh chapter of the Lotus Sūtra; see also 二尊.

二世間 The two realms of conscious or sentient beings 有情世間, and unconscious or material things 器世間.

二乘 dviyāna. The two vehicles conveying to the final goal. There are several definitions: (1) Mahāyāna and Hīnayāna. (2) 聲聞 and 緣覺 or 聲覺二乘 . Śrāvaka and Pratyekabuddha. (3) 二乘作佛 The Lotus Sūtra teaches that śrāvakas and pratyekas also become Buddhas. (4) 三一二乘 The "two vehicles" of "three" and "one", the three being the pre-Lotus ideas of śrāvaka, pratyeka, and bodhsattva, the one being the doctrine of the Lotus Sūtra which combined all three in one.

二九五部 The eighteen Hīnayāna sects and the five Vinaya 律sects.

二九韻 The eighteen 丁岸哆 tiṇanta, personal endings of the Sanskrit verb.


二二合緣 A method of meditation by coupling 法 with 身, 受, 心, respectively. Cf. 四念處觀.

二五食 The two groups of food, each of five kinds: bhojanīya, v. 蒲 cereals, fish, and flesh; and khādanīya, v. 佉fruits and sweetmeats.

二佛並坐 The two Buddhas sitting together, v. 二世尊.

二佛中門 The period between the nirvāṇa of Śākyamuni and the future advent of Maitreya, i.e. the present period.

二佛性 Dual aspects of the Buddha-nature, i.e., 理佛性 the Buddha-nature which is fundamentally in all sentient beings, and 行佛性 the functioning Buddha-nature active and effective in some, but not in others, a doctrine of the 法相 school.

二佛身 v. 二身.

二修 Two kinds of devotion or practice, 專修 and 雜修 sole or single-minded, and miscellaneous or varied, defined as (1) chief or sole duty, and (2) aids thereto or adjunctive observances. Also 緣修 causative devotion of a bodhisattva in former life, and 眞修 its actual manifestation here.

二倶犯過 or 二人倶犯 A term applied by Tiantai in criticism of Huayan, which while it is a 圓敎 perfect or complete doctrine, yet has the "crudities" of the 別敎 and comes short of the really perfect Lotus doctrine.

二假 Two hypotheses in the 唯識論1:— (1) 無體隨情假the non-substantial hypothesis, that there is no substantial entity or individuality, i.e. no 見分 and 相分, no 實我 and 實法, no real subject and object but that all is transient subject and object, but that all is transient emotion; (2) 有體施設假 the factual hypothesis, that there is entity or individuality, subject and object, etc.

二光 The dual lights, i.e. 色光 the halo from a Buddha's body and 心光 the light from his mind. Also 常光 the constant halo from the bodies of Buddhas and 神通光 the supernatural light sent out by a Buddha (e.g. from between his eyebrows) to illuminate a distant world.

二入 The two ways of entering the truth:— 理入 by conviction intellectually, 行入 by (proving it in) practice.

二八 The sixteen meditations. V. 十六觀.

二六 Twelve.

二六之緣 idem 十二因緣.

二六之願 the twelve vows of 藥師.

二六時中 during the twelve (=twenty-four) hours of the day.

二凡 The two external and internal, or ordinary ranks, 外凡 and 内凡, in the first forty of the fifty-two stages 位; the 外凡 are ordinary believers who pursue the stages of 十信; the 内凡 are the zealous, who are advancing through the next three groups of stages up to the fortieth.

二出 The two modes of escape from mortality, 堅出 the long way called the 聖道門 or 自力敎, i.e. working out one's own salvation; and 橫出 the across or short way of the Pure-land sect or 他力敎 faith in or invocation of another, i.e. Amitābha.

二利 The dual benefits, or profits: benefiting or developing oneself and others; 自利 in seeking enlightenment in bodhisattvahood, 利他 in saving the multitude. Hīnayāna "seeks only one's own benefit"; the bodhisattva rule seeks both one's own benefit and that of others, or personal improvement for the improving of others.

二力 Dual powers; there are three definitions: (1) 自力 one's own strength, or endeavours, i.e. salvation by cultivating 戒, 定, and 慧; 他カ another's strength, e.g. the saving power of Amitābha. (2) 思擇力 Power of thought in choosing (right principles); 修習力 power of practice and performance. (3) 有力 and 無力 positive and negative forces: dominant and subordinate; active and inert energy.

二加 The dual aid bestowed by the Buddha, 顯加 manifest or external aid bestowed by the Buddha, in the blessings and powers of this life; 冥加 invisible aid bestowed by the Buddha, in getting rid of sins, increasing virtue, etc.

二勝果 The two surpassing fruits, or rewards given by Buddha, i.e. final nirvāṇa and perfect enlightenment.

二十 viṃśati. Twenty.

二十二品 Twenty-two of the 三十七道品 q.v.; they are 四念處, 四正勤、四如意, 足五根 and 五力.


二十二根 The twenty-two roots, organs, or powers, v. 根. They are: (1) 眼根 eye, cakṣurindriya; (2) 耳 根 ear, śrotrendriya; (3) 鼻根 nose, ghrāṇendriya; (4) 舌根 tongue, jihvendriya; (5) 身根 body, kāyendriya; (6) 意根 mind, manaīndriya (the above are the 六根); (7) 女根 female organ, strīndriya; (8) 男根 male organ, puruṣendriya; (9) 命根 life, jīvitendriya; (10) 苦根 suffering (or pain), duḥkhendriya; (11) 樂根 pleasure, sukhendriya; (12) 憂根 sorrow, daurmanasyendriya; (13) 喜根 joy, saumanas-yendriya; (14) 捨根 abandoning, upekṣendriya (from 10 to 14 they are the 五受); (15) 信根 faith, śraddhendriya; (16) 精進根 zeal, vīryendriya; (17) 念根 memory, smṛtīndriya; (18) 定根 meditation, or trance, samādhīndriya; (19) 慧根 wisdom, prajñendriya (these are the 信等之五根); (20) 未知當知根 the power for learning (the Four Noble Truths) anājñātamājñāsyāmīndriya; (21) 巳知根 the power of having learned (them), ājñendriya; (22) 具知根 the power of perfect knowledge (of them), ājñātādvīndriya (these three are called the 無漏根) .

二十二門 The Abhidharma-kośa divides the eighteen realms 十八界 into twenty-two categories. Also, there are twenty-two modes or processes in the perfect development of a Buddha and his works.

二十五條 The monk's twenty-five-patch garment, v. 袈.

二十五圓通 The twenty-five kinds of perfect understanding of the truth; they refer to the 六塵, 六根, 六識, and 七大; disciples of the Buddha are said each to have acquired a special knowledge of one of these twenty-five and to have been recognized as its authority, e. g. Guanyin of the ear, Dignāga of sound, etc.

二十五方便 Tiantai's twenty-five aids to meditation, v. 止觀.

二十五有 The twenty-five forms of existence, fourteen in the desire realms 欲界, seven in the realms of form 色界, and four in the formless realms 無色界, v. 有.

二十五神 The twenty-five guardian deities who protect any keeper of the commandments, i.e. five for each of the commandments against killing, robbing, adultery, lying, and drinking.

二十五菩薩 The twenty-five bodhisattvas who protect all who call on Amitābha i. e. 觀音, 大勢至, 藥王, 藥上, 普賢, 法自在, 師子吼, 陀羅尼, 虛空藏, 佛藏, 菩藏, 金藏, 金剛藏, 山海慧, 光明王, 華嚴王, 衆賓王, 月光王, 日照王, 三昧王, 定自在王, 大自在王, 自象王, 大威德王 and 無邊身菩薩.

二十五點 Each of the five 更 night watches is divided into five making twenty-five dian.

二十億耳 Sroṇakoṭīviṁśa. Defined as the most zealous of Śākyamuni's disciples, who became an arhat. Having lived in a heaven for ninety-one kalpas, where his feet did not touch the ground, he was born with hair on his soles two inches long, an omen which led his father and brothers to endow him with twenty kotis of ounces of gold, hence this name. v. 智度論 22.

二十八天 The twenty-eight heavens, or devalokas: six of the desire-world 欲界, eighteen of the form-world 色界, and four arūpa or formless heavens 無色界. The heavens of the world of form are sixteen according to the 薩婆多部 Sarvāstivāda School, seventeen according to 經部 Sūtra School, and eighteen according to the 上座 Sthavirāḥ.

二十八宿 The twenty-eight nakṣatras or constellations, divided into four mansions of seven each, referred to East, or Spring; South, Summer; West, Autumn; and North, Winter. The month-names derived from them differ slightly in form. E.: 角 Citrā, 亢 Niṣṭyā (or Svāti), 氏 Viśākhā, 房 Anurādhā, 心Rohiṇī, Jyeṣṭhaghnī (or Jyesthā), 尾 Mūlabarhaṇī (or Mūla), 箕 Pūrva-Aṣādha. N.: 斗 Uttara-Aṣāḍhā, 牛 Abhijit, 女Śravaṇā, 盧Śraviṣṭha (or Dhaniṣṭhā) 危Śatabhiṣā, 室 Pūrva-Proṣṭhapada, 壁 Uttara-Proṣṭhapada. W.: 奎 Revatī, 婁 Aśvayuj (or Aśvinī), 胃 Apabharaṇī (or Bharaṇī), 昴 Kṛttikā, 畢 Rohiṇī, 觜 Invakā (or Mṛgaśiras), 參 Bāhu (or Ārdrā). S.: 井 Punarvasu, 鬼 Tiṣya (or Puṣya), 柳 Aśleṣā, 星 Maghā, 張 Pūrva-Phalgunī, 翼 Uttara-Phalgunī, 軫 Hastā.

二十八有 or 生The twenty-eight forms of existence, or birth. 二十九有 the twenty-ninth is the non-existent; v. 有.

二十八祖 The twenty-eight Buddhist patriarchs as stated by the Mahāyānists. The Tiantai school reckons twenty-three, or twenty-four, with the addition of Śaṇakavāsa, contemporary with his predecessors, but the Chan school reckons twenty-eight: (1) Mahākāśyapa, 摩訶迦葉 (摩訶迦葉波); (2) Ānanda, 阿難; (3) Śāṇakavāsa, 商那和修; 4) Upagupta, 優婆毱多; (5) Dhṛṭaka, 提多迦; (6) Mikkaka, or Miccaka, or Micchaka, 彌遮迦; (7) Vasumitra, 婆須蜜; (8) Buddhanandi, 佛陀難提; (9) Buddhamitra, 伏駄蜜多; (10) Pārśva, or Pārśvika, 波栗溼縛or 脇尊者; (11) Puṇyayaśas 那尊耶舍; (12) Aśvaghoṣa, 馬鳴大士; (13) Kapimala, 迦毘摩羅; (14) Nāgārjuna, 龍樹; (15) Kāṇadeva, 迦那提婆; (16) Rāhulata, 羅睺羅多; (17) Saṅghanandi, 僧伽難提; (18) Gayāśata, 伽耶舍多; (19) Kumārata, 鳩摩羅多; (20) Jayata, 闍夜多; (21) Vasubandhu, 婆修盤頭; (22) Manorhita, 摩撃羅; (23) Haklena, 鶴輸勒; (24) Ārasiṁha, 師子尊者; (25) Basiasita, 婆舍新多; (26) Puṇyamitra, 不如密多; (27) Prajñātāra, 般若多羅; (28) Bodhidharma, 菩提達磨.

二十八藥叉 The twenty-eight yakṣas.


二十八部衆 The thousand-hand Guanyin has twenty-eight groups of 大仙衆great ṛṣis or genii, under the direction of the 孔雀王 Peacock king, Mayūrarāja; also each of the 四天王 mahārājas, or guardians of the four regions, has the same provision of demons, known as 鬼神衆 company of spirits.

二十唯識 The name of the 唯識二十論.

二十天 The twenty devas. (1) 大梵天王 (Mahābrahman), (2) 帝釋尊天(Śakra devānām Indra), (3) 多聞天王 (Vaiśravana, 毘沙門, or Dhanada), (4) 持國天王(Dhṛtarāṣṭra), (5) 增長天王 (Virūḍhaka), (6) 廣目天王 (Virūpākṣa), (7) 金剛密迹(?Gunyapati), (8) 摩醯首羅 (Maheśvara), (9) 散脂 (迦) 大將 (Pañcika), (10) 大辯才天 (Sarasvatī), (11) 大功德天 (Lakṣmī), (12) 韋驛天神 (Skanda), (13) 堅牢地神 (Pṛthivī), (14) 善提樹神 (Bodhidruma, or Bodhi-vṛkṣa), (15) 鬼子母神 (Hāritī), (16) 摩利支天 (Marīci), (17) 日宮天子 (Sūrya), (18) 月宮天子 (Candra, etc. There are many different names), (19) 裟竭龍王(Sāgara), (20) 閣摩羅王 (Yama-rāja).

二十智 The twenty kinds of wisdom or knowledge as denied by Tiantai i.e. the Hīnayāna (or三藏) with seven kinds, 通教 five, 別教four, and 圓教 four; cf. 智.

二十犍度 The twenty skandhas intp. as 章篇 sections or chapters, i.e. the thirty-one to the fifty-three chuan of the 四分律, beginning with受戒犍度 and ending with 雜犍度; they are twenty sections containing rules for the monastic life and intercourse.

二十部 The eighteen Hīnayāna sects, together with the two original assemblies of elders.

二受 The dual receptivity or karma of pleasure and pain, the physical and the mental, i.e. 身 and 心.

二吉羅 The two duṣkṛta, doing evil and speaking evil; v. 突吉羅 .

二和 The double harmony or unity, i. e. 理 and 事, indicating those who are united in doctrine and practice, or the saṅgha.

二善 The two good things, 定善 the good character that arises from meditation or contemplation mdash especially of the Pure Land; 散善 the good character attainable when, though not in meditation, one controls oneself in thought, word, and deed;. Also 未生善 the good character not yet evolved; and 已生善 the good character already evolved;. Also 事理善 goodness in theory and practice.

二因 Two causes, of which there are various definitions: (1) 生因 The producing cause (of all good things); and 了因 the revealing or illuminating cause i.e. knowledge, or wisdom. (2) 能生因 The 8th 識 q. v.: the cause that is able to produce all sense and perceptions, also all good and evil; and 方便因 the environmental or adaptive cause, which aids the 8th 識, as water or earth does the seed, etc. (3) 習因 or 同類因 Practice or habit as cause e. g. desire causing desire; and 報因 or 果熟因 the rewarding cause, or fruit-ripening cause, e. g. pleasure or pain caused by good or evil deeds. (4) 正因 Correct or direct cause i.e. the Buddha-nature of all beings; and 緣因 the contributory cause, or enlightenment (see 了因 above) which evolves the 正因 or Buddha-nature by good works. (5) 近因 Immediate or direct cause and 遠因 distant or indirect cause or causes.

二圓 The two perfect doctrines, a term of the Tiantai School, called 今圓 (also 開顯圓 and 絶待圓) and 昔圓 (also 相待圓 ). 今圓 is the present really perfect 一實 doctrine arising from the Lotus Sūtra; 昔圓 is the older, or 相待 comparatively speaking perfect doctrine of the pre-Lotus teaching, that of the 藏, 通, and 別 schools; but the older was for limited salvation and not universal like the 今圓; these two are also termed 部圓 and 教圓 . The Huayan school has a division of the two perfections into 漸圓 gradual perfection and 頓圓 immediate perfection.

二嚴 The dual adornment, that of 智慧 wisdom and that of 福德; good deeds, 涅槃經 27.

二土 There are three groups: 性土 and 相土 : the former is the ubiquitous, unadulterated or innocent 法性之理 dharma-name, or essence of things; the latter is the form-nature, or formal existence of the dharma, pure or impure according to the mind and action of the living. The 淨土 and 穢土 are Pure-land or Paradise; and impure land, e.g. the present world. In the Pure-land there are also 報土 , the land in which a Buddha himself dwells and 化土 in which all beings are transformed. There are other definitions, e. g. the former is Buddha's Paradise, the latter the world in which he dwells and which he is transforming, e. g. this Sahā-world.

二執 The two (erroneous) tenets, or attachments: (1) 我執 or 人執 that of the reality of the ego, permanent personality, the ātman, soul or self. (2) 法執 that of the reality of dharma, things or phenomena. Both are illusions. "All illusion arises from holding to the reality of the ego and of things."


二報 The dual reward. (1) 依報 or 依果 The material environment on which a person depends, resulting from former karma, e.g. country, house, property, etc. (2) 正報 or 正果 his direct reward, i. e. his body, or person.

二增菩薩 The two superior kinds of bodhisattvas, 智增菩薩 bodhisattva superior in wisdom (chiefly beneficial to self); 悲增菩薩 bodhisattva superior in pity for others and devotion to their salvation.

二天 The two devas. (1) 日天 and 月天Sun-deva and Moon-deva. (2) 同生天A deva born simultaneously with the individual and 同名天 a deva with the same name as the individual; both devas have the duty of watching over the individual. (3) 梵天 and 帝釋天 Brahma and Indra.

二天三仙 The two devas are Maheśvara and Viṣṇu; the three ṛṣi are Kapila, Ulūka, and Ṛṣabha; v. 迦, 優, and 勒.

二女 The two sisters, one the deva 功德女 "merit" or "achieving", who causes people to acquire wealth; the other, 黑闇女 the "dark" one, who causes them to spend and waste; these sisters always accompany each other.

二如 There are various definitions of the two aspects of the 眞如 bhūtatathatā. (1) (a) 不變眞如 The changeless essence or substance, e.g. the sea; (b) 隨緣眞如 its conditioned or ever-changing forms, as in the phenomenal world, e.g. the waves. (2) (a) 離言眞如 The inexpressible absolute, only mentally conceivable; (6) 依言眞如 aspects of it expressible in words, its ideal reflex. (3) (a) 空眞如 The absolute as the void, e.g. as space, the sky, a clear mirror; (b) 不空眞如 the absolute in manifestation, or phenomenal, e. g. images in the mirror: the womb of the universe in which are all potentialities. (4) (a) 在纏眞如The Buddha-nature in bonds, i.e. all beings in suffering; (b) 出纏真如the Buddha-nature set free by the manifestation of the Buddha and bodhisattvas. (5) (a) 有垢眞如The Buddha-nature defiled, as in unenlightened man, etc., e.g. the water-lily with its roots in the mud; (b) 無垢眞如 the pure Buddha-nature, purifed or bright as the full moon. (6) 安立 and 非安立眞如 similar to the first definition given above.

二妙 The dual "marvel" of the Lotus sūtra, the 相待妙 or comparative view, i.e. compared with all previous teaching, which is the rough groundwork; and the 絕待妙 or view of it as the perfection of teaching; hence it is "wonderful" in comparison with all previous doctrine, and absolutely 'wonderful' in itself; cf. 二圓.

二始 The two beginnings, i.e. of Hīnayāna, by the preaching of the 阿含 Āgama sūtras; and of Mahāyāna by the preaching of the 華嚴 Avataṁsaka sūtra.

二字 Double-letters, i.e. a monk-because a monk's name consists of two characters.

二字文殊 The two-character Mañjuśrī.

二學 The two kinds of study or learning: (a) reading and reciting, (b) meditation and thought.

二宗 Two theories or schools stated by the Huayan (Kegon) school as 法相宗 and 法性宗 q.v., known also as 相宗 and 性宗. There are ten point of difference between them. Another division is the 空宗 and 性宗 q. v.

二密 The two esoteric aspects, i.e. 理密 and 事密 , the former referring to the doctrine, the latter to the esoteric acts of a Tathāgata.

二尊 The two honoured ones, Śākyamuni and Amitābha.

二尊一教 (or 致) The two honored ones (Śākyamuni and Amitābha) as one in teaching.

二尊二教 The two honored ones (Śākyamuni and Amitābha) as teacher and saviour, with reference to the teaching of the way of salvation of the first, and the consequent saving vows of the second.

二世尊二師 The two sages, or preceptors in the Lotus Sūtra, Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna. Also sages and ordinary preceptors.

二序 The two kinds of introductory phrase: (a) the ordinary opening phrase of a sutra— "Thus have I heard"; and (b) specific openings referring to the circumstances in which the sūtra was produced.

二往 再往 Twice over, a second time.

二德 The two kinds of power or virtue are 智德 and 斷德; also 悲德 and 智德; also 性德 and 修德; q.v. and v. 德.


二心 The two minds, 眞心 the original, simple, pure, natural mind of all creatures, the Buddha-mind, i.e. 如來藏心; and 妄心 the illusion-mind, which results in complexity and confusion. Also, 定心 the meditative mind, or mind fixed on goodness; and the 散心 the scattered, inattentive mind, or mind that is only good at intervals.

二忍 The two patiences or endurances: 衆生忍 patience towards all under all circumstances; 無生(法)忍 calm rest, as a bodhisattva、in the assurance of no (re-) birth, i.e. in immortality. Also 安受苦忍 patience under suffering, and 觀察法忍 imperturbable examination of or meditation in the law or of all things. Also, physical and mental patience, or endurance.

二悟 The two awakenings, or kinds of entry into bodhisattvahood, i.e. 頓悟 immediate and 漸悟 gradual.

二惑 The two aspects of illusion: 見惑 perplexities or illusions and temptations arise from false views or theories. 思惑 or 修惑, ditto from thoughts arising through contact with the world, or by habit, such as desire, anger, infatuation, etc. They are also styled 理惑 illusions connected with principles and 事惑 illusions arising, in practice; v. 見思.

二愛 The two kinds of love, 欲愛 ordinary human love springing from desire; 法愛 bodhisattva or religious love, i.e. desiring to save all creatures.

二應身 The two kinds of transformation-body of a Buddha, i.e. 勝應身 the Buddha's surpassing body as seen by bodhisattvas, and 劣應身 the Buddha's inferior human body as seen by ordinary people.

二戒 The two grades of commandments, or prohibitions, e. g. 十戒 and 具足戒 for monks; 五戒 and 八戒 for the laity; 邪戒 and 正戒 heretical rules and correct rules; and numerous other pairs.

二我 (二我見) The two erroneous views of individualism: (a) 人我見 The erroneous view that there is an independent human personality or soul, and (b) 法我見 the like view that anything exists with an independent nature.

二我執 The two reasons for clinging to the idea of the self: (a) 具生我執 the natural, or instinctive cleaving to the idea of a self, or soul; (b) 分別我執 the same idea developed as the result of (erroneous) reasoning. Cf. 二法執.

二持 The two values of the commandments: (a) 止持 prohibitive, restraining from evil; (b) 作持 constructive, constraining to goodness.

二教 Dual division of the Buddha's teaching. There are various definitions: (1) Tiantai has (a) 顯教 exoteric or public teaching to the visible audience, and (b) 密教 at the same time esoteric teaching to an audience invisible to the other assembly. (2) The 眞言 Shingon School by "exoteric" means all the Buddha's preaching, save that of the 大日經 which it counts esoteric. (3) (a) 漸教 and (b) 頓教 graduated and immediate teaching, terms with various uses, e.g. salvation by works Hīnayāna, and by faith, Mahāyāna, etc.; they are applied to the Buddha's method, to the receptivity of hearers and to the teaching itself. (4) Tiantai has (a) 界内教 and (b) 界外教 teachings relating to the 三界 or realms of mortality and teachings relating to immortal realms. (5) (a) 半字教 and (b) 滿字教 Terms used in the Nirvāṇa sūtra, meaning incomplete word, or letter, teaching and complete word teaching, i.e. partial and complete, likened to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. (6) (a) 捃收教 and (b) 扶律談常教 of the Nirvāṇa sūtra, (a) completing those who failed to hear the Lotus; (b) "supporting the law, while discoursing on immortality," i.e. that the keeping of the law is also necessary to salvation. (7) Tiantai's division of (a) 偏教 and (b) 圓教 the partial teaching of the 藏, 通, and schools as contrasted with the perfect teaching of the 圓 school. (8) Tiantai's division of (a) 構教 and (6) 實教 temporary and permanent, similar to the last two. (9) (a) 世間教 The ordinary teaching of a moral life here; (b) 出世間教 the teaching of Buddha-truth of other-worldly happiness in escape from mortality. (10) (a) 了義教 the Mahāyāna perfect or complete teaching, and (b) 不了義教 Hīnayāna incompleteness. (11) The Huayan division of (a) 屈曲教 indirect or uneven teaching as in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, and (b) 平道教 direct or levelled up teaching as in the Huayan sūtra. (12) The Huayan division of (a) 化教 all the Buddha's teaching for conversion and general instruction, and (b) 制教 his rules and commandments for the control and development of his order.

二時 The two times or periods— morning and evening. Also 迦羅 kāla, a regular or fixed hour for meals, and 三昧耶 samaya, irregular or unfxed hours or times.


二智 The two kinds of wisdom; there are various pairs. The Huayan school uses 如理智 and 如量智; the Faxiang (法相) uses 根本智 and 後得智; the Tiantai uses 權智 and 實智. (1) (a) 如理智 or 根本智, 無分別智, 正體智, 眞智, 實智 is Buddha-wisdom, or Bodhisattva real wisdom; (b) 如量智 or 後得智, the same wisdom in its limitation and relation to ordinary human affairs. (2) (a) 實智 Absolute wisdom and (b) 權智 or 方便智 | relative or temporal wisdom. (3) (a) 一切智 wisdom of the all, (b) 一切種智 wisdom of all the particulars.

二智圓滿 The two kinds of Tathāgata-wisdom, 實 and 權 absolute and functional (or relative), both perfect and complete.

二果 Sakṛdāgāmin; v. 裟 and 斯. The second "fruit" of the four kinds of Hīnayāna arhats, who have only once more to return to mortality. Also the two kinds of fruit or karma: (a) 習氣果 The good or evil characteristics resulting from habit or practice in a former existence; (b) 報果the pain or pleasure resulting (in this life) from the practices of a previous life.

二根 The two "roots" or natural powers. (1) (a) 利根 keen, able (in the religion); (b) 鈍根 dull. (2) (a) 正根; 勝義根The power or ability which uses the sense organs to discern the truth; (b) 扶根; 扶 (or浮) 塵根the sense organs 五根 as aids. (3) The male and female sexual organs.

二業 Two classes of karma. (1) (a) 引業 leads to the 總報, i.e. the award as to the species into which one is to be born, e.g. men, gods, etc.; (6) 滿業 is the 別報 or fulfillment in detail, i.e. the kind or quality of being e.g. clever or stupid, happy or unhappy, etc. (2) (a) 善業 and (b) 惡業 Good and evil karma, resulting in happiness or misery. (3) (a) 助業 Aids to the karma of being reborn in Amitābha's Pure—land e. g. offerings, chantings, etc.; (b) 正業 thought and invocation of Amitābha with undivided mind, as the direct method.

二檀 The two dāna 檀那, i. e, kinds of donating, or almsgiving: (a) 世間檀 ordinary alms, and (b) 出世間檀 spiritual, or other-worldly gifts.

二求 The two kinds of seeking: 得求 seeking to get (e.g. pleasure) and 命求 seeking long life.

二法執 The two tenets in regard to things; of. 二我執, i.e. 倶生法執 the common or natural tendency to consider things as real; 分別法執 the tenet of the reality of things as the result of false reasoning and teaching.

二法身 Contrasted types of the Dharmakāya; five pairs are given, 理法身 and 智法身; 果極 and 應化法身 ; 自性法身 and 應化法身 ; 法性法身 and 方便法身 ; 理法身 and 事法身 ; cf. 法身.

二河白道 The two rivers and the white path, i.e. the path leading to life between the rivers of desire and hatred, which are compared to water and fire.

二流 The two ways in the current of transmigration: 順流 to flow with it in continual re-incarnation; 逆流 resist it and seek a way of escape by getting rid of life's delusions, as in the case of the saints.

二涅槃 Two Nirvanas, v. 二種涅槃.

二漏 The two conditions relating to the passions and delusions: 有漏 the condition in which they can prevail; 無漏 that in which they cannot prevail.

二無常 Two kinds of impermanence, immediate and delayed. 念念無常 things in motion, manifestly transient; 相續無常 things that have the semblance of continuity, but are also transient, as life ending in death, or a candle in extinction.

二無我 The two categories of anātman: — 人無我 no (permanent) human ego, or soul; 法無我 no (permanent) individuality in or independence of self or of things.

二無我智 The wisdom that recognizes the two categories of anātman, v. 四諦.

二無記 The two neutrals, or indeterminates which cannot be noted as good or evil.

二煩惱 The two kinds of kleśa, i.e. passions, delusions, temptations, or trials. (1) (a) 根本煩惱 The six fundamental kleśas arising from the six senses; (b) 隨煩惱 the twenty consequent kleśas arising out of the six. (2) (a) 分別起煩惱 Kleśa arising from false reasoning; (b) 倶生起煩惱 that which is natural to all. (3) (a) 大煩惱地法The six great, e.g. extravagance, and (b) 小煩惱地法 ten minor afflictions, e.g. irritability. (4) (a) 數行煩惱 Ordinary passions, or temptations; (b) 猛利煩惱fierce, sudden, or violent passions, or temptations.

二犯 The two kinds of sin, 止犯 and 作犯.


二王 The two guardian spirits represented on the temple gates, styled Vajrayakṣa 金剛夜叉 or 神 or 夜叉神.

二現 The two kinds of manifestation, or appearance, 須現 the necessary appearance in the flesh of the Buddha for ordinary people, and 不須現 the non-necessity for this to those of spiritual vision.

二百五十戒 The 250 commandments, or 具足戒 perfect or complete commandments, which are obligatory on monks and nuns. They are 四波羅夷 or 四根本極惡the four pārājika; 十三殘 thirteen saṅghāvaseṣa; 二不定法 two aniyata; 三十捨隨 thirty naiḥsargikāḥ-pāyattikāḥ; 九十波逸提ninety prāyaścittikāḥ; 四提舍尼four pratideśanīya; 百衆學 hundred śikṣākaraṇīya, and 七滅諍 seven kinds of vinaya for ending disputes.

二益 The dual advantages or benefits: profitable to the life which now is, and that which is to come.

二相 The two forms, or characteristics, of the bhutatathata, universal and particular. The 起信論 gives (a) 淨智相 pure wisdom, cf. ālaya-vijñāna, out of whose primary condition arise (b) 不思議用相 inconceivable, beneficial functions and uses. The same śāstra gives also a definition of the 眞如 as (a) 同相 that all things, pure or impure, are fundamentally of the same universal, e.g. clay which is made into tiles; (b) 異相 but display particular qualities, as affected by pure or impure causes, e.g. the tiles. Another definition, of the 智度論 31, is (a) 總相 universals, as impermanence; (b) 別相 particulars, for though all things have the universal basis of impermanence they have particular qualities, e.g. earth-solidity, heat of fire, etc.

二眞如 v. 二如 and 眞如.

二礙 idem 二障.

二祖 The second patriarch of the Chan school, Huike 慧可.

二祖斷臂 the second patriarch in China 慧可 of the Chan school, who, to induce bodhidharma to receive him, is said to have cut of his left arm in the snow in order to prove his firmness and determination.

二福 The bliss of the gods, and the bliss of the saints 聖; v. also 福.

二福田 The two fields for the cultivation of happiness: (a) 學人田 the eighteen Hīnayāna classes of those under training in religion; (b) 無學人田 the nine divisions of those no longer in training, i.e. who have completed their course. Also (a) 悲田 the pitable or poor and needy, as the field or opportunity for charity; (b) 敬田the field of religion and reverence of the Buddhas, the saints, the priesthood.

二種 Two kinds or classes For those not given below see under二, etc., as for instance 二種世間 see under二世間.

二種佛境 The two Buddha-domains: (a) 證境 the Buddha's domain or state of absolute enlightenment; (b) 化境 the domain that the Buddha is transforming.

二種供養 The two forms of service, or offerings: (1) (a) 出纏供養 to those who have escaped from the toils, e.g. Buddhas; (b) 在纏供養 to those still living in the toils. (2) (a) 財供養 offerings of goods; (b) 法供養 of the Buddha-truth.

二種光明 The two kinds of light: (1) (a) 色光明 physical light; (b) 智慧光明 or 心光明 wisdom or mental light. (2) (a) 魔光 Māra's delusive light; (b) 佛光 the true light of the Buddha. (3) (a) 常光The constant or eternal light; (b) 現起光 the light in temporary manifestations.

二種因果 Two aspects of cause and effect, a division of the 四諦 "four noble truths" (a) 世間因果 in the present life, the 苦諦 being the effect, and the 集諦 the cause; (b) 出世間因果 in the future life, the 滅諦, extinction (of passion, or mortality) being the fruit, and the 道諦 the " eightfold noble path " the cause.

二種子 Two kinds of seed: (1) (a) 本有種子 the seed or latent undivided (moral) force immanent in the highest of the eight 識, i.e. the ālaya-vijñāna; (b) 新薰種子the newly influenced, or active seed when acted upon by the seven other 識, thus becoming productive. (2) (a) 名言種子 The so-called seed which causes moral action similar to 本有種子, e.g. good or evil seed producing good or evil deeds; (b) 業種子 karma seed, the sixth 識 acting with the eighth.


二種寂靜 Two kinds of seclusion, or retirement from the world: Bodily withdrawal into seclusion. Spiritual withdrawal from all evil, and into meditation.

二種布施 Two kinds of charity: (1) (a) goods; (b) the saving truth. (2) (a) 淨施 Pure charity, expecting no return; (b) the opposite.

二種心相 Two kinds of mind: mind in its inner character and influence; in its outer manifestations.

二種忍辱 Two kinds of patience, or endurance: (a) of the assaults of nature, heat, cold, etc.; (b) of human assaults and insults.

二種性 Two kinds of seed-nature, the character of the ālaya seed and its development: (1) (a) 性種子 The original good seed-nature; (b) 習種子 the seed-nature in practice or development. (2) (a) 本性住種性 The immanent abiding original good seed-nature; (b) 習所成種性 the seed productive according to its ground. (3) (a) 聖種性 The seed-nature of the saints, by which they attain nirvana; (b) 愚夫種性 the seed-nature in the foolish and ignorant.

二種授記 Two classes of Buddha's predictions of a disciple's destiny, 無餘授記prediction in finality, or complete detail; 有餘授記 partial, or incomplete prediction.

二種施 v. 二種布施.

二種死 The two kinds of death, 命盡死 natural death, and 外緣死 violent death, or death from external cause.

二種比丘 Two classes of monks: 多聞比丘 monks who hear and repeat many sūtras, but are not devoted doers; 寡淺比丘 monks who read and repeat few sutras but are devoted in their lives.

二種淸淨 Two kinds of purity, according to the Huayan sūtra; 自性淸淨 natural purity, i.e. the natural 眞如 purity; and 離垢淸淨 acquired purity through avoiding pollution.

二種涅槃 Two nirvanas: (1) 有餘涅槃 also 有餘依 That with a remnant; the cause 因 has been annihilated, but the remnant of the effect 果 still remains, so that a saint may enter this nirvana during life, but have to continue to live in this mortal realm till the death of his body. (2) 無餘涅槃 or 無餘依 Remnantless nirvāṇa, without cause and effect, the connection with the chain of mortal life being ended, so that the saint enters upon perfect nirvāṇa on the death of the body; cf. 智度論 31. Another definition is that Hīnayāna has further transmigration, while Mahāyāna maintains final nirvana. "Nothing remnaining" is differently interpreted in different schools, by some literally, but in Mahāyāna generally, as meaning no further mortal suffering, i.e. final nirvāṇa.

二種灌頂 Two forms of esoteric baptism, v. 灌.

二種舍利 Two kinds of relics— the whole body, or parts of it. Also, the Buddha's physical remains or relics, and the sutras, which form his spiritual (dharmakāya) remains.

二種菩薩 Monastic and lay bodhisattvas.

二種菩薩身 A bodhisattva's mortal and immortal bodies.

二種病 Two kinds of sickness: physical and mental or spiritual.

二種聖 Two classes of saints or, preachers: those who preach and those who preach without words.

二種資糧 The two kinds of (spiritual) provender: charity and wisdom.

二種邪見 The two false views, one that of a nihilistic school which denied that earthly happiness is dependent on a moral life; the other a materialistic school which maintained the moral life in the interests of self, sought earthly happiness, and failed to apprehend nirvāṇa.

二種闡提 (二種一闡提) Two kinds of icchantika, q.v.: (a) the utterly depraved, abandoned, and blasphemers of Buddha-truth; (b) bodhisattvas who refuse to enter upon their Buddhahood in order to save all beings.


二空 The two voids, unrealities, or immaterialities; v. 空. There are several antitheses: (1) (a) 人空; 我空 The non-reality of the atman, the soul, the person; (6) 法空 the non-reality of things. (2) (a) 性空 The Tiantai division that nothing has a nature of its own; (b) 相空 therefore its form is unreal, i.e. forms are temporary names. (3) (a) 但空 Tiantai says the 藏 and 通 know only the 空; (b) 不但空 the 別 and 圓 have 空, 假, and 中 q.v. (4) (a) 如實空 The division of the 起信論 that the 眞如 is devoid of all impurity; (b) 如實不空 and full of all merit, or achievement.

二空觀 Two kinds of meditation on the 'void', or unreality: (a) 無生觀 the meditation that things are unproduced, having no individual or separate natures, i.e. that all things are void and unreal; cf. 性空; (b) 無相觀 that they are therefore formless, cf. 相空. Also 人 and 法空觀 see above.

二答 Two kinds of reply, one by words, the other by signs.

二經體 The two bodies or elements in a sūtra: 文 and 義 the words and the meaning, or ideas.

二罪 The two classes of offence: (a) 性罪 crime which is wrong in itself, e.g. murder, etc.; (b) 遮罪 crime not wrong in itself, e.g. taking alcohol, but forbidden by the Buddha for the sake of the other commandments; transgression of this is therefore a sin against the Buddha.

二美 Two excellent things, i.e. meditation and wisdom.

二義 The two meanings or teachings, partial and complete; v. 二教.

二翼 A pair of wings: charity and wisdom.

二聖 Śākyamuni and Prabhūtaratna 多寶.

二脇士 二挾侍 The two attendants by the side of Amitābha, i.e. 觀音 Guanyin and 大勢至 Mahāsthāmaprāpta; also the two by Yaoshi, the Master of Medicine, i.e. 日光 sunlight and 月光 moonlight; also the two by Śākyamuni, i.e. 文殊 Mañjuśrī and 普賢 Samantabhadra.

二般若 Two kinds of prajñā, or wisdom. (1) (a) 共般若 The prajñā of the three stages of śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and imperfect Bodhisattva schools; (b) 不共般若 the prajñā of the perfect Bodhisattva teaching—a Tiantai division. (2) (a) 世間般若 temporal prajñā; (b) 出世間般若 supernatural. (3) (a) 實相般若 The first part of the Prajñāpāramitā; (b) 觀照般若 the second part.

二色身 The two rūpakāya or incantation-bodies of a Buddha, his 報身 and 應身 or saṁbhogakāya and nirmāṇakāya, as distinguished from 法身 the dharmakāya.

二處三會 The two places from which the Buddha is supposed to have preached the Lotus Sūtra, i.e. the Vulture Peak, the sky, and again the Vulture Peak; the three assemblies are (1) those he addressed from the Peak, chapters 1 to the middle of the eleventh chapter; (2) those addressed from the sky, to the end of the twenty-second chapter; and (3) again those on the Vulture Peak, from the twenty-third chapter to the end.

二苦 Two kinds of suffering: within, e.g. sickness, sorrow; from without, e.g. calamities.

二藏 The two piṭakas or tripiṭakas, i.e. the Buddhist canon: (a) 聲聞藏 the Śrāvaka, or Hīnayāna canon: (b) 菩薩藏 the Bodhisattva, or Mahāyanā canon.

二衆 The two groups: the monks, or clergy; the laity who observe the five and the eight commands.

二行 Two classes of conduct: following wrong views; following wrong desires, or emotions. There are other pairs.

二衣 The two kinds of clothing: (a) 制衣 the regulation three robes for monks and five for nuns, which must be worn; (b) 聽衣optional garments.

二見 Two (wrong) views: (1) Looking on people grudgingly with regard to almsgiving and preaching the Buddha-truth. (2) (a) 有見 Holding to the real existence of (material) things; (b) 無見 holding to their entire unreality. (3) (a) 斷見 Holding to the view of total annihilation; (b) 常見 to that of permanence or immortality.

二覺 The two enlightenments: (1) The 起信論 has two—(a) 本覺 the immanent mind in all things, e.g. "which lighteth every man that cometh into the world", also defined as the 法身 dharmakāya; (b) 始覺 initial enlightenment or beginning of illumination; this initiation leads on to Buddhahood, or full enlightenment. (2) (a) 等覺 The fifty-first stage of a bodhisattva's 行 位 practice; (b) 妙覺 the fifty-second stage, or enlightenment of Buddhahood.(3) (a)自覺 A Buddha's own or natural enlightenment; (b) 覺他 his enlightening of all others.


二觀 The two universal bases of meditation: 事觀 the external forms, or the phenomenal, and 理觀 the real or underlying nature, i. e. practice and theory.

二解脫 Two kinds of deliverance, mukti or mokṣa: (1) (a) 有爲解脫 Active or earthly deliverance to arhatship; (b) 無爲解脫 nirvana-deliverance. (2) (a) 性淨解脫 The pure, original freedom or innocence; (b) 障盡解脫 deliverance acquired by the ending of all hindrances (to salvation). (3) (a) 慧解脫 The arhat's deliverance from hindrances to wisdom; (b) 具解脫 his complete deliverance in regard to both wisdom and vision 慧 and 定. (4) (a) 時解脫 The dull who take time or are slow in attaining to 定 vision; (b) 不時解脫 the quick or clever who take "no time". (5) (a) 心解脫 A heart or mind delivered from desires; (b) 慧解脫 a mind delivered from ignorance by wisdom.

Two kinds of statement, or definition: 遮 latent or negative and 表 patent or positive; e. g. 不生不滅 is a negative statement, 知見覺照 is a positive statement.

二語 Double-tongued; also 二舌.

Two forms of statement: (a) 俗諦 saṃvṛti-satya, also called 世諦, 世俗諦, 覆俗諦, 覆諦, meaning common or ordinary statement, as if phenomena were real; (b) 眞諦 paramartha-satya, also called 第一諦, 勝義諦, meaning the correct dogma or averment of the enlightened. Another definition is 王法 and 佛法, royal law and Buddha law.

Ālaya-vijñāna and mano-vijñāna; i. e. 阿梨耶 | and 分別事 |; v. 識.

The two protectors: the inner, oneself, by studying and following the Law; the outer, those who supply what is needful for one's body and mind, e. g. supporters.

The two kinds of poverty: of goods, and of the religion.

Two ways of passing over (to bliss): 豎 the lengthwise, or long way (of Hīnayāna); and 橫 the crosswise, or short way of Mahāyāna.

A man's two legs, compared to goodness and wisdom, 福 being counted as the first five of the pāramitās, 智 as the sixth; v. 六度. 二足尊 The honoured one among bipeds or men, i. e. a Buddha; cf. 兩足.

Two forms of body; there are numerous pairs, e. g. (1) (a) 分段身 The varied forms of the karmic or ordinary mortal body, or being; (b) 變易身 the transformable, or spiritual body. (2) (a) 生身 The earthly body of the Buddha; (b) 化身 his nirmāṇakāya, which may take any form at will. (3) (a) 生身 his earthly body; (b) 法身 his moral and mental nature—a Hīnayāna definition, but Mahāyāna takes his earthly nirmāṇakāya as the 生身 and his dharmakāya or that and his saṃbhogakāya as 法身. (4) 眞應二身 The dharmakāya and nirmāṇakāya. (5) (a) 實相身 The absolute truth, or light, of the Buddha, i. e. the dharmakāya; (b) 爲物身 the functioning or temporal body. (6) (a) 眞身 the dharmakāya and saṃbhogakāya; (b) 化身 the nirmāṇakāya. (7) (a) 常身 his permanent or eternal body; (b) 無常身 his temporal body. (8) (a) 實身 and 化身 idem 二色身.

The two wheels of a cart compared by the Tiantai school to 定 (or to its Tiantai form 止觀) and 慧 meditation and wisdom; see 止觀 5. Also 食 food and 法 the doctrine, i. e. food physical and spiritual.

The two Ways: (1) (a) 無礙道 or 無間道 The open or unhindered way, or the way of removing all obstacles or intervention, i. e. all delusion; (b) 解脫道 the way of release, by realization of truth. (2) (a) 難行道 The hard way of "works", i. e. by the six pāramitā and the disciplines. (b) 易行道 the easy way salvation, by the invocation of Amitābha. (3) (a) 有漏道 The way of reincarnation or mortality; (b) 無漏 the enlightened way of escape from the miseries of transmigration. (4) (a) 教道 The way of instruction; (b) 證道 the way of realization. (5) The two lower excretory organs.

The two sides, extremes, or antitheses.


二邊(1) (a) 有邊 That things exist; (6) 無邊 that since nothing is self-existent, things cannot be said to exist. (2) (a) 增益邊 The plus side, the common belief in a soul and permanence; (b) 損減邊 the minus side, that nothing exists even of karma. (3) (a) 斷邊見 and (b) 常邊見 annihilation and immortality; v. 見.

二部五部 The two are the divisions which took place immediately after the Buddha's death into (a) the elder monks or intimate disciples, and (b) the general body of disciples, styled respectively 上座 and 大衆 q.v.; the five are the divisions, which are said to have occurred a century later, into Dharma-guptah 曇無德, Mulasarvastivadah 薩婆多, Mahisasakah 彌沙塞, Kasyapiyah迦葉遣 and Vatsiputriya 姿麤富羅.

二量 The two "measurings," or parts of a syllogism : (a) 現量 appearance, e.g. smoke; (b) 比量 inference, e.g. fire from smoke.

二門 Two doors, entrances, schools, etc. There are many such pairs.

二際 The two borders, or states: according to Hīnayāna, nirvana and mortality; according to Mahāyāna the two are one.

二障 The two hindrances:(1) (a) 煩惱障 The passions and delusion which aid rebirth and hinder entrance into nirvana; (b) 智障 or所知障, worldly wisdom e.g. accounting the seeming as real, a hindrance to true wisdom. (2) (a) 煩惱障 as above; (b) 解脱障 hindrances to deliverance. (3) (a)理障 hindrances to truth; (b) 事障 hindrances of the passions, etc.

二頓 The two immediate or direct ways to perfection, as defined by Jingxi 荊溪 of the Huayan school; the gradual direct way of the Lotus; the direct way of the Huayan sutra, which is called the 頓頓頓圓, while that of the Lotus is called the 漸頓漸圓.

二類各生 The Pure Land will not be limited to those who repeat the name of Amitābha according to his eighteenth vow; but includes those who adopt other ways (as shown in his nineteenth and twentieth vows).

二類種子 v. 二種子.

二食 The two kinds of food: (1) (a) The joy of the Law; (b) the bliss of meditation. (2) (a)The right kind of monk's livelihood - by mendicancy; (b) the wrong kind - by any other means.

二餘 see 餘.

二鳥 The drake and the hen of the mandarin duck who are always together, typifying various contrasted theories and ideas, e.g. permanence and impermanence, joy and sorrow, emptiness and non-emptiness, etc.

二鼠 The black and white rats - night and day.

manuṣya; nara; puruṣa; pudgala. Man, the sentient thinking being in the desire-realm, whose past deeds affect his present condition.

人尊 The Honoured One among or of men, the Buddha.

人分陀利華 A Lotus among men, a Buddha, also applied to all who invoke Amitābha. 人師子; 人師(or 獅)子.

人雄師子 A Lion among men, a Buddha.

人樹 The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha.

人尊牛王 The Lord of the herd. These and other similar terms are applied to the Buddha.

人尊三惡 The three most wicked among men: the Icchantika; v. 一闡提: the slanderers of Mahayana, and those who break the four great commandments.

人中尊 The Honoured One among or of men, the Buddha.

人中分陀利華 A Lotus among men, a Buddha, also applied to all who invoke Amitabha.

人中師子 人師(or 獅)子; 人雄師子 A Lion among men, a Buddha.

人中樹 The Tree among men, giving shelter as the bodhi-tree, a Buddha.

人乘 One of the five vehicles, v. 五乘, that of the five commandments, the keeping of which ensures rebirth in the world of men.

人人本具 Every man has by origin the perfect Buddha-nature.

人仙 The ṛṣi jina, or immortal among men, i.e. the Buddha; also a name for Bimbisāra in his reincarnation.

人伽藍 This is given by Eitel as 'Narasaṃghārāma of Kapisa,' But this is doubtful.

人吉庶 mānuṣa-kṛtya; demons shaped like men; domestic slaves, introduced into Kashmir by Madhyāntika; also intp. as "work to be done by men."

人因 The causative influences for being reborn as a human being, i.e. a good life. Those in positions of honour have obtained them by former deeds of benevolence, reverence to Buddhas and monks, patience, humility, devotion to the sutras, charity, morality, zeal and exhortation, obedience, loyalty - hence they have obtained affluence, long life, and are held in high regard. Those in mean condition are thus born because of the opposite characteristics in previous incarnation.


人執 The (false) tenet of a soul, or ego, or permanent individual, i.e. that the individual is real, the ego an independent unit and not a mere combination of the five skandhas produced by cause and in effect disintegrating; v. 我執.

人天 Men and devas.

人天乘 Two of the 五乘 q.v.

人天教 Two of the 五教 q.v.

人天眼目 A summary of the teaching of the 禪 Chan sect by Zhizhao 智照 of the Song dynasty.

人天勝妙善果 The highest forms of reincarnation、i.e. those of devas and men.

人定 The third beat of the first watch, 9-11 p.m., when men are settled for the night.

人寳 The treasure of men, Buddha.

人尊 idem 人中尊.

人師 A leader or teacher of men.

人師子 nṛsiṃha. The Lion of men, Buddha as leader and commander.

人獅子 Same as 人師子.

人我 Personality, the human soul, i.e. the false view, 人我見 that every man has a permanent lord within 常一生宰, which he calls the ātman, soul, or permanent self, a view which forms the basis of all erroneous doctrine. Also styled 人見; 我見; 人執; cf. 二我.

人有 Human bhāva or existence, one of the 七有.

人法 Men and things; also, men and the Buddha's law, or teaching.

人無我 Man as without ego or permanent soul; cf. 人我 and 二無我. Other similar terms are 衆生無我; 生空; 人空 and我空.

人無我智 The knowledge, or wisdom, of anātman, cf. 人無我.

人空 Man is only a temporary combination formed by the five skandhas and the twelve nidānas, being the product of previous causes, and without a real self or permanent soul. Hīnayāna is said to end these causes and consequent reincarnation by discipline in subjection of the passions and entry into nirvana by the emptying of the self. Mahāyāna fills the "void" with the Absolute, declaring that when man has emptied himself of the ego he realizes his nature to be that of the absolute, bhūtatathatā; v. 二空.

人空觀 The meditation on, or insight into the selflessness of person 人空.

人莽娑 Human māṃsa or flesh.

人摩娑 Human māṃsa or flesh.

人藥王 Human-touch healing prince, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation, whose touch healed all diseases, as did the application of his powdered bones after his decease in that incarnation.

人趣 人道 The human stage of the six gati, or states of existence.

人身 The human body, or person.

人身牛Cattle in human shape, stupid ignorant, heedless.

人雄師子 idem 人中師子.

人非人 A being resembling but not a human being, i.e. a kinnara.

人頭幢 A human head at the top of a daṇḍa or flagpole, used as one of Yama's symbols; v. 檀茶 (or 檀拏).

人鬼 Men and disembodied spirits, or demons; disembodied ghosts.

To enter, entry, entrance; come, bring or take in; at home; awaken to the truth; begin to understand; to relate the mind to reality and thus evolve knowledge.

六入 The "six entries" ṣaḍāyatana, which form one of the links in the chain of causaton, v. 十二因緣 the preceding link being觸contact, and the succeeding link 識 perception. The six are the qualities and effects of the six organs of sense producing sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and thought (or mental presentations). v. also 二入.

入不二門 To enter the school of monism, i.e. that the 一實one great reality is universal and absolute without differentiation.


入住出三心 Entrance, stay, exit; v. 入心.

入佛 The bringing in of an image of a Buddha.

入佛供養 The ceremony of bringing in a Buddha's image.

入佛平等戒 The Buddha-law by which all may attain to Buddhahood.

入信 To believe, or enter into belief.

入出二門 The two doors of ingress and egress, i.e. enter the gate of self-purification and adornment, then go forth 出 to benefit and save others.

入嚩羅 . Flaming, blazing, glowing (jvālā).

入堂 v. 入衆.

入堂五法 v. 入衆.

入塔 To inter the bones or body of a monk in a dagoba; v. 入骨.

入壇 To go to the altar (for baptism, in the esoteric sect).

入定 To enter into meditation by tranquillizing the body, mouth (i.e. lips), and mind, 身口意.

入室 To enter the master's study for examination or instruction; to enter the status of a disciple, but strictly of an advanced disciple. To receive consecration.

入寂 To inter into rest, or nirvana; also, to die. Also 入滅 or 入寂滅.

入唐八家 The eight Japanese who came to China in the Tang dynasty and studied the 密教esoteric doctrine.

入心 To enter the heart, or mind; also used for 入地 entering a particular state, its three stages being 入住出 entry, stay, and exit.

入我我入 He in me and I in him, i.e. the indwelling of the Buddha, any Buddha, or the Buddhas.

入文解釋 The method in expounding scriptures of giving the main idea before proceeding to detailed exposition.

入流 Srota-apama, v. 須陀洹.

入滅 idem 入寂.

入王宮聚落衣 The monk's robe, worn equally for a palace, or for begging in town or hamlet.

入重玄門 To enter again through the dark gate into mortality, e.g. as a bodhisattva does, even into the hells, to save the suffering. Another interpretation is the return of a bodhisattva to common life for further enlightenment.

入聖 To become an arhat.

入衆 To enter the assembly (of monks); also 交衆.

入衆五法 Five rules for the entrant - submission, kindness, respect, recognition of rank or order, and none but religious conversation.

入觀 To enter into meditation; it differs from 入定 as 定 means 自心之寂靜 complete stillness of the mind, while 觀 means 自觀照理 thought and study for enlightenment in regard to truth.

入道 To become a monk, 出家入道; to leave home and enter the Way.

入骨 To inter the bones (of a monk) in a stūpa, or a grave.

入龕 Entering, or putting into the casket (for cremation); i.e. encoffining a dead monk.

aṣṭa, eight.

八不 The eight negations of Nagarjuna, founder of the Mādhyamika or Middle School 三論宗. The four pairs are "neither birth nor death, neither end nor permanence, neither identity nor difference, neither coming nor going." These are the eight negations; add "neither cause nor effect"and there are the 十不 ten negations; v. 八迷.

八不中觀 See 八不正觀.

八不正觀 Meditation on the eight negations 八不. These eight, birth, death, etc., are the 八迷 eight misleading ideas, or 八計 eight wrong calculations. No objection is made to the terms in the apparent, or relative, sense 俗諦, but in the real or absolute sense 眞諦 these eight ideas are incorrect, and the truth lies between them ; in the relative, mortality need not be denied, but in the absolute we cannot speak of mortality or immortality. In regard to the relative view, beings have apparent birth and apparent death from various causes, but are not really born and do not really die, i.e. there is the difference of appearance and reality. In the absolute there is no apparent birth and apparent death. The other three pairs are similarly studied.


八不可越 idem 八敬戒.

八不思議 The eight inexpressibles, or things surpassing thought, i.e. eight qualities of the ocean (depth, extent, etc.) in illustration of nirvāṇa; v. 大海.

八不正見 The teaching of the 大集經 26, on the eight incorrect views in regard to (1) 我見 the existence of a permanent ego; (2) 衆生見 the five skandhas as not the constituents of the living; (3)壽命見 fate, or determination of length of life; (4) 士夫見a creator; (5)常見 permanence; (6) 斷見 annihilation; (7) 有見 the reality of things; (8) 無見 their unreality.

八不淨 The eight things "unclean" to monks, of which there are different groups. 0ne group is - to keep gold, silver, male slaves, female slaves, cattle, stores, or to trade or farm. Another is - to own cultivated lands, to farm, keep supplies of grain and silk, servants, animals or birds, money, cushions and pans, and furniture and gilded beds.

八不顯實 By the eight negations of the Mādhyamika doctrine, the true reality of things is shown.

八中洲 Each of the "four continents" has two other continents, i.e. Jambudvīpa has Cāmara and Varacāmara; Pūrvavideha has Deha and Videha; Aparagodānīya has Śaṭhā and Uttaramantriṇaḥ; and Uttarakuru has Kuravaḥ and Kaurava; v. 四洲.

八乾 The eight skandhas, or sections of the Abhidharma, v. 八犍度.

八事隨身 The eight appurtenances of a monk - three garments, bowl, stool, filter, needle and thread, and chopper.

八五三二 The four special characteristics of the 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect, i.e. 八識, 五法, 三性, and 二無我 q.v.

八交道 The eight roads in the eight directions, bounded with golden cords, mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra as in certain Buddha-realms.

八佛 Eight Buddhas of the eastern quarter.

八位 The classification or grades of disciples according to the Tiantai 圓教 perfect teaching, i.e. (1) 觀行卽 grade of the five classes, or stages, of lay disciples; (2) 相似卽 grade of the ten classes of or ordinary monks and nuns; above these are the 分眞卽bodhisattva stages of those progressing towards Buddhahood i.e. (3) 十住, (4) 十行, (5) 十廻向, (6) 十地, (7) 等覺, and (8) the perfect or Buddha stage 究竟卽, i.e. 妙覺. Cf. 六卽.

八位胎藏 The eight stages of the human foetus: 羯羅藍 kalala, the appearance after the first week from conception; 額部曇 arbuda, at end of second week; 閉尸 peśī, third; 健南 ghana, fourth; 鉢羅奢法 praśākhā, limbs formed during fifth week; sixth, hair, nails, and teeth; seventh, the organs of sense, eyes, ears, nose, and tongue; and eighth, complete formation.

八倒 v. 八顚倒.

八億四千萬念 The myriads of "thoughts", or moments in a single day and night, each with its consequences of good and evil; probably 8,400,000,000 is meant.

八勝處 The eight victorious stages, or degrees, in meditation for overcoming desire, or attachment to the world of sense; v. 八解脫.

八十 aśīti, eighty.

八十一品思惑 The eighty-one kinds of illusion, or misleading thoughts, arising out of desire, anger, foolishness, and pride - nine grades in each of the nine realms of desire, of form and beyond form.

八十一法 The eighty-one divisions in the Prajñā-pāramitā sūtra 大般若經 comprising form 色; mind 心; the five skandhas 五陰; twelve means of sensation 入; eighteen realms 界; four axioms 諦; twelve nidānas因緣; eighteen śūnya 空; six pāramitā 度, and four jñāna 智. Also 八十一科.

八十種好 八十隨形好 The eighty notable physical characteristics of Buddha; cf. 三十二相.

八十華嚴經 The translation of the Hua-yen 華嚴經 in eighty chüan, made by Śikṣānanda in the T'ang dynasty.

八十誦律 The original Vinaya recited by the Buddha's disciple Upāli eighty times during the summer retreat, while the Tripiṭaka was being composed after the Buddha's death.

八句義 The eight fundamental principles, intuitional or relating to direct mental vision, of the Ch'an (Zen) School, 禪宗 q.v.; they are 正法眼藏; 涅槃妙心; 實相無情;微妙法門; 不立文字; 教外別傳; 直指人心; 見性成佛.


八味 The eight savours (or pleasures) of the Buddha's nirvāṇa: 常住 perpetual abode, 寂滅extinction (of distress, etc.), 不老 eternal youth, 不死 immortality, 淸淨 purity, 虛通 absolute freedom (as space), 不動 imperturbility, and 快樂 joy.

八囀聲 (八囀) The eight cases of nouns in Sanskrit, termed Subanta, 蘇漫多, i.e. nirdeśa, upadeśana, kartṛkaraṇa, sampradāna, apādāna, svāmivacana, saṁnidhānārtha, āmahtraṇa.

八圓 Eight fundamental characteristics of a 圓教 complete or perfect school of teaching, which must perfectly express 教, 理, 智, 斷, 行, 位, 因, and 果.

八塔 idem 八大靈塔.

八墮 idem 八波羅夷.

八多羅樹 As high as eight tāla (palmyra) trees, very high.

八大地獄 (八大) The eight great naraka, or hot hells: (1) sañjīva 等活 hell of rebirth into (2) kāla-sūtra 黑繩, i.e. the hell of black cords or chains; (3) saṅghāta 衆合, in which all are squeezed into a mass between two mountains falling together; (4) raurava 號呌; hell of crying and wailing; (5) mahāraurava 大號呌 hell of great crying; (6) tapana 炎熱 hell of burning; (7) pratāpana 大熱 hell of fierce heat; (8) avīci 無間 unintermitted rebirth into its sufferings with no respite. v. 地獄 and 八寒地獄.

八大明王 The eight diamond-kings, or bodhisattvas, in their representations as fierce guardians of Vairocana 大日; 金剛手 is represented as 降三世; 妙吉祥; as 大威德;虛空藏as大笑; 慈氏 as 大輪; 觀自在 as 馬頭; 地藏 as 無能勝明; 除蓋障 as 不動尊 and 普賢as歩擲.

八大在我 The eight great powers of personality or sovereign independence, as one of the four qualities 常樂我淨 of nirvāṇa: powers of self-manifolding, infinite expansion, levitation and transportation, manifesting countless forms permanently in one and the same place, use of one physical organ in place of another, obtaining all things as if nothing, expounding a stanza through countless kalpas, ability to traverse the solid as space. v. 涅槃經 23.

八大菩薩 see 八大明王. Another group is given in the 八大菩薩曼荼羅經; another in the 樂師經 translated by Yijing; another in the 八大菩薩經 translated by Faxian; and there are other groups.

八大觀音 The eight Shingon representations of Guanyin: as one of the above 八大明王, as the white-robed one, as a rākṣasī, as with four faces, as with a horse's head, as Mahāsthāmaprāpta 大勢至, and as Tārā 陀羅.

八大辛苦 idem 八苦.

八大童子 The eight messengers of 不動明王, also known as 八大金剛童子; Mañjuśrī also has eight.

八大金剛明王 or 八大金剛童子The eight attendants on 不動明王 (cf. 八大明王). They are 慧光, 慧喜, 阿耨達多, 指德, 烏倶婆迦, 淸德, 矜羯羅, and制吒迦.

八大靈塔 The eight great "spirit", or sacred stūpas erected at (1) Kapilavastu, Buddha's birthplace; (2) Magadha, where he was first enlightened; (3) the deer-park Benares, where he first preached; (4) Jetavana, where he revealed his supernatural powers; (5) Kanyākubja (Kanauj), where he descended from Indra's heavens; (6) Rājagṛha, where Devadatta was destroyed and the Saṅgha purifed; (7) Vaiśāli, where he announced his speedy nirvana; (8) Kuśinagara, where he entered nirvāṇa. There is another slightly variant list.

八字 The eight leading characters of the 聖行 chapter in the Nirvāṇa sūtra 生滅滅巳寂滅爲樂, the teaching of the sūtra is death, or nirvāṇa, as entry into joy.

八字布字 The eight magic words to be placed on eight parts of the body.

八字文殊法 The eight-word dhāraṇī, esoteric methods connected with Vairocana and Mañjuśrī.

八天 The eight devalokas, i.e. four dhyāna devalokas of the region of form, and four arūpalokas; 四禪天 and 四空處.


八定 The eight degrees of fixed abstraction, i.e. the four dhyānas corresponding to the four divisions in the heavens of form, and the four degrees of absolute fixed abstraction on the 空 or immaterial, corresponding to the arūpadhātu, i.e. heavens of formlessness.

八宗 or 八家 Eight of the early Japanese sects: 倶舍 Kusha, 成實 Jōjitsu, 律 Ritsu, 法相Hossō, 三論 Sanron, 華嚴 Kegon, 天台 Tendai, 眞言 Shingon.

八宗九宗 八家九宗 The eight Japanese schools 八宗 with the Zen 禪 school added. The first four are almost or entirely extinct.

八寒八熱 The eight cold and eight hot hells.

八寒地獄 Also written 八寒冰地獄. The eight cold narakas, or hells: (1) 頞浮陀 arbuda, tumours, blains; (2) 泥羅浮陀 nirarbuda, enlarged tumors; 疱裂bursting blains; (3) 阿叱叱 aṭaṭa, chattering (teeth); (4) 阿波波 hahava, or ababa, the only sound possible to frozen tongues; (5) 嘔侯侯ahaha, or hahava, ditto to frozen throats; (6) 優鉢羅 utpala, blue lotus flower, the flesh being covered with sores resembling it; (7) 波頭摩padma, red lotus flower, ditto; (8) 分陀利puṇḍarīka, the great lotus, ditto. v. 地獄 and大地獄.

八尊重法 idem 八敬戒.

八師 The eight teachers―murder, robbery, adultery, lying, drinking, age, sickness, and death; v. 八師經.

八忍 The eight kṣānti, or powers of patient endurance, in the desire-realm and the two realms above it, necessary to acquire the full realization of the truth of the Four Axioms, 四諦; these four give rise to the 四法忍, i.e. 苦, 集, 滅, 道法忍, the endurance or patient pursuit that results in their realization. In the realm of form and the formless, they are called the 四類忍. By patient meditation the 見惑 false or perplexed views will cease, and the八智 eight kinds of jñāna or gnosis be acquired; therefore 智 results from忍 and the sixteen, 八忍八智 (or 觀), are called the 十六心, i.e. the sixteen mental conditions during the stage of 見道, when 惑 illusions or perplexities of view are destroyed. Such is the teaching of the 唯識宗. The 八智 are 苦, 集, 滅,道法智 and 苦, etc. 類智.

八念法 Or 八念門. Eight lines of thought, in the智度論 21 , for resisting Māra-attacks and evil promptings during the meditation on impurity, etc.; i.e. thought of the Buddha, of the Law (or Truth), the fraternity, the commandments, alms-giving, the devas, breathing, and death. There are also the 大人八念 , i.e. that truth 道 is obtained through absence of desire, contentment, aloneness, zeal, correct thinking, a fixed mind, wisdom, and inner joy. v. 八念經.

八思巴 Also 發思巴 Bashpa, Phagspa, Baghcheba, Blo-gros-rgyal-mtshah, Chos-rgyal-ḥphags-pa. A śramaṇa of Tibet, teacher and confidential adviser of Kublai Khan, who appointed him head of the Buddhist church of Tibet A.D. 1260. He is the author of a manual of Buddhist terminology彰所知論 and translated another work into Chinese. In A.D. 1269 he constructed an alphabet for the Mongol language, "adapted from the Tibetan and written vertically," and a syllabary borrowed from Tibetan, known by the name of Hkhor-yig, for which, however, the Lama Chos-kyi-hod-zer 1307-1311 substituted another alphabet based on that of Śākya-paṇḍita.

八慢 The eight kinds of pride, māna, arrogance, or self-conceit, 如慢 though inferior, to think oneself equal to others (in religion); 慢慢 to think oneself superior among manifest superiors; 不如慢 to think oneself not so much inferior among manifest superiors; 增上慢 to think one has attained more than is the fact, or when it is not the fact; 我慢 self-superiority, or self-sufficiency; 邪慢 pride in false views, or doings; 憍慢 arrogance; 大慢 extreme arrogance.

八憍 The eight kinds of pride, or arrogance, resulting in domineering: because of strength; of clan, or name; of wealth; of independence, or position; of years, or age; of cleverness, or wisdom; of good or charitable deeds; of good looks. Of these, eight birds are named as types: 鴟梟 two kinds of owl, eagle, vulture, crow, magpie, pigeon, wagtail.

八成 idem 八相成道. 八成立因 The eight factors of a Buddhist syllogism.

八戒 (八戒齋) The first eight of the ten commandments, see 戒; not to kill; not to take things not given; no ignoble (i.e. sexual) conduct; not to speak falsely; not to drink wine; not to indulge in cosmetics, personal adornments, dancing, or music; not to sleep on fine beds, but on a mat on the ground; and not to eat out of regulation hours, i.e. after noon. Another group divides the sixth into two―against cosmetics and adornments and against dancing and music; the first eight are then called the eight prohibitory commands and the last the 齋 or fasting commandment. Also 八齋戒; 八關齋 (八支齋) ; cf. 八種勝法.


八教 The eight Tiantai classifications of Śākyamuni's teaching, from the Avataṁsaka to the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras, divided into the two sections (1) 化法四教 his four kinds of teaching of the content of the Truth accommodated to the capacity of his disciples; (2) 化儀四教 his four modes of instruction. (1) The four 化法教 are: (a) 三藏教 The Tripiṭaka or Hīnayāna teaching, for śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, the bodhisattva doctrine being subordinate; it also included the primitive śūnya doctrine as developed in the Satyasiddhi śāstra. (b) 教通His later "intermediate" teaching which contained Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna doctrine for śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, to which are attributed the doctrines of the Dharmalakṣaṇa or Yogācārya and Mādhyamika schools. (c) 別教 His differentiated , or separated, bodhisattva teaching, definitely Mahāyāna. (d) 圓教 His final, perfect, bodhisattva, universal teaching as preached, e.g. in the Lotus and Nirvāṇa sūtras. (2) The four methods of instruction 化儀 are: (a) 頓教 Direct teaching without reserve of the whole truth, e.g. the 華嚴 sūtra. (b) 漸教 Gradual or graded, e.g. the 阿含, 方等, and 般若 sūtras; all the four 化法 are also included under this heading. (c) 祕密教 Esoteric teaching, only understood by special members of the assembly. (d) 不定教 General or indeterminate teaching, from which each hearer would derive benefit according to his interpretation.

八敬戒 The eight commands given by the Buddha to his foster-mother, i.e. aunt, when she was admitted to the order, and which remain as commands to nuns: (1) even though a hundred years old a nun must pay respect to a monk, however young, and offer her seat to him; (2) must never scold a monk; (3) never accuse, or speak of his misdeeds; but a monk may speak of hers; (4) at his hands obtain reception into the order; (5) confess sin (sexual or other) before the assembly of monks and nuns; (6) ask the fraternity for a monk as preceptor; (7) never share the same summer resort with monks; (8) after the summer retreat she must report and ask for a responsible confessor. Also 八敬法; 八不可越法 (or 八不可過法) ; 八尊重法; v. 四分律 48.

八支 idem 八正道 also the eight sections of the 八支 śāstra; also a term for the first eight commandments.

八方上下 The four quarters, the four 維 half-quarters and above and below, i.e. the universe in all directions.

八方天 The eight heavens and devas at the eight points of the compass: E., the Indra, or Śakra heaven; S., the Yama heaven; W., the Varuna, or water heaven; N., the Vaiśramana, or Pluto heaven; N.E., the Īśāna, or Śiva heaven; S.E., the Homa, or fire heaven; S.W., the Nirṛti, or Rakṣa heaven; N.W., the Vāyu, or wind heaven. All these may be considered as devalokas or heavens.

八時 An Indian division of the day into eight "hours", four for day and four for night.

八智 The 四法智 and 四類智; see 八忍.

八會 The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra, as delivered at eight assemblies.

八棄 idem 八波羅夷.

八正道 (八正道分) Āryamārga. The eight right or correct ways, the "eightfold noble path" for the arhat to nirvāṇa; also styled 八道船, 八正門, 八由行, 八游行, 八聖道支, 八道行, 八直行, 八直道. The eight are: (1) 正見Samyag-dṛṣṭi, correct views in regard to the Four Axioms, and freedom from the common delusion. (2) 正思 Samyak-saṁkalpa, correct thought and purpose. (3) 正語 Samyag-vāc, correct speech, avoidance of false and idle talk. (4) 正業 Samyak-karmānta, correct deed, or conduct, getting rid of all improper action so as to dwell in purity. (5) 正命 Smnyag-ājīva, correct livelihood or occupation, avoiding the five immoral occupations. (6) 正精進 Samyag-vyāyāma, correct zeal, or energy in uninterrupted progress in the way of nirvāṇa. (7) 正念 Samyak-smṛti, correct remembrance, or memory, which retains the true and excludes the false. (8) 正定 Samyak-samadhi, correct meditation, absorption, or abstraction. The 正 means of course Buddhist orthodoxy, anything contrary to this being 邪 or heterodox, and wrong.

八正道經 Buddha-bhāṣita-aṣṭaṅga-samyaṅ-mārga-sūtra. Tr. by An Shigao of the Eastern Han B.N.659; being an earlier translation of the Samyuktāgama 雜阿含經.


八水 Eight rivers of India—Ganges, Jumna, 薩羅? Sarasvatī, Hiraṇyavatī or Ajiravatī, 魔河? Mahī, Indus, Oxus, and Sītā.

八法 The eight dharmas, things, or methods. There are three groups: (1) idem 八風 q.v. (2) 四大and 四微 q.v. (3) The eight essential things, i.e. 教 instruction, 理 doctrine, 智 knowledge or wisdom attained, 斷 cutting away of delusion, 行 practice of the religious life, 位 progressive status, 因 producing 果 the fruit of saintliness. Of these 教理行果 are known as the 四法.

八波羅夷 or 八重罪 The eight pārājika, in relation to the sins of a nun; for the first four see 四波羅夷; (5) libidinous contact with a male; (6) any sort of improper association (leading to adultery); (7) concealing the misbehaviour (of an equal, or inferior); (8) improper dealings with a monk.

八海 v. 九山八海.

八無暇 The eight conditions of no leisure or time to hear a Buddha or his truth, idem 八難.

八無礙 The eight universalized powers of the六識 six senses, 意根 the mind and the 法界 dharmadhātu.

八熱地獄 v. 八大地獄.

八犍度 The eight skandhas or sections of the Abhidharma, i.e. miscellaneous; concerning bondage to the passions, etc.; wisdom; practice; the four fundamentals, or elements; the roots, or organs; meditation; and views. The 八犍論 in thirty sections, attributed to Kātyāyana, is in the Abhidharma.

八王子 The eight sons of the last of the 20,000 shining Buddhas 燈明佛 born before he left home to become a monk; their names are given in the first chapter of the Lotus sūtra. In Japan there are also eight sons of a Shinto deity, reincarnated as one of the six Guanyin.

八王日 The eight royal days, i.e. the solstices, the equinoxes, and the first day of each of the four seasons.

八由行 also 八直行 (or 道) idem 八正道.

八相成道 (八相) also 八相示現 Eight aspects of the Buddha's life, which the 起信論 gives as: (1) descent into and abode in the Tuṣita heaven; (2) entry into his mother's womb; (3) abode there visibly preaching to the devas; (4) birth from mother's side in Lumbinī; (5) leaving home at 19 (or 25) as a hermit; (6) after six years' suffering attaining enlightenment; (7) rolling the Law-wheel, or preaching; (8) at 80 entering nirvāṇa. The 四教義 group of Tiantai is slightly different — descent from Tuṣita, entry into womb, birth, leaving home, subjection of Māra, attaining perfect wisdom, preaching, nirvana. See also the two 四相, i.e. 四本相 and 四隨相.

八神變 idem 八變化.

八祖相承 The succession of the eight founders of the esoteric sect, 眞言 or Shingon, i.e. 大日, 金剛, 龍猛, 龍智, 金剛智, 不空, 惠果 and the Japanese 弘法.

八禁 idem 八戒.

八福生處 The eight happy conditions in which he may be reborn who keeps the five commands and the ten good ways and bestows alms: (1) rich and honourable among men; (2) in the heavens of the four deva kings; (3) the Indra heavens; (4) Suyāma heavens; (5) Tuṣita heaven; (6) 化樂nirmāṇarati heaven, i.e. the fifth devaloka; (7) 他化 Paranirmita-vaśavartin, i.e. the sixth devaloka heaven; (8) the brahma-heavens. 八福田 The eight fields for cultivating blessedness: Buddhas; arhats (or saints); preaching monks (upādhyāya); teachers (ācārya); friars; father; mother; the sick. Buddhas, arhats, and friars (or monks in general) are termed 敬田 reverence-fields; the sick are 悲田 compassion-fields; the rest are 恩田grace- or gratitude- fields. Another group is: to make roads and wells; canals and bridges; repair dangerous roads; be dutiful to parents; support monks; tend the sick; save from disaster or distress; provide for a quinquennial assembly. Another: serving the Three Precious Ones, i.e. the Buddha; the Law; the Order; parents; the monks as teachers; the poor; the sick; animals.


八種別解脫戒 Differentiated rules of liberation for the eight orders—monks; nuns; mendicants; novices male; and female; disciples male; and female; and the laity who observe the first eight commandments.

八種勝法 The eight kinds of surpassing things, i.e. those who keep the first eight commandments receive the eight kinds of reward―they escape from falling into the hells; becoming pretas; or animals; or asuras; they will be born among men, become monks, and obtain the truth; in the heavens of desire; in the brahma-heaven, or meet a Buddha; and obtain perfect enlightenment.

八種粥 The eight kinds of congee, or gruel, served by the citizens to the Buddha and his disciples when in retreat in the bamboo grove of Kāśī; they were of butter, or fats, or hempseed, milk, peas, beans, sesamum, or plain gruel.

八種 (布) 施 Eight causes of giving―convenience; fear; gratitude; reward-seeking; traditional (or customary); hoping for heaven; name and fame; personal virtue.

八種授記 The eight kinds of prediction―made known to self, not to others; to others not to self; to self and others; unknown to self or others; the near made known but the remote not; the remote made known but not the intermediate steps; near and remote both made known; near and remote both not made known.

八種法 idem 八戒; also eight divisions of the 五十法 q.v. | | 清風 Pleasant breezes from the eight directions of the compass.

八穢 Eight things unclean to a monk: buying land for self, not for Buddha or the fraternity; ditto cultivating; ditto laying by or storing up; ditto keeping servants (or slaves); keeping animals (for slaughter); treasuring up gold, etc.; ivory and ornaments; utensils for private use.

八童子 idem 八大金剛童子.

八筏 The eight rafts, idem 八正道 The eightfold noble path.

八纏The eight entanglements, or evils: to be without shame; without a blush; envious; mean; unregretful; sleepy (or indolent); ambitious; stupid (or depressed).

八聖 The 四向 and 四果 of śrāvakas.

八聖 (道支) idem 八正道.

八背捨 idem 八解脫.

八臂天 The eight-arm deva; an epithet of Brahma as Nārāyaṇadeva 那羅延天 creator of men.

八自在 idem 八變化 and 八大自在.

八色幡 The Amitābha eight pennons of various colours, indicating the eight directions of space.

八苦 The eight distresses―birth, age, sickness, death, parting with what we love, meeting with what we hate, unattained aims, and all the ills of the five skandhas.

八菩薩 idem 八大菩薩.

八萬 An abbreviation for 八萬四 (八萬四千) The number of atoms in the human body is supposed to be 84,000. Hence the term is used for a number of things, often in the general sense of a great number. It is also the age apex of life in each human world. There are the 84,000 stūpas erected by Aśoka, each to accommodate one of the 84.000 relics of the Buddha's body; also the 84,000 forms of illumination shed by Amitābha; the 84,000 excellent physical signs of a Buddha; the 84,000 mortal distresses, i.e. 84,000 煩惱 or 塵勞; also the cure found in the 84,000 methods, i.e. 法藏, 法蘊, 法門, or教門.

八萬十二 An abbreviation for 八萬四千法藏 the 84,000 teachings or lessons credited to the Buddha for the cure of all sufferings, and the二部經 12 sūtras in which they are contained.

八萬威儀 The bodhisattva's 80,000 duties.

八葉 The eight lotus-petals, a name for Sumeru.

八葉院 is the central court of the 胎藏界with Vairocana as its central figure, also termed 八葉蓮臺 or 八葉座 An esoteric name for the heart is the eight-petal fleshly heart, and being the seat of meditation it gives rise to the term eight-leaf lotus meditation.

八覺 The eight (wrong) perceptions or thoughts, i.e. desire; hate; vexation (with others); 親里 home-sickness; patriotism (or thoughts of the country's welfare); dislike of death; ambition for one's clan or family; slighting or being rude to others. 華嚴經 13.

八解脫 aṣṭa-vimokṣa, mokṣa, vimukti, mukti. Liberation, deliverance, freedom, emancipation, escape, release―in eight forms; also 八背捨 and cf. 解脫 and 八勝處. The eight are stages of mental concentration: (1) 内有色想觀外色解脱 Liberation, when subjective desire arises, by examination of the object, or of all things and realization of their filthiness. (2) 内無色想觀外色解脫 Liberation, when no subjective desire arises, by still meditating as above. These two are deliverance by meditation on impurity, the next on purity. (3) 淨身作證具足住解脫 Liberation by concentration on the pure to the realization of a permanent state of freedom from all desire. The above three "correspond to the four Dhyānas". (Eitel.) (4) 空無邊處解脫 Liberation in realization of the infinity of space, or the immaterial. (5) 識無邊處解脫 Liberation in realization of infinite knowledge. (6) 無所有處解脫Liberation in realization of nothingness, or nowhereness. (7) 非想非非想處解脫 Liberation in the state of mind where there is neither thought nor absence of thought. These four arise out of abstract meditation in regard to desire and form, and are associated with the 四空天. (8) 滅受 想定解脫 Liberation by means of a state of mind in which there is final extinction, nirvāṇa, of both sensation, vedanā, and consciousness, saṁjñā.


八觸 Eight physical sensations which hinder meditation in its early stages: restlessness, itching, buoyancy, heaviness, coldness, heat, roughness, smoothness. 止觀 8.

八論 The eight śāstras ; there are three lists of eight; one non-Buddhist; one by 無着 Asaṅga, founder of the Yoga School; a third by 陳那 Jina Dinnāga. Details are given in the 寄歸傳 4 and 解纜鈔 4.

八諦 The eight truths, postulates, or judgments of the 法相 Dharmalakṣana school, i.e. four common or mundane, and four of higher meaning. The first four are (1) common postulates on reality, considering the nominal as real, e.g. a pot; (2) common doctrinal postulates, e.g. the five skandhas; (3) abstract postulates, e.g. the four noble truths 四諦; and (4) temporal postulates in regard to the spiritual in the material. The second abstract or philosophical four are (5) postulates on constitution and function, e.g. of the skandhas; (6) on cause and effect, e.g. the 四諦; (7) on the void, the immaterial, or reality; and (8) on the pure inexpressible ultimate or absolute.

八識 The eight parijñāna, or kinds of cognition, perception, or consciousness. They are the five senses of cakṣur-vijñāna, śrotra-v., ghrāna-v., jihvā-v., and kāya-v., i.e. seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting, and touch. The sixth is mano-vijñāna, the mental sense, or intellect, v. 末那. It is defined as 意 mentality, apprehension, or by some as will. The seventh is styled kliṣṭa-mano-vijñāna 末那識 discriminated from the last as 思量 pondering, calculating; it is the discriminating and constructive sense, more than the intellectually perceptive; as infected by the ālaya-vijñāna., or receiving "seeds" from it, it is considered as the cause of all egoism and individualizing, i.e. of men and things, therefore of all illusion arising from assuming the seeming as the real. The eighth is the ālaya-vijñāna, 阿頼耶識 which is the storehouse, or basis from which come all "seeds"of consciousness. The seventh is also defined as the ādāna 阿陀那識 or "laying hold of" or "holding on to" consciousness.

八識心王 The eight fundamental powers of the 八識 and 八識心所 the eight powers functioning, or the concomitant sensations.

八識體一 The eight perceptions are fundamentally unity, opposed by the 唯識 school with the doctrine 八識體別 that they are fundamentally discrete.

八辯 Eight characteristics of a Buddha's speaking: never hectoring; never misleading or confused; fearless; never haughty; perfect in meaning; and in flavour; free from harshness; seasonable (or, suited to the occasion).

八變化 Eight supernatural powers of transformation, characteristics of every Buddha: (1) to shrink self or others, or the world and all things to an atom; (2) to enlarge ditto to fill all space; (3) to make the same light as a feather; (4) to make the same any size or anywhere at will; (5) everywhere and in everything to be omnipotent; (6) to be anywhere at will, either by self-transportation, or bringing the destination to himself, etc; (7) to shake all things (in the six, or eighteen ways); (8) to be one or many and at will pass through the solid or through space, or through fire or water, or transform the four elements at will, e.g. turn earth into water. Also 八神變; 八自在.

八輪 The eight (spoke) wheel, idem 八正道.

八輩 The eight grades, i.e. those who have attained the 四向 and 四果.

八迷 The eight misleading terms, which form the basis of the logic of the 中論, i.e. 生 birth, 滅 death, 去 past, 來 future, 一 identity, 異 difference, 斷 annihilation, 常 perpetuity (or eternity). The 三論宗 regards these as unreal; v. 八不中道.

八游行 idem 八正道.

八道 (八支 or 八船 or 八行) idem 八正道.


八遮 A 三論 term for 八不中道 q.v.

八邪 The eight heterodox or improper practices, the opposite of the eight correct paths八正道.

八部 (八部衆) The eight classes of supernatural beings in the Lotus sūtra: 天 deva, 龍 nāga, 夜叉yakṣa, 乾闥婆 gandharva, 阿修羅 asura, 迦樓羅 garuḍa, 緊那羅 kinnara, 摩喉羅迦 mahoraga. Also called 天龍八部 and 龍神八部.

八部鬼衆 The eight groups of demon-followers of the four mahārājas, i.e. gandharvas, piśācas, kumbhāṇḍas, pretas, nāgas, pūtanas, yakṣas, and rākṣasas.

八重眞寶 The eight weighty and truly precious things, i.e. the eight metals, which depend for evaluation on gold, the highest and greatest, used to illustrate the Buddha as supreme and the other classes in grades beneath him. Also 八重無價, i.e. the eight priceless things.

八門 (八門二悟 or 八門兩益) Eight kinds of syllogisms in Buddhist logic; v. 因明八正理諭. (1) 能立a valid proposition; (2) 能破 an invalid proposition; (3) 似能立 doubtful, or seemingly valid but faulty; (4) 似能破 seemingly invalid, and assailable; (5) 現量manifest, or evidential; (6) 比量 inferential; (7) 似現量 seemingly evidential; (8) 似比量 seemingly inferential.

八關齊 idem 八戒齊.

八難 The eight conditions in which it is difficult to see a Buddha or hear his dharma: in the hells: as hungry ghosts; as animals; in Uttarakuru (the northern continent where all is pleasant); in the long-life heavens (where life is long and easy); as deaf, blind, and dumb; as a worldly philosopher; in the intermediate period between a Buddha and his successor. Also 八無暇.

八音 The eight tones of a Buddha's voice―beautiful, flexible, harmonious, respect-producing, not effeminate (i.e. manly), unerring, deep and resonant.

八顚倒 The eight upside-down views: heretics believe in 常樂我淨 permanence, pleasure, personality, and purity; the two Hīnayāna vehicles deny these both now and in nirvāṇa. Mahāyāna denies them now, but asserts them in nirvāṇa. Also 八倒.

八風 The eight winds, or influences which fan the passions, i.e. gain, loss; defamation, eulogy; praise, ridicule; sorrow, joy. Also 八法.

八魔 The eight Māras, or destroyers: 煩惱魔 the māras of the passions; 陰魔 the skandha-māras, v. 五陰; 死魔 death-māra ; 他化自在天魔 the māra-king. The above four are ordinarily termed the four māras: the other four are the four Hīnayāna delusions of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. 無常 impermanence; 無樂 joylessness; 無我 impersonality; 無淨 impurity; cf. 八顚倒 .

八齋 (八齋戒) idem 八戒齋.

刀山 The hill of swords in one of the hells.

刀途 The gati or path of rebirth as an animal, so called because animals are subjects of the butcher's knife.

刀風 The wind that cuts all living beings to pieces—at the approach of a world-kalpa's end; also described as the disintegrating force at death.

bala; power, strength, of which there are several categories: 二力 power of choice and of practice; 三力 the power of Buddha; of meditation (samādhi) and of practice. 五力 pañcabala, the five powers of faith, zeal, memory (or remembering), meditation, and wisdom. 六力 A child's power is in crying; a woman's in resentment; a king's in domineering; an arhat's in zeal (or progress); a Buddha's in mercy; and a bhikṣu's in endurance (of despite) . 十力 q.v. The ten powers of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

力士 力者 vīra. A strong or mighty man, hero, demigod. Used for the Licchavi, also 離車; 梨車 (or 黎車); 栗呫媻. The terms 力士城 and 力士生地 are defined as Kuśinagara.

力者法師 A monk who degrades himself by becoming a fighter (e.g. boxer), or a slave.

力波羅蜜 The vīrya-pāramitā.

力波羅蜜菩薩 The bodhisattva vīrya-pāramitā. One of the twenty-eight honoured ones in the Garbhadhātu group.


力無畏 (力無所畏) The 力 is intp. as the ten powers of a Buddha, the 無所畏 are his four qualities of fearlessness.

力生 Power-born; one who is born from the Truth, a monk.

Daśa, ten, the perfect number.

十一 ekādaśa, eleven.

十一切處 Ten universals, or modes of contemplating the universe from ten aspects, i.e. from the viewpoint of earth, water, fire, wind blue, yellow, red, white, space, or mind. For example, contemplated under the aspect of water, then the universe is regarded as in flux and change. Also called 十禪支, 十遍處定. It is one of the 三法.

十一面觀音 The eleven-faced Guanyin, especially connected with tantric performances, ekādaśamukha; there are three or more sūtras on the subject.

十三 Trayodasa; thirteen.

十三佛 The thirteen Shingon rulers of the dead during the forty-nine days and until the thirty-third commemoration. The thirteen are 不動明王, 釋迦文殊, 普賢, 地藏, 彌勤, 藥師, 觀音, 勢至, 阿彌陀, 阿閦/, 大日and 虛空藏; each has his place, duties, magical letter, signs, etc.

十三力 The thirteen powers or bodhisattva balas of the Pure land school: 因力, 緣力, 意力, 願力, 方力, 常力, 善力, 定力, 慧力, 多聞力, 持戒忍辱精進禪定力, 正念正觀諸通明力, and如法調伏諸衆生力.

十三宗 The thirteen Buddhist schools of China v. 宗派.

十不二門 The school of the ten pairs of unified opposites founded by Jingxi 荊溪 on the teaching of the Lotus sūtra. There are several books bearing the name. The unifying principle is that of the identity of contraries, and the ten apparent contraries are matter and mind, internal and external, 修證 practice and proof (or realization), cause and effect, impurity and purity, objective and subjective, self and other, 三業 action, speech, and thought, 權實 relative and absolute, the fertilized and the fertilizer (i.e. receiver and giver). There are several treatises on the subject in the Canon.

十不善業 (or 十不善道) idem 十惡 (十惡業).

十不悔戒 The ten rules which produce no regrets—not to kill, steal, fornicate, lie, tall of a fellow -Buddhist's sins, deal in wine, praise oneself and discredit others, be mean, be angry, defame the Triratna (Buddha, Law, Fraternity).

十乘 (十乘觀) A T'ien-t'ai mode of meditation in ten "vehicles" or stages, for the attainment of bodhi.

十乘床 The comfort or ease of progress produced by the ten vehicle meditation 十乘觀 is compared to a couch or divan.

十乘風 The ten vehicle meditation 十乘觀 like a breeze blows away error and falsity as dust.

十事功德 The bodhisattva-merit resulting from the attainment of the ten groups of excellences in the southern version of the Nirvāṇa Sūtra 南本涅盤經 19-24. There is an unimportant 十事經 not connected with the above.

十事非法 Ten unlawful things said to have been advocated by the Vaiśālī monks, which led to the calling of the second Council.

十二 dvādaśa, twelve.

十二不律儀 idem 十二惡律儀.

十二佛 The twelve Buddhas of the esoteric sect placed three on the east, one in each of the other seven directions, and one each for zenith and nadir.

十二光佛 Amitābha's twelve titles of light. The無量壽經上 gives them as 無量光佛, etc., i.e. the Buddha of light that is immeasurable boundless, irresistible, incomparable, yama (or flaming), pure, joy, wisdom, unceasing, surpassing thought, ineffable, surpassing sun and moon. Another list is given in the 九品往生阿彌陀...經.

十二分經 (or 十二分教) idem 十二部經.

十二因緣 Dvādaśaṅga pratītyasamutpāda; the twelve nidānas; v. 尼 and 因; also 十二緣起; 因緣有支; 因緣率連; 因緣棘園; 因緣輪; 因緣重城; 因緣觀; 支佛觀. They are the twelve links in the chain of existence: (1) 無明avidyā, ignorance, or unenlightenment; (2) 行 saṃskāra, action, activity, conception, "dispositions," Keith; (3) 識 vijñāna, consciousness; (4) 名色 nāmarūpa, name and form; (5) 六入 ṣaḍāyatana, the six sense organs, i.e. eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind; (6) 觸 sparśa, contact, touch; (7) 受 vedanā, sensation, feeling; (8) 愛 tṛṣṇā, thirst, desire, craving; (9) 取 upādāna, laying hold of, grasping; (10) 有 bhava, being, existing; (11) 生 jāti, birth; (12) 老死 jarāmaraṇa, old age, death. The "classical formula" reads "By reason of ignorance dispositions; by reason of dispositions consciousness", etc. A further application of the twelve nidānas is made in regard to their causaton of rebirth: (1) ignorance, as inherited passion from the beginningless past ; (2) karma, good and evil, of past lives; (3) conception as a form of perception; (4) nāmarūpa, or body and mind evolving (in the womb); (5) the six organs on the verge of birth; (6) childhood whose intelligence is limited to sparśa, contact or touch; (7) receptivity or budding intelligence and discrimination from 6 or 7 years; (8) thirst, desire, or love, age of puberty; (9) the urge of sensuous existence; (10) forming the substance, bhava, of future karma; (11) the completed karma ready for rebirth; (12) old age and death. The two first are associated with the previous life, the other ten with the present. The theory is equally applicable to all realms of reincarnation. The twelve links are also represented in a chart, at the centre of which are the serpent (anger), boar (ignorance, or stupidity), and dove (lust) representing the fundamental sins. Each catches the other by the tail, typifying the train of sins producing the wheel of life. In another circle the twelve links are represented as follows: (1) ignorance, a blind woman; (2) action, a potter at work, or man gathering fruit; (3) consciousness, a restless monkey; (4) name and form, a boat; (5) sense organs, a house; (6) contact, a man and woman sitting together; (7) sensation, a man pierced by an arrow; (8) desire, a man drinking wine; (9) craving, a couple in union; (10) existence through childbirth; (11) birth, a man carrying a corpse; (12) disease, old age, death, an old woman leaning on a stick. v. 十二因緣論 Pratītya-samutpāda śāstra.


十二地 To the 十地 add 等覺 and妙覺 q.v.

十二願 (十二大願 or 十二上願) The twelve vows of the Master of Healing; v. 藥師.

十二天 The twelve devas (especially of the Shingon sect): Brahmā; the deva of earth; of the moon; of the sun; Indra; of fire; Yama; of the rakṣas (or demons); of water; of wind; Vaiśramaṇa (wealth); and Maheśvara (Śiva). Also 十二大天衆.

十二宮 The twelve zodiacal mansions: east-gemini 夫婦 or 雙女; aries 羊; taurus 牛; west-libra 秤; scorpio 蝎; Sagittarius 弓 or人馬; south―aquarius 甁; pisces 魚; capri-cornus 密牛; north―cancer螃蟹; leo 獅子; virgo (or twin maidens 雙女). They are used in the vajradhātu group of the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, E.W.S.N.

十二惡律儀 The twelve bad occupations: sheep-butcher; poulterer (or hen-breeder); pork butcher; fowler; fisherman; hunter; thief; executioner; jailer; juggler; dog-butcher; beater (i.e. hunt servant).

十二法人 Those who follow the twelve practices of the ascetics: (1) live in a hermitage; (2) always beg for food; (3) take turns at begging food; (4) one meal a day; (5) reduce amount of food; (6) do not take a drink made of fruit or honey after midday; (7) wear dust-heap garments; (8) wear only the three clerical garments; (9) dwell among graves; (10) stay under a tree; (11) on the dewy ground; (12) sit and never lie.

十二火天 The homa-, or fire-spirits; Whose representations, colours, magic words, signs, symbols, and mode of worship are given in the 大日經疏20. Also 十二火尊; 十二種火法. The twelve fire-spirits are: (1) Indra or Vairocana, the discoverer or source of fire, symbolizing 智 knowledge; (2) the moon 行滿 which progresses to fullness, with mercy as root and enlightenment as fruit, i,e. Buddha; (3) the wind, represented as a half-moon, fanner of fame, of zeal, and by driving away dark clouds, of enlightenment; (4) the red rays of the rising sun, rohitaka, his swords (or rays) indicating 議 wisdom; (5) 沒M004101拏 a form half stern, half smiling, sternly driving away the passions and trials; (6) 忿怒 irate, bellowing with open mouth, showing four teeth, flowing locks, one eye closed; (7) 闍吒羅 fire burning within, i.e. the inner witness, or realization; (8) 迄灑耶 the waster, or destroyer of waste and injurious products within, i.e. inner purification; (9) 意生 the producer at will, capable of all variety, resembling Viśvakarman, the Brahmanic Vulcan; (10) 羯羅微 the fire-eater; (11) untraceable; (12) 謨賀那 the completer, also the subduer of demons.

十二無爲 v. 十二眞如.

十二燈 The twelve lamps used in the cult of the Master of Healing 藥師.

十二獸 The twelve animals for the "twelve horary branches" with their names, hours, and the Chinese transliterations of their Sanskrit equivalents; v. 大集經 23 and 56. There are also the thirty-six animals, three for each hour. The twelve are: Serpent 蛇 巳, 9-11 a.m. 迦若; Horse 馬午, 11-1 noon 兜羅; Sheep 羊未, 1―3 p.m. 毘梨支迦; Monkey 猴申, 3-5 p.m. 檀尼毘; Cock 鶏酉, 5-7 p.m. 摩迦羅; Dog 大戌, 7-9 p.m. 鳩槃; Boar 豕亥, 9-11 p.m.彌那; Rat 鼠子, 11-1 midnight 彌沙; Ox 牛丑 1-3 a.m. 毘利沙; Tiger (or Lion) 虎寅, 3―5 a.m. 彌倫那; Hare 兎卯, 5-7 a.m. 羯迦吒迦; Dragon 龍辰, 7-9 a.m 絲阿.


十二眞如 The twelve aspects of the bhūtatathhatā or the ultimate, which is also styled the 十二無為 "inactive" or nirvana-like: and the 十二空 "void" or immaterial: (1) The chen ju itself; (2) 法界 as the medium of all things; (3) 法性 as the nature of all things; (4) 不虛妄性 its reality contra the unreality of phenomena; (5) 不變異性 its immutability contra mortality and phenomenal variation; (6) 平等性 as universal or undifferentiated; (7) 離生性 as immortal, i.e. apart from birth and death, or creation and destruction; (8) 法定 as eternal, its nature ever sure; (9) 法住 as the abode of all things; (10) 實際 as the bounds of all reality; (11) 虛空界 as the realm of space, the void, or immateriality; (12)不思議界 as the realm beyond thought or expression.

十二神(十二神明王) The twelve spirits connected with the cult of 藥師 the Master of Healing. Also 十二神將. They are associated with the twelve hours of the day, of which they are guardian spirits. Their names are as follows: 宮 (or 金) 毘羅 Kumbhīra; 伐折羅 Vajra; 迷企羅 Mihira; 安底羅 Aṇḍīra; 頞儞羅 Anila; 珊底羅 Śaṇḍila; 因陀羅 Indra; 波夷羅Pajra; 摩虎羅 Mahoraga; 眞達羅 Kinnara; 招杜羅 Catura; and 毘羯羅 Vikarāla.

十二禽 idem 十二獸.

十二種火法 v. 十二火天.

十二空 v. 十二眞如.

十二緣起;十二輪 十二門; idem十二因緣.

十二藥叉大將 idem 十二神.

十二部經 Twelve divisions of the Mahāyāna canon: (1) 修多羅 sūtra; (2) 祇夜 geya; (3) 伽陀 gāthā; (4) 尼陀那 nidāna, also 因緣; (5) 伊帝目多 itivṛttaka; (6) 闍多伽 jātaka; (7) 阿浮達摩 adbhuta-dharma, i.e. the 阿毘達摩 abhidhama; (8) 阿波陀那 avadāna; (9) 優婆提舍 upadeśa; (10) 優陀那udāna; (11) 毘佛略 vaipulya; (12) 和 伽羅 vyākaraṇa. Cf. 九部經.

十二遊經 Dvādaśaviharaṇa sūtra. The life of Śākyamuni to his twelfth year, translated by Kālodaka A.D. 392.

十二門 idem 十二因緣.

十二門論 Dvāda-śanikāya Śastra. One of the 三論, composed by Nāgārjuna, translated by Kumārajīva A.D. 408. There are several works on it.

十二願王 The twelve-vow king, i.e. Yao Shih 藥師, the Master of Healing.

十五 Pañcadaśa, fifteen.

十五尊 The fifteen honoured ones, with whom certain 眞言 Shingon devotees seek by yoga to become united; of the fifteen, each represents a part of the whole, e.g. the eyes, ears, mouth, hands, feet, etc. v. 瑜祇經 in its 金剛薩埵 , etc., chapter.

十五尊觀音 The fifteen kinds of Guanyin's images—normal face, with thousand hands, horse's head, eleven faces, as Cundā (Marīci), with the 如意 talismanic wheel, net, white robe, leaf robe, moon, willow, fruit, as Tārā, with azure neck, and as Gandharāja.

十五智斷 The fifteen days of the waxing moon are likened to the fifteen kinds of increasing wisdom 智, and the fifteen waning days to the fifteen kinds of deliverance from evil 斷.

十住 The ten stages, or periods, in bodhisattva-wisdom, prajñā 般若, are the 十住; the merits or character attained are the 十地 q.v. Two interpretations may be given. In the first of these, the first four stages are likened to entry into the holy womb, the next four to the period of gestation, the ninth to birth, and the tenth to the washing or baptism with the water of wisdom, e.g. the baptism of a Kṣatriya prince. The ten stages are (1) 發心住 the purposive stage, the mind set upon Buddhahood; (2) 治地住 clear understanding and mental control; (3) 修行住 unhampered liberty in every direction; (4) 生貴住 acquiring the Tathāgata nature or seed; (5) 方便具足住 perfect adaptability and resemblance in self-development and development of others; (6) 正心住 the whole mind becoming Buddha-like; (7) 不退住 no retrogression, perfect unity and constant progress; (8) 童眞住 as a Buddha-son now complete; (9) 法王子住 as prince of the law; (10) 灌頂住 baptism as such, e.g. the consecration of kings. Another interpretation of the above is: (1) spiritual resolve, stage of śrota-āpanna; (2) submission to rule, preparation for Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (3) cultivation of virtue, attainment of Sakṛdāgāmin stage; (4) noble birth, preparation for the anāgāmin stage; (5) perfect means, attainment of anāgāmin stage; (6) right mind, preparation for arhatship; (7) no-retrogradation, the attainment of arhatship; (8) immortal youth, pratyekabuddhahood; (9) son of the law-king, the conception of bodhisattvahood; (10) baptism as the summit of attainment, the conception of Buddhahood.


十住心 Ten stages of mental or spiritual development in the 眞言 Shingon sect, beginning with the human animal and ending with perfect enlightenment; a category by the Japanese monk 弘法 Kōbō, founded on the 大日經,十心品.

十住毘婆沙論 Daśabhūmivibhāsā śāstra. A commentary by Nāgārjuna on the 十住經 and the 十地經, said to contain the earliest teaching regarding Amitābha; translated by Kumārajīva circa A.D. 405.

十佛 There are several, groups; that of the Huayan sūtra is Kāśyapa, Kanakamuni, Krakucchanda, Viśvabhū, Śikhin, Vipaśyi, Tiśya (or Puṣya), Tissa, ? Padma, and Dīpaṅkara. Another group is that of the Amitābha cult, one for each of the ten directions. There are other groups.

十來 (十來偈) The ten rhymes in "lai", a verse which expresses the Buddhist doctrine of moral determinism, i.e. that the position anyone now occupies is solely the result of his character in past lives; heredity and environment having nothing to do with his present condition, for, whether in prince or beggar, it is the reward of past deeds.

' The upright from the forbearing come,
The poor from the mean and greedy come,
Those of high rank from worshippers come,
The low and common from the Prideful come,
Those who are dumb from slanderers come,
The blind and deaf from unbelievers come,
The long-lived from the merciful come,
The short-lived from life, takers come,
The deficient in faculties from command-breakers come,
The complete in faculties from command-keepers come.
'' 端正者忍辱中來.

十使 十大惑; 十根本煩惱 The ten messengers, deluders, fundamental passions; they are divided into five sharp and five dull; the five 鈍使 dull ones are desire, hate, stupidity, pride, and doubt; the five sharp 利使 are 身見, 邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁見, v. 見.

十信 The ten grades of bodhisattva faith, i.e. the first ten 位 in the fifty-two bodhisattva positions: (1) 信 faith (which destroys illusion and results in); (2) 念 remembrance, or unforgetfulness; (3) 精進 zealous progress; (4) 慧 wisdom; (5) 定 settled firmness in concentration; (6) 不退 non-retrogression; (7) 護法 protection of the Truth; (8) 廻向 reflexive powers, e.g. for reflecting the Truth; (9) 戒 the nirvāṇa mind in 無為 effortlessness; (10) 願 action at will in anything and everywhere.

十八 aṣṭādaśa, eighteen.

十八不共法 āveṇikadharma, or buddhadharma, the eighteen different characteristics of a Buddha as compared with bodhisattvas, i.e. his perfection of body (or person), mouth (or speech), memory, impartiality to all, serenity, self-sacrifice, unceasing desire to save, unfagging zeal therein unfailing thought thereto, wisdom in it, powers of deliverance, the principles of it, revealing perfect wisdom in deed, in word, in thought, perfect knowledge of past, future, and present, v. 智度論 26.

十八圓淨 The eighteen perfections of a buddha's sambhogakāya, v. 三身. Also 十八圓滿.

十八天 Brahmaloka, the eighteen heavens of form, rūpadhātu, three of the first dhyāna, 梵衆天; 梵輔天; 大梵天; three of the second, 少光天; 無量光天; 光音; three of the third, 少淨天; 無量淨天; 徧淨天; and nine of the fourth, 無雲天; 福生天; 廣果天; 無想天; 無煩天; 無熱天; 善見天; 善現,天; 色究竟天 ."Southern Buddhism knows only sixteen. Those two which Northern Buddhists added are Punya-prasava 福生 and Anabhraka 無雲." Eitel.

十八宗 The eighteen Japanese Buddhist sects, i.e. 三論; 法相; 華嚴; 律; 倶舍; 成實; 天台; 眞言; 融通念佛; 淨土; 眞; 日蓮; 時; 臨濟; 曹洞; 黃檗; 普化; and 修驗宗.

十八應眞 The eighteen arhats.

十八物 The eighteen things a monk should carry in the performance of his duties—willow twigs, soap, the three garments, a water-bottle, a begging-bowl, mat, staff, censer, filter, handkerchief, knife, fire-producer, pincers hammock, sutra, the vinaya, the Buddha's image, and bodhisattva image or images; cf. 梵綱經 37.

十八生處 The eighteen Brahmalokas, where rebirth is necessary, i.e. where mortality still exists.

十八界 The eighteen dhātu, or realms of sense, i.e. 六根, 六境, 六識 the six organs, their objects or conditions, and their perceptions.


十八經 (十八大經); 十八明處 The eighteen Indian non-Buddhist classics, i.e. the four vedas, six śāstras, and eight śāstras.

十八賢 (十八聖 or 十八衆); 十八境界; 十八有學 v. 有學.

十八部 The eighteen schools of Hīnayāna as formerly existing in India; v. 小乘.

十八重地獄 The eighteen layers of hells, which are described by one writer as the conditions in which the six sense organs, their six objects, and the six perceptions do not harmonize. Another says the eighteen are the hell of knives, the boiling sands, the boiling excrement, the fiery carriage, the boiling cauldron, the iron bed, etc.

十八道 In the two maṇḍalas, Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu, each has nine central objects of worship. The Shingon disciple devotes himself to meditation on one of these eighteen each day.

十六 ṣoḍaśa Sixteen is the esoteric (Shingon) perfect number, just as ten is the perfect number in the Huayan sūtra and generally, see 大日經疏 5.

十六心 i.e. the 八忍 and 八智.

十六天 (十六大天) The sixteen devas are E. Indra and his wife; S.E. the fire deva and his wife; S. Yama and his wife; S.W. Yakṣa-rāja (Kuvera) and wife; W. the water deva and his nāga wife (Śakti); N.W. the wind deva and wife; N. Vaiśramaṇa and wife; N.E. Īśāna and wife.

十六師 The sixteen non-Buddhist "heretical" Indian philosophers.

十六曾 The sixteen lessons of the Prajñā-pāramitā.

十六行 (十六心行) ; 十六諦觀 idem 十六行相. The sixteen行相 of the Four Axioms 四諦, i.e. four forms of considering each of the axioms, associated with 見道.

十六善神 Two lists are given, one of sixteen 大將 mahārājas; another of sixteen 善神 good spirits or gods; all of them are guardians of the good and enemies of evil.

十六國王 十六大國 The sixteen ancient kingdoms of India whose kings are addressed in the 仁王經 2; i.e. Vaiśālī, Kośala, Śrāvastī, Magadha, Bārāṇasi, Kapilavastu, Kuśinagara, Kauśāmbī, Pañcāla, Pāṭaliputra, Mathurā, Uṣa (Uśīra), Puṇyavardhana, Devāvatāra, Kāśī, and Campā.

十六大力 The sixteen great powers obtainable by a bodhisattva, i.e. of will, mind, action, shame (to do evil), energy, firmness, wisdom, virtue, reasoning, personal appearance, physical powers, wealth, spirit, magic, spreading the truth, subduing demons.

十六想觀 idem 十六觀.

十六王子 (十六王子佛); 十六沙彌 The sixteen princes in the Lotus Sūtra who became Buddhas after hearing their father preach it.

十六知見 十六神我 The sixteen heretical views on me and mine, i.e. the ego in self and others, determinism or fate, immortality, etc.; v. 智度論 25.

十六菩薩 十六大士 (or 十六正士) The sixteen bodhisattvas; there are two groups, one of the 顯教 exoteric, one of the 密教 esoteric cults; the exoteric list is indefinite; the esoteric has two lists, one is of four bodhisattvas to each of the Buddhas of the four quarters of the Diamond Realm; the other is of the sixteen who represent the body of bodhisattvas in a 賢 kalpa, such as the present: E. 彌勒, 不空, 除憂, 除惡; S. 香象, 大精進, 虛 空藏智幢; W. 無量光, 賢護, 網明, 月光; N. 無量意 (文殊), 辨積, 金剛藏普賢.

十六觀 The sixteen meditations of Amitābha on the setting sun, water (as ice, crystal, etc. ), the earth, and so on.

十六資具 Sixteen necessaries of a strict observer of ascetic rules, ranging from garments made of rags collected from the dust heap to sleeping among graves.

十利 There are many groups of ten profitable things or advantages, e.g. ten in regard to edibles, ten to congee, to learning, to study of the scriptures, to wisdom, to zeal, etc.

十力 Daśabala. The ten powers of Buddha, giving complete knowledge of: (1) what is right or wrong in every condition; (2) what is the karma of every being, past, present, and future; (3) all stages of dhyāna liberation, and samādhi; (4) the powers and faculties of all beings; (5) the desires, or moral direction of every being; (6) the actual condition of every individual; (7) the direction and consequence of all laws; (8) all causes of mortality and of good and evil in their reality; (9) the end of all beings and nirvāṇa; (10) the destruction of all illusion of every kind. See the 智度論 25 and the 倶舍論 29.

十力教 The religion of Him who has the ten powers, i.e. Buddhism.

十力尊 (十力無等) The honoured (unequalled) possessor of the ten powers, Buddha.

十力迦葉 Daśabala-Kāśyupa, one of the first five disciples.

十力明 The ten powers and ten understandings of a Buddha.

十功德 (十功德論) Ten merits (or powers) commended by the Buddha to his bhikṣus—zealous progress, contentment with few desires, courage, learning (so as to teach), fearlessness, perfect observance of the commands and the fraternity, regulations, perfect meditation, perfect wisdom, perfect liberation, and perfect understanding of it.

十劫 The ten kalpas that have expired since Amitābha made his forty-eight vows, or 十劫正覺attained complete bodhi, hence he is styled 十劫彌陀. These ten kalpas as seen by Puxian are十劫須臾 but as a moment.


十勝行 The ten pāramitās observed by bodhisattvas, see 十地 and 十住. Hīnayāna has another group, adding to the four 梵福 q. v. the six of sacrificing one's life to save mother; or father; or a Buddha; to become a monk: to induce another to become a monk; to obtain authority to preach.

十名 idem 十號.

十問 The ten questions to the Buddha, put into the mouth of Vajrapāṇi, which, with the answers given, form the basis of the 大日經. What is (or are) (1) the nature of the bodhi-mind? (2) its form or forms? (3) the mental stages requisite to attainment? (4) the difference between them? (5) the time required? (6) the character of the merits attained? (7) the activities or practices necessary? (8) the way of such practices? (9) the condition of the uncultivated and cultivated mind? (10) the difference between it and that of the follower of Yoga?

十善正法 (十善) The ten good characteristics, or virtues, defined as the non-committal of the 十惡 ten evils, q. v. Tiantai has two groups, one of ceasing 止 to do evil, the other of learning to do well 行.

十善位 十善戒力; 十善王 The position, or power, attained in the next life by observing the ten commandments here, to be born in the heavens, or as rulers of men.

十善巧 The ten good crafts, or meditations of pratyeka-buddhas, i. e. on the five skandhas, twelve 處, eighteen 界, twelve 因緣, etc.

十善戒 The ten commandments (as observed by the laity).

十善業 (十善業道) The excellent karma resulting from practice of the ten commandments.

十善菩薩 The bodhisattvas of the 十信位 q. v.

十四 caturdaśa, fourteen.

十四佛國往生 The fourteen other-world realms of fourteen Buddhas, i. e. this realm of Śākyamuni and thirteen others.

十四神九王 The fourteen devas and nine dragon and other kings, who went in the train of Mañjuśrī to thank the Buddha at the last of his Huayan addresses; for list see 唐華嚴經 61.

十四變化 The fourteen transformations that are connected with the four dhyāna heavens.

十四難 The fourteen difficult questions of the "heretics" to which the Buddha made no reply, for, as it is said, the questions were no more properly put than if one asked " How much milk can you get from cow's horn?" They are forms of: All is permanent, impermanent, both or neither; all changes, changes not, both, neither; at death a spirit departs, does not, both, neither; after death we have the same body (or personality) and spirit, or body and spirit are different.

十地 daśabhūmi; v. 十住. The "ten stages" in the fifty-two sections of the development of a bodhisattva into a Buddha. After completing the十四向 he proceeds to the 十地. There are several groups. I. The ten stages common to the Three Vehicles 三乘 are: (1) 乾慧地 dry wisdom stage, i. e. unfertilized by Buddha-truth, worldly wisdom; (2) 性地 the embryo-stage of the nature of Buddha-truth, the 四善根; (3) 八人地 (八忍地), the stage of the eight patient endurances; (4) 見地 of freedom from wrong views; (5) 薄地 of freedom from the first six of the nine delusions in practice; (6) 離欲地 of freedom from the remaining three; (7) 巳辨地 complete discrimination in regard to wrong views and thoughts, the stage of an arhat; (8) 辟支佛地 pratyeka-buddhahood, only the dead ashes of the past left to sift; (9) 菩薩地 bodhisattvahood; (10) 佛地 Buddhahood. v. 智度論 78. II. 大乘菩薩十地 The ten stages of Mahāyāna bodhisattva development are: (1) 歡喜地 Pramuditā, joy at having overcome the former difficulties and now entering on the path to Buddhahood; (2) 離垢地 Vimalā, freedom from all possible defilement, the stage of purity; (3) 發光地 Prabhākarī, stage of further enlightenment; (4) 焰慧地 Arciṣmatī, of glowing wisdom; (5) 極難勝地 Sudurjayā, mastery of utmost or final difficulties; (6) 現前地 Abhimukhī, the open way of wisdom above definitions of impurity and purity; (7) 遠行地 Dūraṁgamā, proceeding afar, getting above ideas of self in order to save others; (8) 不動地 Acalā, attainment of calm unperturbedness; (9) 善慧地 Sādhumatī, of the finest discriminatory wisdom, knowing where and how to save, and possessed of the 十力 ten powers; (10) 法雲地 Dharmamegha, attaining to the fertilizing powers of the law-cloud. Each of the ten stages is connected with each of the ten pāramitās, v. 波. Each of the 四乘 or four vehicles has a division of ten. III. The 聲聞乘十地 ten Śrāvaka stages are: (1) 受三歸地 initiation as a disciple by receiving the three refuges, in the Buddha, Dharma, and Saṅgha; (2) 信地 belief, or the faith-root; (3) 信法地 belief in the four truths; (4) 内凡夫地 ordinary disciples who observe the 五停心觀, etc.; (5) 學信戒 those who pursue the 三學 three studies; (6) 八人忍地 the stage of 見道 seeing the true Way; (7) 須陀洹地 śrota-āpanna, now definitely in the stream and assured of nirvāṇa; (8) 斯陀含地 sakrdāgāmin, only one more rebirth; (9) 阿那含地 anāgāmin, no rebirth; and (10) 阿羅漢地 arhatship. IV. The ten stages of the pratyekabuddha 緣覺乘十地 are (1) perfect asceticism; (2) mastery of the twelve links of causation; (3) of the four noble truths; (4) of the deeper knowledge; (5) of the eightfold noble path; (6) of the three realms 三法界; (7) of the nirvāṇa state; (8) of the six supernatural powers; (9) arrival at the intuitive stage; (10) mastery of the remaining influence of former habits. V. 佛乘十地 The ten stages, or characteristics of a Buddha, are those of the sovereign or perfect attainment of wisdom, exposition, discrimination, māra-subjugation, suppression of evil, the six transcendent faculties, manifestation of all bodhisattva enlightenment, powers of prediction, of adaptability, of powers to reveal the bodhisattva Truth. VI. The Shingon has its own elaborate ten stages, and also a group 十地十心, see 十心; and there are other groups.


十地品 The twenty-second chapter of the sixty-chapter version of the 華嚴經, the twenty-sixth of the eighty-chapter version.

十地願行 The vow of bodhisattvas to attain the十地 by fulfilling the ten pāramitās, v. 十波.

十地心 Ten stages of mind, or mental development, i.e. (1) 四無量心 the four kinds of boundless mind; (2) 十善心 the mind of the ten good qualities; (3) 明光心 the illuminated mind; (4) 焰慧心 the mind of glowing wisdom; (5) 大勝心 the mind of mastery; (6) 現前心 the mind of the open way (above normal definitions); (7) 無生心 the mind of no rebirth; (8) 不思議心 the mind of the inexpressible; (9) 慧光心 the mind of wisdom-radiance; (10) 受位心 the mind of perfect receptivity. v. also 十心.

十境 Ten objects of or stages in meditation觀 in the Tiantai school, i.e. 陰境 the five skandhas; 煩惱境 life's distresses and delusion; 病患境 sickness, or duḥkha, its cause and cure; 業相境 age-long karmaic influences; 魔事境 Māra affairs, how to overthrow their rule; 禪定境 the conditions of dhyāna and samādhi; 諸見境 various views and doubts that arise; 慢境 pride in progress and the delusion that one has attained nirvāṇa; 二乘境 temptation to be content with the lower nirvāṇa, instead of going on to the greater reward; 菩薩境 bodhisattvahood; see the 止觀 5.

十夜念佛 (十夜) The ten nights (and days) from the sixth to the fifteenth of the tenth moon, when the Pure-land sect intones sūtras.

十大弟子 The ten chief discip1es of Śākyamuni, each of whom was master of one power or gift. Śāriputra of wisdom; Maudgalyāyana of supernatural powers; Mahākāśyapa of discipline; Aniruddha of 天眼 deva vision; Subhūti of explaining the void or immaterial; Pūrṇa of expounding the law; Kātyāyana of its fundamental principles; Upāli of maintaining the rules; Rāhula of the esoteric; and Ānanda of hearing and remembering.

十大惑 idem 十使.

十大願 The ten vows of Puxian 普賢, or Samantabhadra.

十如是 The ten essential qualities, or characteristics, of thing, according to the 方便chapter of the Lotus sūtra: 相如是 form; 性如是 nature; 體如是 corpus or embodiment; 力如是 powers; 作如是 function; 因如是 primary cause; 果如是 environmental cause; 果如是 effect; 報如是 karmic reward; 本末究竟等 the inseparability, or inevitability of them all.

十如來地 v. 十地.

十妙 The ten wonders, or incomprehensibles; there are two groups, the 迹v traceable or manifested and 本門妙 the fundamental. The 迹門十妙 are the wonder of: (1) 境妙 the universe, sphere, or whole, embracing mind, Buddha, and all things as a unity; (2) 智妙 a Buddha's all-embracing knowledge arising from such universe; (3) 行妙 his deeds, expressive of his wisdom; (4) 位妙 his attainment of all the various Buddha stages, i.e. 十住 and十地; (5) 三法妙 his three laws of 理, 慧, and truth, wisdom, and vision; (6) 感應妙 his response to appeal, i.e. his (spiritual) response or relation to humanity, for "all beings are my children"; (7) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (8) 說法妙 his preaching; (9) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (10) 利益妙 the blessings derived through universal elevation into Buddhahood. The 本門十妙 are the wonder of (1) 本因妙 the initial impulse or causative stage of Buddhahood; (2) 本果妙 its fruit or result in eternity, joy, and purity; (3) 國土妙 his (Buddha) realm; (4) 感應妙 his response (to human needs); (5) 神通妙 his supernatural powers; (6) 說法妙 his preaching; (7) 眷屬妙 his supernatural retinue; (8) 涅槃妙 his nirvāṇa; (9) 壽命妙 his (eternal) life; (10) his blessings as above. Both groups are further defined as progressive stages in a Buddha's career. These "wonders" are derived from the Lotus sūtra.

十宗 The ten schools of Chinese Buddhism: I. The (1) 律宗 Vinaya-discipline, or 南山|; (2) 倶舍 Kośa, Abhidharma, or Reality (Sarvāstivādin) 有宗; (3) 成實宗 Satyasiddhi sect founded on this śāstra by Harivarman; (4) 三論宗 Mādhyamika or 性空宗; (5) 法華宗 Lotus, "Law-flower" or Tiantai 天台宗; (6) 華嚴Huayan or法性 or賢首宗; ( 7) 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana or 慈恩宗 founded on the唯識論 (8) 心宗 Ch'an or Zen, mind-only or intuitive, v. 禪宗 ; (9) 眞言宗 (Jap. Shingon) or esoteric 密宗 ; (10) 蓮宗 Amitābha-lotus or Pure Land (Jap. Jōdo) 淨士宗. The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 9th are found in Japan rather than in China, where they have ceased to be of importance. II. The Hua-yen has also ten divisions into ten schools of thought: (1) 我法倶有 the reality of self (or soul) and things, e.g. mind and matter; (2) 法有我無 the reality of things but not of soul; (3) 法無去來 things have neither creation nor destruction; (4) 現通假實 present things are both apparent and real; (5) 俗妄眞實 common or phenomenal ideas are wrong, fundamental reality is the only truth; (6) things are merely names; (7) all things are unreal 空; (8) the bhūtatathatā is not unreal; (9) phenomena and their perception are to be got rid of; (10) the perfect, all-inclusive, and complete teaching of the One Vehicle. III. There are two old Japanese divisions: 大乘律宗, 倶舎宗 , 成實 宗 , 法和宗 , 三論宗 , 天台宗 , 華嚴宗 , 眞言宗 , 小乘律宗 , and 淨土宗 ; the second list adds 禪宗 and omits 大乘律宗. They are the Ritsu, Kusha, Jōjitsu, Hossō, Sanron, Tendai, Kegon, Shingon, (Hīnayāna) Ritsu, and Jōdo; the addition being Zen.


十寶 The ten precious things; 十寶山 the ten precious mountains, or mountain of ten precious things; v. 十善 and 十善王.

十山王 The spirit king of each of the ten mountains―Himālaya, Gandhamādana, Vaidharī, 神仙山, Yugaṅdhara, Aśvakarṇa, Nemindhara, Cakravāḍa, Ketumatī, and Sumeru.

十師 The ten monks necessary for a full ordination of a monk, i.e. 三師七證 three leaders and seven witnesses.

十度 The ten pāramitās or virtues transporting to nirvāṇa; idem 十波羅蜜 q.v.

十度三行 each of the pāramitās has three forms of observance, e.g. the first, 施 dāna or giving has 財施 almsgiving, 法施 truth-giving, and 無畏施 courage-giving. The three forms differ with each pāramitā.

十弟子 The ten acolytes or attendants on an ācārya, or superior religious teacher, in his ceremonial offices, following the pattern of the ten principal disciples of Śākyamuni.

十德 The ten virtues, powers, or qualities, of which there are several groups, e.g. in the 華嚴經,十地品 there are 法師十德 the ten virtues of a teacher of the Law, i.e. he should be well versed in its meaning; able widely to publish it; not be nervous before an audience; be untiring in argument; adaptable; orderly so that his teaching can be easily followed; serious and dignified; bold and zealous; unwearied; and enduring (able to bear insult, etc.). The 弟子十德 ten virtues or qualities of a disciple according to the 大日經疏 4, are faith; sincerity; devotion to the trikāya; (seeking the) adornment of true wisdom; perseverance; moral purity; patience (or bearing shame); generosity in giving; courage; resoluteness.

十心 The ten kinds of heart or mind; there are three groups. One is from the 止觀 4, minds ignorant and dark; affected by evil companions; not following the good; doing evil in thought, word, deed; spreading evil abroad; unceasingly wicked; secret sin; open crime; utterly shameless; denying cause and effect (retribution)―all such must remain in the flow 流 of reincarnation. The second group (from the same book) is the 逆流 the mind striving against the stream of perpetual reincarnation; it shows itself in devout faith, shame (for sin), fear (of wrong-doing), repentance and confession, reform, bodhi (i.e. the bodhisattva mind), doing good, maintaining the right law, thinking on all the Buddhas, meditation on the void (or, the unreality of sin). The third is the 眞言 group from the 大日經疏 3; the "seed" heart (i.e. the original good desire), the sprout (under Buddhist religious influence), the bud, leaf, flower, fruit, its serviceableness; the child-heart, the discriminating heart, the heart of settled judgment (or resolve).

十快 The ten inexpressible joys of the Pure-land; also 十樂.

十念 The ten repetitions of an invocation, e.g. namo Amitābha.

十念往生 These ten invocations will carry a dying man with an evil karma into the Pure-land.

十念成就 See 十念往生, but cf. 十聲.

十念處 A bodhisattva's ten objects of thought or meditation, i.e. body, the senses, mind, things, environment, monastery, city (or district), good name, Buddha-learning, riddance of all passion and delusion.

十念血脉 The arteries of the "ten invocations", i.e. the teacher's giving and the disciple's receiving of the law.

十忿怒明王 The ten irate rājas, or protectors, whose huge images with many heads and limbs are seen in temples; perhaps the ten krodha gods of the Tibetans (Khro-bo); their names are 焰鬘得迦 Yamāntaka; 無能勝 Ajita; 鉢納 鬘得迦 ? Padmāhtaka; 尾覲那得迦 Vighnāntaka; 不動尊 Acala; 吒枳 ? Dākinī; 儞羅難拏 ? Nīladaṇḍa; 大力, 送婆 Sambara; and縛日羅播多羅 Vīrabhadra.


十恩 Ten kinds of the Buddha's grace: his (1) initial resolve to universalize (his salvation); (2) self-sacrifice (in previous lives); (3) complete altruism; (4) his descent into all the six states of existence for their salvation; (5) relief of the living from distress and mortality; (6) profound pity; (7) revelation of himself in human and glorified form; (8) teaching in accordance with the capacity of his hearers, first hīnayāna, then māhayāna doctrine; (9) revealing his nirvāṇa to stimulate his disciples; (10) pitying thought for all creatures, in that dying at 80 instead of at 100 he left twenty years of his own happiness to his disciples; and also the tripiṭaka for universal salvation.

十惑 idem 十使.

十惡 Daśākuśala. The ten "not right" or evil things are killing, stealing, adultery, lying, double-tongue, coarse language, filthy language, covetousness, anger, perverted views; these produce the ten resultant evils 十惡業 (道) Cf. 十善; 十戒.

十惱亂 The ten disturbers of the religious life: a domineering (spirit); heretical ways; dangerous amusements; a butcher's or other low occupation; asceticism (or selfish hīnayāna salvation); (the condition of a) eunuch; lust; endangering (the character by improper intimacy); contempt; breeding animals, etc. (for slaughter).

十成 Entirely completed, perfect.

十戒 Śikṣāpada. The ten prohibitions (in Pāli form) consist of five commandments for the layman: (1) not to destroy life 不殺生 pāṇātipātāveramaṇi; (2) not to steal 不倫盜 adinnādānāver; (3) not to commit adultery 不婬慾 abrahmacaryaver.; (4) not to lie 不妄語musāvādāver.; (5) not to take intoxicating liquor 不飮酒 suramereyya-majjapamādaṭṭhānāver. Eight special commandments for laymen consist of the preceding five plus: (6) not to eat food out of regulated hours 不非時食 vikāla-bhojanāver.; (7) not to use garlands or perfumes 不著華鬘好香塗身 mālā- gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūṣanaṭṭhānā; (8) not to sleep on high or broad beds (chastity) 不坐高廣大牀 uccāsayanā-mahāsayanā. The ten commandments for the monk are the preceding eight plus: (9) not to take part in singing, dancing, musical or theatrical performances, not to see or listen to such 不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽 nacca-gīta-vādita-visūkadassanāver.; (10) to refrain from acquiring uncoined or coined gold, or silver, or jewels 不得捉錢金銀寶物 jātarūpa-rajata-paṭīggahaṇāver. Under the Māhayāna these ten commands for the monk were changed, to accord with the new environment of the monk, to the following: not to kill, not to steal, to avoid all unchastity, not to lie, not to slander, not to insult, not to chatter, not to covet, not to give way to anger, to harbour no scepticism.

十支論 The ten Yoga books, the foundation work being the 瑜伽論, the other ten are 百法論, 五蘊論, 顯揚論, 攝大乘論, 雜集論, 辨中邊論, 二十唯識論, 三十唯識論, 大莊嚴論, and 分別瑜伽論 .

十教 v. 十宗.

十方 The ten directions of space, i.e. the eight points of the compass and the nadir and zenith. There is a Buddha for each direction 十方十佛.

十方世界 The worlds in all directions.

十方佛土 A Buddha-realm, idem 大千世界.

十方常住僧物 十方現前僧物 see 四種僧物.

十普門 The ten universals of a bodhisattva: 慈悲普 universal pity; 弘誓門 vow of universal salvation; 修行門 accordant action; 斷惑門 universal cutting off of delusions; 入法門門 freedom of entry into all forms of truth; 神通門 universal superhuman powers; 方便門 universal accordance with conditions of the receptivity of others; 說法門 powers of universal explication of the truth; 供養諸佛門 power of universal service of all Buddhas; 成就衆生門 the perfecting of all beings universally.

十智 The ten forms of understanding. I. Hīnayāna: (1) 世俗智 common understanding; (2) 法智 enlightened understanding, i.e. on the Four Truths in this life; (3) 類智 ditto, applied to the two upper realms 上二界; (4), (5), (6), (7) understanding re each of the Four Truths separately, both in the upper and lower realms, e.g. 苦智; (8) 他心智 understanding of the minds of others; (9) 盡智 the understanding that puts an end to all previous faith in or for self, i.e. 自信智; (10) 無生智 nirvāṇa wisdom; v. 倶舍論 26. II. Mahāyāna. A Tathāgatas ten powers of understanding or wisdom: (1) 三世智 perfect understanding of past, present, and future; (2) ditto of Buddha Law; (3) 法界無礙智 unimpeded understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (4) 法界無邊智 unlimited, or infinite understanding of the whole Buddha-realm; (5) 充滿一切智 understanding of ubiquity; (6) 普照一切世間智 understanding of universal enlightenment; (7) 住持一切世界智 understanding of omnipotence, or universal control; (8) 知一 切衆生智 understanding of omniscience re all living beings; (9) 知一切法智 understanding of omniscience re the laws of universal salvation; (10) 知無邊 諸佛智 understanding of omniscience re all Buddha wisdom. v. 華嚴経 16. There are also his ten forms of understanding of the "Five Seas" 五海 of worlds, living beings, karma, passions, and Buddhas."


十根本煩惱 idem 十使.

十樂 v. 十快.

十殊勝語 The ten rare or surpassing terms connected with the ten surpassing laws; they are given in Xuanzang's translation of Vasubandhu's 攝論釋.

十殿閻王 The ten Yama courts, cf. 十王.

十法 The ten 成就 perfect or perfecting Mahāyāna rules; i.e. in (1) right belief; (2) conduct; (3) spirit; (4) the joy of the bodhi mind; (5) joy in the dharma; (6) joy in meditation in it; (7) pursuing the correct dharma; (8) obedience to, or accordance with it; (9) departing from pride, etc.; (10) comprehending the inner teaching of Buddha and taking no pleasure in that of the śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha order.

十法界 The ten dharma-worlds, or states of existence, i.e. the hells (or purgatories), pretas, animals, asmas, men, devas, śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, Buddhas. In the esoteric teaching there is a series of hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, devas, śrāvakas, bodhisattvas, 權佛 relative Buddhas, 實佛 absolute Buddhas.

十法行 Ten ways of devotion to the Buddhist sutras: to copy them; serve the places where they are kept, as if serving the Buddha's shrine; preach or give them to others; listen attentively to their exposition; read; maintain; discourse on them to others; intone them; ponder over them; observe their lessons.

十波羅夷 The ten pārājikas, or sins unpardonable in a monk involving his exclusion from the community; v. 十重禁戒.

十波羅蜜 (or 密多) The ten are the six pārāmitas with four added. The six are charity (or almsgiving), purity (or morality), patience, zealous progress, meditation, wisdom; i.e. 施, 戒, 忍, 辱, 精進, 禪, 慧. The four additions are 方便; 願; 力 and 智 upāya, adaptability (or, teaching as suited to the occasion and hearer): praṇidhāna, vows; bala, force of purpose; and jñāna, knowledge. Also 十度.

十無二 Ten powers only possessed by Buddhas: (1) prediction; (2) knowing and fulfilling the desires of the living; (3)-(10) are various forms of omniscience, i.e. (3) of all Buddha-realms and their inhabitants; (4) their natures; (5) good roots; (6) laws; (7) wisdom; (8) every moment; (9) evolving domains, or conditions; (10) language, words, and discussions. v. 宗鏡錄 99.

十無盡戒 idem 十重禁戒.

十無盡藏 The ten boundless treasuries of a bodhisattva: (1) 信 belief and faith; (2) 戒 the commandments; (3) 慚 shame of past misdeeds; (4) 愧blushing over the misdeeds of others; (5) hearing and knowledge of the truth; (6) giving; (7) wisdom; (8) memory; (9) keeping and guarding the sūtras; (10) powers of expounding them. 華 嚴經 20.

十無礙 The ten unhindered transformations and ubiquitous powers of a Buddha.

十牛圖 (十牛圖序) The ten ox-pictures, the first, a man looking for an ox, then seeing its tracks, then seeing the ox, catching it, feeding it, riding it home, ox dies man lives, both dead, return whence they came and enter the dust.

十玄 ; 十玄門 (十玄緣起) The ten philosophic ideas expressed in two metrical versions, each line ending with 門. v. 玄門.

十王 The ten kings presiding over the ten departments of purgatory.

十甘露王 The king of the ten sweet dews, i.e. Amitābha.

十界 idem 十法界.

十界皆成佛 The teaching of the Lotus sūtra of universalism, that all become Buddha.

十界能化菩薩 Bodhisattvas, above the 初地, who have reached the stage of transforming beings in all the ten kinds of realms.

十發趣心 The ten directional decisions: (1) renouncement of the world; (2) observance of the commandments; (3) patience or endurance; (4) zealous progress; (5) meditation; (6) wisdom or understanding; (7) 願心 the will for good for oneself and others; (8) 護心 protection (of Buddha, Dharma, Sangha); (9) 喜心 joy; (10) 頂心 highest wisdom. v. 梵綱經, 心地品.


十眞如 The ten aspects of the bhūtatathatā or reality attained by a bodhisattva during his fifty-two stages of development, cf. 十地 and 十障, each of which is associated with one of these zhenru: (1) 遍行眞如 the universality of the zhenru; (2) 最勝眞如 its superiority over all else; (3) 流眞如 its ubiquity; (4) 無攝受眞如 its independence or self-containedness; (5) 無別眞如 subjective indifferentiation; (6) 無染淨眞如 above differences of impurity and purity; (7) 法無別眞如 objective indifferentiation; (8) 不增減眞如 invariable, i.e. can be neither added to nor taken from; (9) 智自在所依 the basis of all wisdom; (10) 業自在等所依眞如 and all power. The above are the 別教 group from the 唯識論 10. Another group, of the 圓教, is the same as the 十如是 q.v.

十眼 The ten kinds of eyes: (1) 肉眼 eyes of flesh; (2) 天眼 deva eyes; (3) 慧眼 wisdom eyes; (4) 法眼 dharma eyes; (5) 佛眼 Buddha eyes; (6) 智眼 eyes of judgment; (7) 光明眼 eyes shining with Buddha-light; (8) 出生死眼 immortal eyes; (9) 無碍眼 unhindered eyes; (10) 一切智眼 omniscient eyes.

十禪支 v. 十一切處.

十科 十條 The ten rules for translation. v. 翻譯名義集 3.

十種不淨 The deluded, e.g. the hīnayānists, because of their refusal to follow the higher truth, remain in the condition of reincarnation and are impure in ten ways: in body, mouth, mind, deed, state, sitting, sleeping, practice, converting others, their expectations.

十種所觀法 Ten meditations on each of the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地 and 等覺.

十種方便 Ten kinds of suitable aids to religious success: almsgiving (or self-sacrifice); keeping the commandments; forbearance; zealous progress; meditation; wisdom; great kindness; great pity; awaking and stimulating others; preaching (or revolving) the never receding wheel of the Law.

十種智力 The ten kinds of wisdom and power, v. 十智 and 十力.

十種智明 Ten kinds of bodhisattva wisdom, or omniscience, for the understanding of all things relating to all beings, in order, to save them from the sufferings of mortality and bring them to true bodhi. The ten are detailed in the Hua-yen 華嚴 sūtra in two groups, one in the 十明品 and one in the 離世間品.

十種行願 The ten vows of Puxian 普賢.

十種觀法 idem 十乘觀法.

十種魔軍 idem 十軍.

十緣生句 Ten illusions arising from environmental conditions: sleight of hand; mirage; dreams; reflections or shadows; gandharva cities (or cities of the sirens, seen in the sea-mist); echoes; the moon reflected in water; floating bubbles; motes (muscae volitantes); fire-wheel (made by revolving a flare).

十緣觀 十喩觀 A meditation or reflection on the ten illusions 十緣生句.

十纒 The ten bonds that bind men to mortality — to be shameless, unblushing, envious, mean, regretful, torpid, busy, absorbed, angry, secretive (of sin).

十羅刹女 The ten rākṣasī, or demonesses mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra 陀羅尼品. They are now represented in the temples, each as an attendant on a Buddha or bodhisattva, and are chiefly connected with sorcery. They are said to be previous incarnations of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas with whom they are associated. In their evil state they were enemies of the living, converted they are enemies of evil. There are other definitions. Their names are: (1) 藍婆 Lambā, who is associated with Śākyamuni; (2) 毘藍婆 Vilambā, who is associated with Amitābha; (3) 曲齒 Kūṭadantī, who is associated with 藥師 Bhaiṣajya; (4) 華齒 Puṣpadanti, who is associated with 多賓 Prabhūtaratna; (5) 黑齒 Makuṭadantī, who is associated with 大日 Vairocana; (6) 多髮 Keśinī, who is associated with 普賢 Samantabhadra; (7) 無厭足 ? Acalā, who is associated with 文殊 Mañjuśrī; (8) 持瓔珞 Mālādharī, who is associated with 彌勒Maitreya; (9) 皐帝 Kuntī, who is associated with 觀音 Avalokiteśvara; (10) 奪一切衆生精氣 Sarvasattvaujohārī, who is associated with 地 藏 Kṣitigarbha.

十萬 A lakh, i.e. an 億 or 洛叉.

十萬億佛土 The Happy Land, i.e. Amitābha's Paradise in the West, beyond ten thousand million Buddha-realms.

十號 Ten titles of a Buddha: 如來 Tathāgata; 應供 Arhat; 正徧知 Samyak‐sambuddha; 明行足 Vidyācaraṇa-saṁpanna; 善逝 Sugata; 世間解 Lokavid.; 無上士 Anuttara; 調御丈夫 Puruṣa-damya-sārathi; 天人師 Śāstā deva-manuṣyāṇām; 佛世尊 Buddha-lokanātha, or Bhagavān.


十行 The ten necessary activities in the fifty-two stages of a bodhisattva, following on the 十信and 十住; the two latter indicate personal development 自利. These ten lines of action are for the universal welfare of others 利他. They are: joyful service; beneficial service; never resenting; without limit; never out of order; appearing in any form at will; unimpeded; exalting the pāramitās amongst all beings; perfecting the Buddha-law by complete virtue; manifesting in all things the pure, final, true reality.

十見 The ten (wrong) views; see 五見and add 貪, 恚 , 慢 , 無明 and 疑見 desire, hate, pride, ignorance, and doubt.

十誡 idem 十戒.

十護 The ten guardians of the law, assistants to the 十大明王.

十身 Ten aspects of the Buddhakaya 佛身 q.v.

十軍 The ten armies of Māra, which the Buddha attacks and destroys; the armies are desire, anxiety, hunger and thirst, longing, torpidity, fear, doubt, poison, gain, haughtiness (i.e. disdaining monks).

十輪 idem 十種智力; v. 十力.

十通 Ten supernatural powers, e.g. of seeing, hearing, appearance, etc.; cf. 五神通.

十進九退 The Buddha's teaching is so difficult that of ten who enter it nine fall away.

十道 The ten (good) ways for deliverance from mortality- not to kill, steal, act wrongly, lie, be double-tongued, be of evil speech, slander, covet, be angry, look wrongly (or wrong views).

十過 Ten faults in eating flesh, and ten in drinking intoxicants.

十處定 v. 十一切處.

十重禁戒 The ten pārājika, or a monk's most serious sins; also 十波羅夷; 波羅闍巳迦. They are killing, stealing, adultery, lying, selling wine, talking of a monk's misdeeds, self-praise for degrading others, meanness, anger at rebuke, vilifying the Triratna. The esoteric sect has a group in regard to giving up the mind of enlightenment, renouncing the Triratna and going to heretical sects, slandering the Triratna, etc. Another group of ten is in the 大日經 9 and 17; cf. 十波羅夷.

十重罪 idem 十惡, 十不善.

十重障 The ten weighty bodhisattva hindrances, according to the 別教, which are respectively overcome by entry into the 十地; v. 成唯識論 9; the first is 異生性 the natural heart hindering the 聖性 holy heart, etc.; v. 十障.

十金剛心 Ten characteristics of the "diamond heart" as developed by bodhisattva: (1) complete insight into all truth; (2) saving of all creatures; (3) the glorifying of all Buddha-worlds; (4) supererogation of his good deeds; (5) service of all Buddhas; (6) realization of the truth of all Buddha-laws; (7) manifestation of all patience and endurance; (8) unflagging devotion to his vocation; (9) perfection of his work; (10) aiding all to fulfill their vows and accomplish their spiritual ends. 華嚴經 55.

十金剛心向果 Ten "fruits" that accrue to the resolute "diamond-heart" of a bodhisattva: faith; meditation; refection on the doctrine; thoroughness in contemplation; straight-forward progress to Buddhahood; no retrogression; the Mahāyāna spirit (of universal salvation); freedom from externals (or impressions); wisdom; firm establishment; v. 梵網經, 心地品.

十長養心 The ten kinds of well-nourished heart, essential to entry into the cult of the higher patience and endurance: a heart of kindness; of pity; of joy (in progress toward salvation of others); renunciation; almsgiving; delight in telling the doctrine; benefiting or aiding others to salvation; unity, or amity; concentration in meditation; wisdom; v. 梵綱經,心地品.

十門 The ten "doors" or connections between事 and 理; 事 is defined as 現象 form and 理 as 本體 substance; the common illustration of wave and water indicates the idea thus expressed. The 理事無礎十門 means that in ten ways form and substance are not separate, unconnected entities. (1) li the substance is always present with shih the phenomena; (2) shih is always present with li; (3) shih depends on li for its existence; (4) the shih can reveal the li; (5) the shih (mere form, which is unreal) can disappear in the li;(6) the shih can conceal the li; (7) the true li is the shih; (8) the shih is li; (9) the true li (or reality) is not the shih; (10) the shih is not the (whole) li; v. 華嚴大疏 2. 周遍含容觀十門 The fifth of the five 觀 meditations of the 華嚴宗, i.e. on li and shih, e.g. (1) the li is as the shih; (2) the shih is as the li; 理如事, 事如理 and so on. The 止觀十門 in the 宗鏡録35, also deals with li and shih chiefly for purposes of meditation. Another group, the 華嚴釋經十門, treats of the Canon and the schools.


十障 Ten hindrances; bodhisattvas in the stage of 十地 overcome these ten hindrances and realize the十眞如 q.v. The hindrances are: (1) 異生性障 the hindrance of the common illusions of the unenlightened, taking the seeming for real; (2) 邪行障 the hindrance of common unenlightened conduct; (3) 暗鈍障 the hindrance of ignorant and dull ideas; (4) 細惑現行障 the hindrance of the illusion that things are real and have independent existence; (5)下乘涅槃障 the hindrance of the lower ideals in Hīnayāna of nirvāṇa; (6) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the ordinary ideas of the pure and impure; (7) 細相現行障 the hindrance of the idea of reincarnation; (8) 無相加行障 the hindrance of the continuance of activity even in the formless world; (9) 不欲行障 the hindrance of no desire to act for the salvation of others; (10) 法未自在障 the hindrance of non- attainment of complete mastery of all things. v. 唯識論 10.

十願王 The king of the ten vows, Puxian普賢, or Samantabhadra.

十齋日 (十齋) The ten 'fast' days of a month are 1, 8, 14, 15, 18, 23, 24, 28, 29, and 30. In certain periods flesh was forbidden on these days, also all killing, hunting, fishing, executions, etc.

十齋佛 (十齋日佛) The ten Buddhas or bodhisattvas connected with the ten days of fasting days who in turn are 定光, 藥師, 普賢, 阿彌陀, 觀音, 勢至, 地藏毘慮遮那, 藥王, 釋迦.

To divine, foretell.

卜羯姿 pukkaśa; also 補羯姿 A degraded caste of sweepers, or scavengers, and bearers of corpses.


Ten feet; an elder; a wife's parents; a husband.

丈六 Sixteen "feet", the normal height of a Buddha in his "transformation body" 化 身 nirmāṇa-kāya; said to be the height of the Buddha when he was on earth.

丈六金身 sixteen-foot diamond-body; also a metal or golden image of the Buddha 16 feet high mentioned in the 北史 Northern History.

丈夫 A virile, zealous disciple, a man who presses forward unceasingly.

丈夫志幹 A firm-willed man, especially used of a bodhisattva who dauntlessly presses forward.

丈夫國 The country of virile men, Puruṣapura 富婁沙富羅, ancient capital of Gandhāra, the modern Peshawar; birthplace of 天親 Vasubandhu.

hīna, adhara. Below, lower, inferior, low; to descend, let down, put down.

下三途 The three lower paths of the six destinations (gati) 六道, i.e. beings in hell, pretas, and animals.

下乘 The lower yāna, i.e. Hīnayāna; likened to an old worn-out horse. To alight from (a vehicle, horse, etc.).

下八地 The regions in the nine divisions of the trailokya below the 無所有處地 of the arūpadhātu, v. 九地.

下劣乘 The inferior, mean yāna, a scornful term for Hīnayāna.

下化 (下化衆生) Below, to transform all beings, one of the great vows of a bodhisattva. 上求菩提 above, to seek bodhi. Also 下濟衆生.

下口食 one of the 四邪命食 four heterodox means of living, i.e. for a monk to earn his livelihood by bending down to cultivate the land, collect herbs, etc.; opposite of 仰口食, i.e. making a heterodox living by looking up, as in astrology, fortune-telling, etc. 智度論 3.

下品 The three lowest of the nine classes born in the Amitābha Pure Land, v. 無量壽經. These three lowest grades are (1) 下品上生 The highest of the three lowest classes who enter the Pure Land of Amitābha, i.e. those who have committed all sins except dishonouring the sūtras. If at the end of life the sinner clasps hands and says "Namo Amitābha", such a one will be born in His precious lake. (2) 下品中生 The middle class consists of those who have broken all the commandments, even stolen from monks and abused the law. If at death such a one hears of the great power of Amitābha, and assents with but a thought, he will be received into paradise. (3) 下品下生 The lowest class, because of their sins, should have fallen into the lowest gati, but by invoking the name of Amitābha, they can escape countless ages of reincarnation and suffering and on dying will behold a lotus flower like the sun, and, by the response of a single thought, will enter the Pure Land of Amitābha.


下地 The lower regions of the 九地 q. v.; also the lower half of the 十地 in the fifty-two grades of bodhisattva development.

下地麤苦障 To see the lower grade out of which one has migrated, as rough, wretched, and a hindrance; a Brahman form of meditation.

下堂 To descend from the hall, especially after the morning congee.

下塵 The lower gati, the hells, hungry ghosts, animals.

下根 Those (born) with base character, or of low capacity.

下棒 To lay on the cudgel, beat; syn. for the 德山 Te Shan monastery, whose Chan sect abbot instilled intelligence with his staff.

下火 下炬 To apply the torch; syn. for setting alight the funeral pyre of a monk.

下生經 idem 彌勤下生經.

下界 The lower, or human world 人界.

下種 To sow the seed; to preach, or teach. Tiantai defines three periods: (1) 種 when the seed of Buddha's teaching is sown in the heart; (2) 熟 when it ripens; (3) 脫 when it is stripped or harvested, i. e when one abandons all things.

下蠟 Inferior candles. The 上蠟 and 下蠟 superior and inferior candles are senior and junior monks; those of longer and shorter service; but see 上臈.

下衆 The seven lower orders of disciples, who with the monks and nuns in full orders make the 九衆.

下衣 The lowest order of a monk's robes, that of five patches; lower garments.

下語 To give instruction; to state a case (as at law).

下輩觀 A meditation of the Amitābha sect on the 下品 q. v.; it is the last of sixteen contemplations, and deals with those who have committed the five rebellious acts 五逆 and the ten evils 十惡, but who still can obtain salvation; v. 無量壽經. 下輩下生觀 idem.

下轉 The downward turn, in transmigration. Primal ignorance or unenlightenment 無明acting against the primal, true, or Buddha-nature causes transmigration. The opposite is上轉 when the good prevails over the evil. 下轉is sometimes used for 下化 to save those below.

下間 The inferior rooms of a monastery, on the left as one enters.

uttarā 嗢呾羅; above upper, superior; on; former. To ascend, offer to a superior.

上中下法 The three dharmas, systems, or vehicles, 菩薩, 緣覺, and 聲聞 bodhisattva, pratyeka-buddha, and śrāvaka.

上乘 Mahāyāna; also 上衍, 大乘 q. v.

上乘密宗 The Mahāyāna esoteric school, especially the 眞言 Shingon.

上乘瑜伽 Mahāyāna-yoga, chiefy associated with 上乘密宗.

上乘禪 The Mahāyāna Ch'an (Zen) School, which considers that it alone attains the highest realization of Mahāyāna truth. Hīnayāna philosophy is said only to realize the unreality of the ego and not the unreality of all things. The Mahāyāna realizes the unreality of the ego and of all things. But the Ch'an school is pure idealism, all being mind. This mind is Buddha, and is the universal fundamental mind.


上元燒燈 The lantern festival at the first full moon of the year.

上人 A man of superior wisdom, virtue, and conduct, a term applied to monks during the Tang dynasty.

上上人 A term used in the Pure Land sect for a worshipper of Amitābha.

上供 To offer up an offering to Buddha, or to ancestors.

上品 Superior order, grade, or class.

上品上生 上品中生; 上品下生 The three highest of the nine stages of birth in the Pure Land, v. 九品淨土.

上品蓮臺 The highest stages in the Pure Land where the best appear as lotus flowers on the pool of the seven precious things; when the lotuses open they are transformed into beings of the Pure Land.

上堂 To go into the hall to expound the doctrine; to go to a temple for the purpose of worship, or bearing presents to the monks; to go to the refectory for meals.

上堂牌 The tablet announcing the time of worship at a temple or monastery.

上士 The superior disciple, who becomes perfect in (spiritually) profiting himself and others. The 中士 profits self but not others; the 下士 neither.

上座 Sthavira; or Mahāsthavira. Old man, or elder; head monk, president, or abbot; the first Buddhist fathers; a title of Mahākāśyapa; also of monks of twenty to forty-nine years standing, as 中座 are from ten to nineteen and 下座 under ten. The 釋氏要覽 divides presiding elders into four classes, those presiding over monasteries, over assemblies of monks, over sects, and laymen presiding over feasts to monks.

上座部 他毘梨典部; 他鞞羅部 Sthavirāḥ; Sthaviranikāya; or Āryasthāvirāḥ. The school of the presiding elder, or elders. The two earliest sections of Buddhism were this (which developed into the Mahāsthavirāḥ) and the Mahāsānghikāḥ or 大衆部. At first they were not considered to be different schools, the 上座部 merely representing the intimate and older disciples of Śākyamuni and the 大衆 being the rest. It is said that a century later under Mahādeva 大天 a difference of opinion arose on certain doctrines. Three divisions are named as resulting, viz. Mahāvihāravāsinaḥ, Jetavanīyāḥ, and Abhayagiri-vāsinaḥ. These were in Ceylon. In course of time the eighteen Hīnayāna sects were developed. From the time of Aśoka four principal schools are counted as prevailing: Mahāsāṅghika, Sthavira, Mūlasarvāstivda, and Saṁmitīya. The following is a list of the eleven sects reckoned as of the 上座部: 說一切有部; 雪山; 犢子; 法上; 賢冑; 正量; 密林山; 化地; 法藏; 飮光; and 經量部. The Sthaviravādin is reputed as nearest to early Buddhism in its tenets, though it is said to have changed the basis of Buddhism from an agnostic system to a realistic philosophy.

上方 上手 An abbot 上方 originally meant a mountain monastery.

上根 A man of superior character or capacity, e.g. with superior organs of sight, hearing, etc.

上求本來 Similar to the first half of 上求菩提下化衆生 Above to seek bodhi, below to save all. 本來 means the original or Buddha-nature, which is the real nature of all beings.

上流 (上流般) ūrdhvasrotas. The flow upwards, or to go upwards against the stream of transmigration to parinirvāṇa. Also 上流般涅槃.

上煩惱 The severe fundamental trials arising out of the ten great delusions; also the trials or distresses of present delusions.

上界天 The devas of the regions of form and formlessness. v. 色.

上祭 To place offerings on an altar; also 下祭.

上綱 The 'higher bond' or superior, the 上座 or Sthavira, among the three directors of a monastery. v. 三綱.

上著衣 A monk's outer robe, uttarā-samghāṭī, worn over the shirt or antara-vāsaka.

上肩 Upper shoulder, i.e. the left or superior; one worthy of respect.

上肩順轉 Circumambulation with the superior shoulder to the image; the left was formerly considered the superior side; but this is uncertain.

上臈 The "la" is the end of a summer's retreat, which ends the monastic year, hence 上臈 are senior, 下臈 junior monks.


上茅城 (上茅宮城) Kuśāgrapura, 矩奢揭羅補羅 city of Kuśa-grass palaces, or山城 the mountain city. v. 吉祥茅國.

上行菩薩 Viśiṣṭa-cāritra Bodhisattva, who suddenly rose out of the earth as Buddha was concluding one of his Lotus sermons; v. Lotus sūtra 15 and 21. He is supposed to have been a convert of the Buddha in long past ages and to come to the world in its days of evil. Nichiren in Japan believed himself to be this Bodhisattva's reincarnation, and the Nichiren trinity is the Buddha, i.e. the eternal Śākyamuni Buddha; the Law, i.e. the Lotus Truth; and the Saṅgha, i.e. this Bodhisattva, in other words Nichiren himself as the head of all living beings, or eldest son of the Buddha.

上衍 Mahāyāna, 上乘; v. 大乘.

上衣 The superior or outer robe described as of twenty-five patches, and styled the uttarā saṁghātī.

上趣 The higher gati, directions, or transmigrations.

上足 A superior disciple or follower.

上輩 Superior, or highest class, idem 上品.

上輩觀 The fourteenth of the sixteen contemplations of the Amitābha school, with reference to those who seek the Pure Land with sincere, profound, and altruistic hearts.

上轉 The upward turn: (1) progress upward, especially in transmigration; (2) increase in enlightenment for self, while下轉 q.v. is for others.

上間 The superior rooms, i.e. on the right as one enters a monastery, the 下間 are on the left.

上首 President, or presiding elders.

Tri, trayas; three.

三一 Trinity; also 31.

三七日思惟 The twenty-one days spent by the Buddha, after his enlightenment, in walking round the bo-tree and considering how to carry his Mahāyāna way of salvation to the world; v. 法華經,方便品.

三三昧 (三三昧地) The three samādhis, or the samādhi on three subjects; 三三摩 (三三摩地); 三定, 三等持; 三空; 三治; 三解脫門; 三重三昧; 三重等持. There are two forms of such meditation, that of 有漏 reincarnational, or temporal, called 三三昧; and that of 無 漏 liberation, or nirvāṇa, called 三解脫. The three subjects and objects of the meditation are (1) 空 to empty the mind of the ideas of me and mine and suffering, which are unreal; (2) 無相to get rid of the idea of form, or externals, i.e. the 十相 which are the five senses, and male and female, and the three 有; (3) 無願 to get rid of all wish or desire, also termed無作 and 無起. A more advanced meditation is called the Double Three Samādhi 重三三昧 in which each term is doubled 空空, 無相無相, 無願無願. The esoteric sect has also a group of its own.

三不三信 This refers to the state of faith in the worshipper; the three 不 are impure, not single, not constant; the three 信 are the opposite.

三不善根 Three bad roots, or qualities — desire, anger, and stupidity 貪, 瞋, 痴, v. 三毒.

三不堅法 Three unstable things — the body, length of life, wealth.

三不失 The three never lost, idem 三不護.

三不淨肉 The three kinds of flesh unclean to a monk killed, or has doubt about it; v. 三淨肉.

三不能 v. 三能.

三不護 The three that need no guarding i.e. the 三業 of a Buddha, his body, mouth (or lips), and mind, which he does not need to guard as they are above error.

三不退 The three non-backslidings, i.e. from position attained, from line of action pursued, and in dhyāna.

三世 The three periods, 過去, 現在, 未來or 過, 現, 未, past, present, and future. The universe is described as eternally in motion, like flowing stream. Also 未生, 巳生,後滅, or 未, 現, 過 unborn, born, dead The 華嚴經 Hua-yen sūtra has a division of ten kinds of past, present, and future i.e. the past spoken of as past, present, and future, the present spoken of in like manner, the future also, with the addition of the present as the three periods in one instant. Also 三際.

三世三千佛 The thousand Buddhas of each of the three kalpas — of the past, called 莊嚴 kalpa, the present 賢, and the future 星宿. Their names are variously given in several sutra, with a complete list in the 三手佛名經.

三世不可得 Everything past, present, future, whether mental or material, is intangible, fleeting, and cannot be held; v. 三世心.

三世了達 A Buddha's perfect knowledge of past, present, and future.


三世佛 The Buddhas of the past, present, and future, i.e. Kāsyapa, Śākyamuni, and Maitreya.

三世假實 The reality or otherwise of things or events past, present, and future. Some Hīnayāna schools admit the reality of the present but dispute the reality of the past 已有and the future 當有. Others take different views, all of which have been exhaustively discussed. See Vibhāśā śāstra 婆沙論 77 or 俱舍論 20.

三世實有法體恒有 The Sarvāstivadah school maintains that as the three states (past, present, future) are real, so the substance of all things is permanent; i.e. time is real, matter is eternal.

三世心 Mind, or thought, past, present or future, is momentary, always moving, unreal and cannot be laid hold of.

三世成佛 idem 三生.

三世智 One of a Tathāgata's ten kinds of wisdom, i.e. knowledge of past, present, and future.

三世無障礙智戒 The wisdom-law or moral law that frees from all impediments, past, present, and future. Also styled 三昧耶戒; 自性本源戒; 三平等戒; 菩提心戒; 無爲戒 and 眞法戒.

三世覺母 A name for Mañjuśrī 文殊; as guardian of the wisdom of Vairocana he is the bodhi-mother of all Buddhas past, present, and future.

三世間 There are two definitions: (1) The realms of 器 matter, of 衆生 life, and 智正覺 mind, especially the Buddha's mind. (2) The 五陰 psychological realm (mind), 衆生 realm of life, and 國土 or 器material realm.

三乘 Triyāna, the three vehicles, or conveyances which carry living beings across saṁsāra or mortality (births-and-deaths) to the shores of nirvāṇa. The three are styled 小,中, and 大. Sometimes the three vehicles are defined as 聲聞 Śrāvaka, that of the hearer or obedient disciple; 緣覺Pratyeka-buddha, that of the enlightened for self; these are described as 小乘 because the objective of both is personal salvation; the third is 菩薩Bodhisattva, or 大乘 Mahāyāna, because the objective is the salvation of all the living. The three are also depicted as 三車 three wains, drawn by a goat, a deer, an ox. The Lotus declares that the three are really the One Buddha-vehicle, which has been revealed in three expedient forms suited to his disciples' capacity, the Lotus Sūtra being the unifying, complete, and final exposition. The Three Vehicles are differently explained by different exponents, e.g. (1) Mahāyāna recognizes (a) Śrāvaka, called Hīnayāna, leading in longer or shorter periods to arhatship; (b) Pratyeka-buddha, called Madhyamayāna, leading after still longer or shorter periods to a Buddhahood ascetically attained and for self; (c) Bodhisattva, called Mahayana, leading after countless ages of self-sacrifce in saving others and progressive enlightenment to ultimate Buddhahood. (2) Hīnayāna is also described as possessing three vehicles 聲, 緣, 菩 or 小, 中, 大, the 小 and 中 conveying to personal salvation their devotees in ascetic dust and ashes and mental annihilation, the 大 leading to bodhi, or perfect enlightenment, and the Buddha's way. Further definitions of the Triyāna are: (3) True bodhisattva teaching for the 大; pratyeka-buddha without ignorant asceticism for the 中; and śrāvaka with ignorant asceticism for the 小. (4) (a) 一乘 The One-Vehicle which carries all to Buddhahood: of this the 華嚴 Hua-yen and 法華 Fa-hua are typical exponents; (b) 三乘法 the three-vehicle, containing practitioners of all three systems, as expounded in books of the 深密般若; (c) 小乘 the Hīnayāna pure and simple as seen in the 四阿合經 Four Āgamas. Śrāvakas are also described as hearers of the Four Truths and limited to that degree of development; they hear from the pratyeka-buddhas, who are enlightened in the Twelve Nidānas 因緣; the bodhisattvas make the 六度 or six forms of transmigration their field of sacrificial saving work, and of enlightenment. The Lotus Sūtra really treats the 三乘. Three Vehicles as 方便 or expedient ways, and offers a 佛乘 Buddha Vehicle as the inclusive and final vehicle.

三乘家 The Dharmalakṣaṇa School of the Three Vehicles, led by the 法相宗.

三乘眞實一乘方便 The 三乘家 consider the Triyāna as real, and the "one vehicle" of the Lotus School as merely tactical, or an expedient form of expression.

事戒 The commands relating to body, speech, and mind 身, 口, 意.

三事練磨 v. 三退屈.

三事衲 (or 三事衣) A term for a monk's robe of five, seven, or nine patches.

三仙二天 The three ṛṣis or wise men and the two devas, i.e. 迦毘羅 Kapila, founder of the Sāṁkhya philosophy; 鵂鶹 or 優樓佉 Ulūka or Kaṇāda, founder of the 勝論宗 or Vaiśeṣika philosophy; and 勒沙婆 Ṛṣabha, founder of the Nirgranthas; with Śiva and Viṣṇu as the two deities.

三伐持 Saṃvaji; the heretical people of Vṛji, an ancient kingdom north of the Ganges, south-east of Nepal. (Eitel.).

三佛 Trikāya, v. 三身. Also the三岐 or founders of the 楊岐 branch of the Chan (Zen) School, i.e. Huiqin 慧勤, Qingyuan 淸遠, and Keqin 克勤.


三佛土 The three Buddha-lands, realms, or environment, corresponding to the Trikāya; v. 三身 and 佛土.

三佛子 All the living are Buddha-sons, but they are of three kinds—the commonalty are 外子 external sons; the followers of the two inferior Buddhist vehicles, 小and 中 乘, are 庶子 secondary sons (i.e. of concubines); the bodhisattvas, i.e. mahāyānists) are 子 true sons, or sons in the truth.

三佛性 The three kinds of Buddha-nature: (1) 自性住佛性 the Buddha-nature which is in all living beings, even those in the three evil paths (gati). (2) 引出佛性 the Buddha-nature developed by the right discipline. (3) 至得果佛性 the final or perfected Buddha-nature resulting from the development of the original potentiality.

三佛栗底 saṃvṛti, which means concealed, not apparent, is intp. as common ideas世俗諦 or phenomenal truth; it is also intp. as that which hides reality, or seems to be real, the seeming.

三佛菩提 The bodhi, or wisdom, of each of the Trikāya, 三身, i.e. that under the bodhi tree, that of parinirvāṇa, that of tathāgatagarbha in its eternal nirvāṇa aspect.

三佛語 The Buddha's three modes of discourse—unqualifed, i.e. out of the fullness of his nature; qualified to suit the intelligence of his hearers; and both.

三佛身idem 三身.

三佛陀 saṃbuddha; the truly enlightened one, or correct enlightenment.

三使 The three (divine) messengers—birth, sickness, death; v. 使. Also 三天使 .

三修 The three ways of discipline, i.e. three śrāvaka and three bodhisattva ways. The three śrāvaka ways are 無常修 no realization of the eternal, seeing everything as transient; 非樂修 joyless, through only contemplating misery and not realizing the ultimate nirvāṇa-joy; 無我修 non-ego discipline, seeing only the perishing self and not realizing the immortal self. The bodhisattva three are the opposite of these.

三倒 idem 三顚倒.

三條椽下 Under three rafters—the regulation space for a monk's bed or seat; in meditation.

三假 prajñāpti. The word 假 q.v. in Buddhist terminology means that everything is merely phenomenal, and consists of derived elements; nothing therefore has real existeme, but all is empty and unreal, 虛妄不實. The three 假 are 法 things, 受 sensations, and 名 names.

三假施設 三攝提The three fallacious postulates in regard to 法, 受, and 名.

三假觀 The meditations on the three false assumptions 三假.

三僧祇 idem 三阿僧祇劫.

三M067874 The three misleading things: 貪 desire, 瞋 ire, and 邪 perverted views. M067874= 愆.

三僞一眞 The three half-true, or partial revelations of the 小乘, 中乘 and 大乘, and the true one of the Lotus Sūtra.

三憶家 The 300,000 families of Śrāvastī city who had never heard of the Buddha's epiphany— though he was often among them.

三光 (三光天) Sun, moon, and stars. Also, in the second dhyāna of the form-world there are the two deva regions 少光天, 無量光天, and 光音天q.v. Also 觀音 Avalokiteśvara is styled 日天子sun-prince, or divine son of the sun, 大勢至 Mahāsthāmaprapta is styled 月天子 divine son of the moon, and 虛空藏菩薩 the bodhisattva of the empyrean, is styled 明星天子 divine son of the bright stars.

三八日 The eighth, eighteenth, and twenty-eighth days of a moon.

三六 Eighteen, especially referring to the eighteen sects of Hīnayāna.

三六九 An esoteric objection to three, six, or nine persons worshipping together.

三具足 The three essential articles for worship: flower-vase, candlestick, and censer.

三力 The three powers, of which there are various groups: (1) (a) personal power; (6) tathāgata-power; (c) power of the Buddha-nature within. (2) (a) power of a wise eye to see the Buddha-medicine (for evil); (b) of diagnosis of the ailment; (c) of suiting and applying the medicine to the disease. (3) (a) the power of Buddha; (b) of samādhi; (c) of personal achievement or merit.

三力偈 The triple-power verse: 以我功德力 In the power of my virtue, 如來加持力. And the aiding power of the Tathāgata, 及與法界力 And the power of the spiritual realm, 周遍衆生界 I can go anywhere in the land of the living.


三分科經 The three divisions of a treatise on a sūtra, i. e. 序分introduction, 正宗分discussion of the subject, 流通分application.

The three asaṃkhyeya kalpas, the three countless aeons, the period of a bodhisattva's development; also the past 莊嚴劫, the present 賢劫, and the future 星宿劫 kalpas. There are other groups. 三劫三千佛 The thousand Buddhas in each of the three kalpas.

tridaśa. Thirty; abbreviation for the thirty-three deities, heavens, etc.

十二 dvātriṃśa. Thirty-two. 三十二應 (or 三十二身) The thirty-two forms of Guanyin, and of Puxian, ranging from that of a Buddha to that of a man, a maid, a rakṣas; similar to the thirty-three forms named in the Lotus Sūtra. 三十二相三十二大人相 dvātriṃśadvaralakṣaṇa. The thirty-two lakṣaṇas, or physical marks of a cakravartī, or 'wheel-king', especially of the Buddha, i. e. level feet, thousand-spoke wheel-sign on feet, long slender fingers, pliant hands and feet, toes and fingers finely webbed, full-sized heels, arched insteps, thighs like a royal stag, hands reaching below the knees well-retracted male organ, height and stretch of arms equal, every hair-root dark coloured, body hair graceful and curly, golden-hued body, a 10 ft. halo around him, soft smooth skin, the 七處, i. e. two soles, two palms, two shoulders, and crown well rounded, below the armpits well-filled, lion-shaped body, erect, full shoulders, forty teeth, teeth white even and close, the four canine teeth pure white, lion-jawed, saliva improving the taste of all food, tongue long and broad, voice deep and resonant, eyes deep blue, eyelashes like a royal bull, a white ūrnā or curl between the eyebrows emitting light, an uṣṇīṣa or fleshy protuberance on the crown. These are from the 三藏法數 48, with which the 智度論 4, 涅盤經 28, 中阿含經, 三十ニ相經 generally agree. The 無量義經 has a different list. 三十二相經 The eleventh chapter of the 阿含經. 三十二相經願 The twenty-first of Amitābha's vows, v. 無量壽經. 三十三 trayastriṃśat. Thirty-three. 三十三天忉利天; 憺梨天, 多羅夜登陵舍; 憺利夜登陵奢; 憺利耶憺利奢 Trayastriṃśas. The Indra heaven, the second of the six heavens of form. Its capital is situated on the summit of Mt. Sumeru, where Indra rules over his thirty-two devas, who reside on thirty-two peaks of Sumeru, eight in each of the four directons. Indra's capital is called 殊勝 Sudarśana, 喜見城 Joy-view city. Its people are a yojana in height, each one's clothing weighs 六鐵 (1/4 oz. ), and they live 1, 000 years, a day and night being equal to 100 earthly years. Eitel says Indra's heaven 'tallies in all its details with the Svarga of Brahminic mythology' and suggests that 'the whole myth may have an astronomical meaning', or be connected, with 'the atmosphere with its phenomena, which strengthens Koeppen's hypothesis explaining the number thirty-three as referring to the eight Vasus, eleven Rudras, twelve Ādityas, and two Aśvins of Vedic mythology'. In his palace called Vaijayanta 'Indra is enthroned with 1, 000 eyes with four arms grasping the vajra. There he revels in numberless sensual pleasures together with his wife Śacī... and with 119, 000 concubines with whom he associates by means of transformation'.

十三觀音 (三十三尊觀音) The thirty-three forms in which Guanyin is represented: with willow, dragon, sutra, halo, as strolling, with white robe, as lotus-sleeping, with fishing-creel, as medicine-bestowing, with folded hands, holding a lotus, pouring water, etc. 三十三過 The thirty-three possible fallacies in the statement of a syllogism, nine in the proposition 宗 pratijñā, fourteen in the reason 因 hetu, and ten in the example 喩 udāharaṇa.

十三身 The thirty-three forms in which Avalokiteśvara (Guanyin) is said to have presented himself, from that of a Buddha to that of a woman or a rakṣas. Cf. Lotus Sūtra 普門 chapter.

十五佛 The thirty-five Buddhas before whom those who have committed sins involving interminable suffering should heartily repent. There are different lists.

十六物 The thirty-six physical parts and excretions of the human body, all being unclean, i. e. the vile body.

三十六神 (三十六部神) The thirty-six departmental guardian divinities given in the 灌頂三歸五戒帶佩護身咒經. Each is styled 彌栗頭 mṛdu, benign, kindly, for which 善 is used. Their Sanskrit and Chinese names are given in Chinese as follows: (1) 不羅婆 or 善光 kindly light, has to do with attacks of disease; (2) 婆呵婆 or 善明 headaches; (3) 婆邏婆 or 善力 fevers; (4) 抗陀羅 or 善月 disorders of the stomach; (5) 陀利奢 or 善見 tumours; (6) 阿婁呵 or 善供 madness; (7) 伽婆帝 or 善捨 stupidity; (8) 悉抵哆 or 善寂 irascibility; (9) 菩堤薩 or善覺 lust; (10) 提婆羅 or 善天 devils; (11) 阿婆帝 or 善住 deadly injuries; (12) 不若羅 of 善福 graves; (13) 苾闍伽 or 善術 the four quarters; (14) 迦隸婆 or 善帝 enemies; (15) 羅闍遮 or 善主 robbers; (16) 須乾陀 or 善香 creditors; (17) 檀那波 or 善施 thieves; (18) 支多那 or 善意 pestilence; (19) 羅婆那 or 善吉 the five plagues (? typhoid); (20) 鉢婆馱 or 善山 corpse worms; (21) 三摩提 or 善調 continuous concentration; (22) 戾禘馱 or 善備 restlessness; (23) 波利陀 or 善敬 attraction; (24) 波利那 or 善淨 evil cabals; (25) 度伽地 or 善品 deadly poison; (26) 毘梨馱 or 善結 fear; (27) 支陀那 or 善壽 calamities; (28) 伽林摩 or 善逝 childbirth and nursing; (29) 阿留伽 or 善願 the district magistracy; (30) 闍利馱 or 善固 altercations; (31) 阿伽駄 or 善照 anxieties and distresses; (32) 阿訶婆 or 善生 uneasiness; (33) 婆和邏 or 善思 supernatural manifestations; (34) 波利那 or 善藏 jealousy; (35) 固陀那 or 善音 curses; (36) 韋陀羅 or 善妙 exorcism. They have innumerable assistants. He who writes their names and carries them with him can be free from all fear.


三十七道品 三十七分法, 三十七菩提分法, 三十七品 The thirty-seven conditions leading to bodhi, or Buddhahood, i. e. 四念處 smṛtyupasthāna, four states of memory, or subjects of reflection; 四正勤 samyakprahāṇa, four proper lines of exertion; 四如意足 ṛddhipāda, four steps towards supernatural power; 五根 pañca indriyāṇi, five spiritual faculties; 五力pañca balāni, their five powers; 七覺支 sapta bodhyaṅga, seven degrees of enlightenment, or intelligence; and 八正道 aṣṭa-mārga, the eightfold noble path.

三十七尊 The thirty-seven heads in the Vajradhātu or Diamond-realm maṇḍala.

三十七尊四大輪 The four large circles in each of which the thirty-seven are represented, in one all hold the diamond-realm symbol, the vajra; in another, the symbol relating to the triple realm of time, past, present, future; in another, the Guanyin symbol; and in another, the symbol of infinite space.

三十捨墮 idem 尼薩耆波逸提.

三十生 In each of the 十地 ten states there are three conditions, 入, 住, 出, entry, stay, exit, hence the 'thirty lives'.

三千 trisahasra, three thousand; a term used by the Tiantai School for 一切諸法, i. e. all things, everything in a chiliocosm, or Buddhaworld; v. 三千大千世界.

三千佛 idem 三世.

三千塵點劫 The kalpa of the ancient Buddha Mahābhijñābhibhū (大通智; 勝佛), mentioned in the Lotus Sūtra, i. e. a kalpa of incalculable antiquity, e. g. surpassing the number of the particles of a chiliocosm which has been ground to powder, turned into ink, and dropped, drop by drop, at vast distances throughout boundless space.

三千大千世界 tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu, a great chiliocosm; 三千; 三千界, 三千世界. Mt. Sumeru and its seven surrounding continents, eight seas and ring of iron mountains form one small world; 1, 000 of these form a small chiliocosm 小千世界; 1, 000 of these small chiliocosms form a medium chiliocosm 中千世界; a thousand of these form a great chiliocosm 大千世界, which thus consists of 1, 000, 000, 000 small worlds. The 三千 indicates the above three kinds of thousands, therefore 三千大千世界 is the same as 大千世界, which is one Buddha-world.

三千實相 The reality at the basis of all things, a Tiantai doctrine, i. e. the 眞如 or 法性 idem 諸法實相.

三千年一現 The udumbara flower which flowers but once in 3, 000 years; v. 優.

三千威儀 A bhikṣu's regulations amount to about 250; these are multiplied by four for the conditions of walking, standing, sitting, and sleeping and thus make 1, 000; again multiplied by three for past, present, and future, they become 3, 000 regulations.

三千威儀經 The sūtra of the three thousand regulations.

三印 The three signs or proofs of a Hīnayāna sutra— non-permanence, non-personality, nirvāṇa; without these the sūtra is spurious and the doctrine is of Māra; the proof of a Mahāyāna sūtra is the doctrine of 一實 ultimate reality, q. v. Also 三法印.

三卽一 The three vehicles (Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna) are one, i. e. the three lead to bodhisattvaship and Buddhahood for all.

三受 The three states of Vedanā, i. e. sensation, are divided into painful, pleasurable, and freedom from both 苦, 樂, 捨. When things are opposed to desire, pain arises; when accordant, there is pleasure and a desire for their continuance; when neither, one is detached or free. 倶舍論 1.

三受業 The karma or results arising from the pursuit of courses that produce pain, pleasure, or freedom from both.

三句 Three cryptic questions of 雲門 Yunmen, founder of the Yunmen Chan School. They are: (1) 截斷衆流 What is it that stops all flow (of reincarnation) ? The reply from the 起信論 is 一心, i. e. the realization of the oneness of mind, or that all is mind. (2) 函蓋乾坤 What contains and includes the universe? The 眞如. (3) 隨波逐浪 One wave following another— what is this? Birth and death 生死, or transmigration, phenomenal existence.


三味 The three flavours, or pleasant savours: the monastic life, reading the scriptures, meditation.

三和 The union of the three, i.e. 根 indriya, 境 ālambana, and 識 vijñāna, i.e. organ, object, and cognition.

三品 The general meaning is 上, 中, 下 superior, medium, inferior.

三品悉地 The three esoteric kinds of siddhi, i.e. complete attainment, supreme felicity. They are 上 superior, to be born in the 密嚴國 Vairocana Pure-land; 中 in one of the other Pure-lands among which is the Western Paradise; and 下 in the 修羅宮 Sun Palaces among the devas. Also styled 三品成就.

三品沙彌 The three grades of śrāmaṇera, i.e. 7-13 years old styled 駈鳥沙彌; 14-19 應法沙彌; and 20 and upwards 名字沙彌.

三品聽法 The three grades of hearers, i.e. 上 with the 神 spirit; 中 with the 心 mind; 下 with the 耳 ear.

三善 idem 三時敎 and 三善根.

三善根 The three good "roots", the foundation of all moral development, i.e. 無貪, 無瞋, 無痴 no lust (or selfish desire), no ire, no stupidity (or unwillingness to learn). Also, 施, 慈, 慧 giving, kindness, moral wisdom; v. 三毒 the three poisons for which these are a cure.

三善知識 The three types of friends with whom to be intimate, i.e. a teacher (of the Way), a fellow-endeavourer and encourager, and a patron who supports by gifts (dānapati).

三善道 (or 三善趣) The three good or upward directions or states of existence: 天 the highest class of goodness rewarded with the deva life, or heaven; 人 the middle class of goodness with a return to human life; 阿修羅 the inferior class of goodness with the asura state. Cf. 三惡道; v. 智度論 30.

三因 The six "causes" of the Abhidharma Kośa 倶舍論 as reduced to three in the Satyasiddhi śāstra 成實論, i.e. 生因 producing cause, as good or evil deeds cause good or evil karma; 習因 habit cause, e.g. lust breeding lust; 依因 dependent or hypostatic cause, e.g. the six organs 六根 and their objects 六境 causing the cognitions 六識.

三因三果 The three causes produce their three effects: (1) 異熟因異熟果 differently ripening causes produce differently ripening effects, i.e. every developed cause produces its developed effect, especially the effect of the present causes in the next transmigration; (2) 福因福報 blessed deeds produce blessed rewards, now and hereafter; (3) 智因智果 wisdom (now) produces wisdom-fruit (hereafter).

三國土 idem 四土 omitting 寂光土.

三土 idem 三佛土.

三垢 The three defilers—desire, hate, stupidity (or ignorance), idem 三毒.

三堅 The three sure or certain things are 身, 命 and 財, i.e. the reward of the true disciple is an infinite body or personality, an endless life, and boundless (spiritual) possessions, 無極之身, 無窮之命, 無盡之財, v. 能摩經:菩薩品.

三報 The three recompenses, i.e. 現報 in the present life for deeds now done; 生報 in the next rebirth for deeds now done; and 後報 in subsequent lives.

三境 v. 三類境.

三塗 The 塗 mire is interpreted by 途 a road, i.e. the three unhappy gati or ways; (a) 火塗 to the fires of hell; (b) 血塗 to the hell of blood, where as animals they devour each other; (c) 刀塗 the asipattra hell of swords, where the leaves and grasses are sharp-edged swords. Cf. 三惡趣.

三多 Much intercourse with good friends, much hearing of the Law, much meditation on the impure. Also, much worship, much service of good friends, much inquiry on important doctrines. There are other groups.

三大 The three great characteristics of the 眞如 in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (1) 體大 The greatness of the bhūtatathatā in its essence or substance; it is 衆生心之體性 the embodied nature of the mind of all the living, universal, immortal, immutable, eternal; (2) 相大 the greatness of its attributes or manifestations, perfect in wisdom and mercy, and every achievement; (3) 用大 the greatness of its functions and operations within and without, perfectly transforming all the living to good works and good karma now and hereafter. There are other groups, e.g. 體, 宗, and 用.


三大部 Three authoritative works of the Tiantai School, i.e. the 玄義, 文句, and 止觀, each of ten juan.

三天 The trimūrti— Śiva, Viṣṇu, and Brahmā.

三天使 v. 三使.

三天四仙 v. 二天三仙 and add 鳩摩羅 Kuveradeva and 若提子 Nirgrahtha, son of Jñātṛ, i.e. of the Jñātṛ clan.

三契 Three repetitions (of a verse).

三妙行 A muni, recluse, or monk, who controls his body, mouth, and mind 身, 口, 意. Also 三牟尼.

三子 The three sons, one filial, wise, and competent; one unfilial but clever and competent; one unfilial stupid, and incompetent; types respectively of bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, and icchahtikas, 涅槃經 33.

三季 The "three seasons" of an Indian year— spring, summer, and winter; a year.

三學 The "three studies" or vehicles of learning— discipline, meditation, wisdom: (a) 戒學 learning by the commandments, or prohibitions, so as to guard against the evil consequences of error by mouth, body, or mind, i.e. word, deed, or thought; (b) 定學 learning by dhyāna, or quietist meditation; (c) 慧學 learning by philosophy, i.e. study of principles and solving of doubts. Also the Tripiṭaka; the 戒 being referred to the 律 vinaya, the 定 to the 經 sūtras, and the to the 論 śāstras.

三安居 The three months of summer retreat, varṣāḥ; v. 跋.

三字 The "three characters", a term for 阿彌陀 Amitābha.

三宗 The three Schools of 法相宗, 破相宗 , and 法性宗 q.v., representing the ideas of 空, 假, and 不空假, i.e. unreality, temporary reality, and neither; or absolute, relative, and neither.

三定聚 idem 三聚.

三密 The three mystic things: the body, mouth (i.e. voice), and mind of the Tathāgata, which are universal, all things being this mystic body, all sound this mystic voice, and all thought this mystic mind. All creatures in body, voice, and mind are only individualized parts of the Tathāgata, but illusion hides their Tathāgata nature from them. The esoterics seek to realize their Tathāgata nature by physical signs and postures, by voicing of 眞言 dhāraṇī and by meditations, so that 入我我入 He may enter me and I Him, which is the perfection of siddhi 悉地; v. 大日經疏 1. 菩提心論.

三密六大 The three mystic things associated with the six elements, i.e. the mystic body is associated with earth, water, and fire; the mystic words with wind and space; the mystic mind with 識 cognition.

三密栗底尼迦耶 v. 三彌底 sammitīyanikāya.

三密相應 The three mystic things, body, mouth, and mind, of the Tathāgata are identical with those of all the living, so that even the fleshly body born of parents is the dharmakāya, or body of Buddha: 父母所生之肉身卽爲佛身也.

三寳 Triratna, or Ratnatraya, i.e. the Three Precious Ones: 佛 Buddha, 法 Dharma, 儈 Saṅgha, i.e. Buddha, the Law, the Ecelesia or Order. Eitel suggests this trinity may be adapted from the Trimūrti, i.e, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Sīva. The Triratna takes many forms, e.g. the Trikāya 三身 q.v. There is also the Nepalese idea of a triple existence of each Buddha as a Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Dhyāni-Buddha, and Mānuṣi-Buddha; also the Tantric trinity of Vairocana as Nirvāṇa-Buddha, Locana according to Eitel "existing in reflex in the world of forms", and the human Buddha, Śākyamuni. There are other elaborated details known as the four and the six kinds of triratna 四 and 六種三寳, e.g. that the Triratna exists in each member of the trinity. The term has also been applied to the 三仙 q.v. Popularly the 三寳 are referred to the three images in the main hall of monasteries. The centre one is Śākyamuni, on his left Bhaiṣajya 藥師 and on his right Amitābha. There are other explanations, e.g. in some temples Amitābha is in the centre, Avalokiteśvara on his left, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta or Mañjuśrī on his right. Table of Triratna, Trikāya, and Trailokya: — DHARMASAṄGHABUDDHA Essential BodhiReflected BodhiPractical Bodhi Dhyāni BuddhaDhyāni BodhisattvaMānuṣī Buddha DharmakāyaSambhogakāyaNirmāṇakāya PurityCompletenessTransformations 4th Buddha-kṣetra3rd Buddha-kṣetra1st and 2nd Buddha kṣetra ArūpadhātuRūpadhātuKāmadhātu.


三寶物 The things appertaining to the triratna, i.e. to the Buddha— temples and images, etc.; to the dharma— the scriptures; to the saṅgha— cassock, bowl, etc.

三寶藏 The tritratna as the treasury of all virtue and merit; also the tripiṭaka, sūtras 經 vinaya 律, abhidharma 論; also śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, and bodhisattvas.

三寶衣 idem 三衣.

三寶身 v. 三身.

三尊 The three honoured ones: Buddha, the Law, the Ecclesia or Order. Others are: Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, and Mahāsthāmaprāpta, who, according to the Pure-land sect, come to welcome the dying invoker. Another group is Bhaiṣajya, Vairocana, and Candraprabha; and another, Śākyamunī, Mañjuśrī, and Samantabhadra.

三尊佛 The three honoured Buddhas of the West: Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta. Though bodhisattvas, the two latter are called Buddhas when thus associated with Amitābha.

三尊來迎 Amitābha, Avalokiteśvara, Mahāsthāmaprāpta, receive into the western paradise the believer who calls on Amitābha.

三帀 The thrice repeated procession around an image; there is dispute as to which shoulder should be next to the image, v. 右繞.

三師七證 The three superior monks and a minimum of seven witnesses required for an ordination to full orders; except in outlandish places, when two witnesses are valid.

三平等 The esoteric doctrine that the three— body, mouth, and mind— are one and universal. Thus in samādhi the Buddha "body" is found everywhere and in everything (pan-Buddha), every sound becomes a "true word", dhāraṇī or potent phrase, and these are summed up in mind, which being universal is my mind and my mind it, 入我我入 it in me and I in it. Other definitions of the three are 佛, 法, 儈 the triratna; and 心, 佛, 衆生 mind, Buddha, and the living. Also 三三昧. Cf. 三密. v. 大日經 1.

三平等地 The three universal positions or stages, i.e. the three states expressed by 空, 無相, and 無願; v. 三三昧地.

三平等戒 idem 三昧耶戒 and 世無障礙智戒.

三平等觀 idem 三三昧觀.

三平等護摩壇 The three equal essentials of the fire sacrifice, i.e. the individual as offerer, the object of worship, and the altar.

三彌叉 Samīkṣā, 觀察 investigation, i.e. the Sāṃkhya, a system of philosophy, wrongly ascribed by Buddhists to 闍提首那 Jātisena, or 闍耶犀那 Jayasena, who debated the twenty-five Sāṃkhya principles (tattvas) with Śākyamuni but succumbed, shaved his head and became a disciple, according to the 涅槃經 39.

三彌底 彌底; 彌離底; 三密 (or 蜜) 栗底尼迦耶; 三眉底與量弟子 Saṃmatīyanikāya, Saṃmata, or Saṃmitīyas. A Hīnayāna sect the 正量部 correctly commensurate or logical school, very numerous and widely spread during the early centuries of our era. The 三彌底部論 is in the Tripiṭaka. It taught "that a soul exists in the highest and truest sense", "that an arhat can fall from arhatship, that a god can enter the paths of the Order, and that even an unconverted man can get rid of all lust and ill-will" (Eliot, i, 260). It split into the three branches of Kaurukullakāḥ Āvantikāh, and Vātsīputrīyāḥ.

三彌提 Saṃmiti is a saint mentioned in the 阿含經.

三形 idem 三昧耶形.

三從 A woman's three subordinations, to father, husband, and son; stated in several sūtras, e.g. 四十華嚴經28.

三德 The three virtues or powers, of which three groups are given below. (1) (a) 法身德 The virtue or potency of the Buddha's eternal, spiritual body, the dharmakāya; (b) 般若德 of his prājñā, or wisdom, knowing all things in their reality; (c) 解脫德 of his freedom from all bonds and his sovereign Iiberty. Each of these has the four qualities of 常, 樂我, 淨eternity, joy, personality, and purity; v. 漫涅槃經 (2) (a) 智德 The potency of his perfect knowledge; (b) 斷德 of his cutting off all illusion and perfecting of supreme nirvāṇa; the above two are 自利 for his own advantage; (c) 恩德 of his universal grace and salvation, which 利他 bestows the benefits he has acquired on others. (3) (a) 因圓德 The perfection of his causative or karmic works during his three great kalpas of preparation; (b) 果圓德 the perfection of the fruit, or results in his own character and wisdom; (c) 恩圓德 the perfection of his grace in the salvation of others.

三心 The three minds, or hearts; various groups are given: (1) Three assured ways of reaching the Pure Land, by (a) 至誠心 perfect sincerity; (b) 深 profound resolve for it; (c) 廻向接發願心 resolve on demitting one's merits to others. (2) (a) 根本心 The 8th or ālaya-vijñāna mind, the storehouse, or source of all seeds of good or evil; (b) 依本 the 7th or mano-vijñāna mind, the mediating cause of all taint; (c) 起事心 the ṣaḍāyatana-vijñāna mind, the immediate influence of the six senses. (3) (a) 入心 (b) 住心 (c) 出心 The mind entering into a condition, staying there, departing. (4) A pure, a single, and an undistracted mind. There are other groups.


三忍 The tree forms of kṣānti, i.e. patience (or endurance, tolerance). One of the groups is patience under hatred, under physical hardship, and in pursuit of the faith. Another is patience of the blessed in the Pure Land in understanding the truth they hear, patience in obeying the truth, patience in attaining absolute reality; v. 無量壽經. Another is patience in the joy of remembering Amitābha, patience in meditation on his truth, and patience in constant faith in him. Another is the patience of submission, of faith, and of obedience.

三念住 (or 三念處). Whether all creatures believe, do not believe, or part believe and part do not believe, the Buddha neither rejoices, nor grieves, but rests in his proper mind and wisdom, i.e. though full of pity, his far-seeing wisdom 正念正智 keeps him above the disturbances of joy and sorrow. 倶舍論 27.

三性 The three types of character 善, 惡, 無記 good, bad and undefinable, or neutral; v. 唯識論 5. Also, 徧依圓三性 the three aspects of the nature of a thing— partial, as when a rope is mistaken for a snake; only partly reliable, i.e. incomplete inference, as when it is considered as mere hemp; all around, or perfect, when content, form, etc., are all considered.

三性分別 The differentiation of the three conditions of good, evil, and neutral.

三思 All action and speech have three mental conditions— reflection, judgment, decision.

三惑 A Tiantai classification of the three delusions, also styled 三煩惱; 三漏; 三垢; 三結; trials or temptations, leakages, uncleannesses, and bonds. The first of the following three is common to all disciples, the two last to bodhisattvas. They arise from (a) 見, 思, 惑 things seen and thought, i.e. illusions from imperfect perception, with temptation to love, hate, etc.; to be rid of these false views and temptations is the discipline and nirvāṇa of ascetic or Hīnayāna Buddhists. Mahāyāna proceeds further in and by its bodhisattva aims, which produce their own difficulties, i.e. (b) 塵沙惑 illusion and temptation through the immense variety of duties in saving men; and (c) 無明惑 illusions and temptations that arise from failure philosophically to understand things in their reality.

三惡 The three evil gati, or paths of transmigration; also 三惡道, 三惡趣 the hells, hungry ghosts, animals.

三惡覺 The three evil mental states: 欲 desire, 瞋 hate (or anger), 害 malevolence.

三想 The three evil thoughts are the last, desire, hate, malevolence; the three good thoughts are 怨想 thoughts of (love to) enemies, 親想 the same to family and friends, 中人想 the same to those who are neither enemies nor friends, i.e. to all; v. 智度論 72.

三慕達羅 Samudra, the sea, an ocean; also 三母捺羅娑誐羅 samudra-sāgara. Samudra and sāgara are synonyms.

三慧 The three modes of attaining moral wisdom: 聞慧 from reading, hearing, instruction; 思慧 from reflection, etc.; 修慧 from practice (of abstract meditation).

三應供養 The three who should be served, or worshipped— a Buddha, an arhat, and a cakravartī king.

三懺 idem 三種悔法.

三戒 The three sets of commandments, i.e. the ten for the ordained who have left home, the eight for the devout at home, and the five for the ordinary laity.

三拔諦 idem 三跋致.

三摩 Sama, level, equal, same, etc.; cf. 三昧 (三昧耶) and 平等.

三摩半那 samāpanna, in the state of samādhi.

三摩呬多 samāhita; steadfast, tranquil. A degree of meditation.

三摩呾叱 Samataṭa, an ancient kingdom on the left bank of the Ganges, near its mouths, extending to the Hooghly, over 3,000 li in circuit, low and damp, with a hardy people, short and dark. Eitel says "close to the sea at the mouth of the Brahmaputra." Eliot says: "In the east of Bengal and not far from the modern Burmese frontier."


三摩地 (or 三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底) Samādhi; idem 三昧.

三摩地念誦 Silent or meditative repetition of the name of Buddha.

三摩娑 Samāsa. 煞三摩婆 Ṣaṭ-samāsa, v. 六離合釋.

三摩婆夜 Samavāya, coming together, combination; 利合 advantageous union.

三摩皮陀 縒摩吠陀; 沙磨; 平論; 歌詠 Sāma-veda-saṃhitā. A collection of verses sung at sacrifices, etc. The third of the three Vedas, or four if Atharva Veda is counted, as it was later; the verses are taken almost wholly from the Ṛgveda.

三摩竭 Sumāgadhā, said to be a daughter of Anāthapiṇḍada of Śrāvastī, who married the ruler of 難國 and converted the ruler and people.

三摩耶 (or 三摩曳) idem 三昧耶; but 三摩耶 is also explained as a short period, a season of the year.

三摩耶道 A term among the esoterics for the 三平等 q.v.

三摩若 sāmānya, generality; in common; inclusive; v. 共.

三摩越 idem 三摩鉢底.

三摩近離 The public gathering for a festival, lay and cleric, before parting at the end of the summer retreat.

三摩鉢底 (or 三摩鉢提); 三摩拔提 (or 三摩跋提); 三摩越 samāpatti, attainment, arrival; defined by 等至 and 等持 which is intp. as complete dhyāna; similar to 三摩半那 samāpanna, attainment. Eitel says: "a degree of abstract ecstatic meditation preparatory to the final attainment of samādhi." Clough speaks of eight samāpattis, i.e. attainments— "eight successive states induced by the ecstatic meditation." v. also 三摩越.

三摩難呾囉 samanantaram, immediately following or contiguous; 等無間緣緣 i.e. one of the four 緣q.v.; it means without interval, i.e. an immediate cause.

三攝提The three prajñapti, v. 三假施設; they are the 受 and 法 and 名假施設.

三支 (三支比量) Three members of a syllogism: pratijñā宗 the proposition, hetu 因 the reason, udāharaṇa 喩the example; cf. 因明.

三教 The three teachings, i.e. 儒, 佛 (or 釋), and 道Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism; or, 孔, 老, 釋 Confucianism, Taoism (aIso known as 神敎), and Buddhism. In Japan they are Shinto, Confucianism, and Buddhism. In Buddhism the term is applied to the three periods of Śākyamuni's own teaching, of which there are several definitions: (1) The Jiangnan 南中 School describe his teaching as (a) 漸progressive or gradual; (b) 頓 immediate, i.e. as one whole, especially in the 華嚴經; and (c) 不定 or indeterminate. (2) 光統 Guangtong, a writer of the Iater Wei dynasty, describes the three as (a) 漸 progressive for beginners, i.e. from impermanence to permanence, from the void to reality, etc.; (b) 頓 immediate for the more advanced; and (c) 圓complete, to the most advanced, i.e. the Huayan as above. (3) The 三時敎q.v. (4) The 南山 Southern school deals with (a) the 性空of Hīnayāna; (b) 相空of Mahāyāna; and (c) 唯識圓 the perfect idealism. v. 行事鈔中 4. Tiantai accepts the division of 漸, 頓, and 不定 for pre-Lotus teaching, but adopts 漸 gradual, 頓 immediate, and 圓 perfect, with the Lotus as the perfect teaching; it also has the division of 三藏敎 , 通敎 , and 別敎 q.v.

三教法師 Master of the Tripiṭaka; a title of Xuanzang 玄奘.

三斷 The three cuttings off or excisions (of 惑 beguiling delusions, or perplexities). (1) (a) 見所斷 to cut off delusions of view, of which Hīnayāna has eighty-eight kinds; (b) 修所斷in practice, eighty-one kinds; (c) 非所斷nothing left to cut off, perfect. v. 倶舍論 2. (2) (a) 自性斷 to cut off the nature or root (of delusion); (b) 緣縛斷 to cut off the external bonds, or objective causes (of delusions); (c) 不生斷 (delusion) no longer arising, therefore nothing produced to cut off. The third stage in both groups is that of an arhat.

三方便 A term of the esoterics for body, mouth (speech), and mind, their control, and the entry into the 三密 q.v. 大日經疏 1.

三施 The three forms of giving: (1) (a) one's goods; (b) the Law or Truth; (c) courage, or confidence: 智度論 11. (2) (a) goods; (b) worship; (c) preaching. (3) (a) food; (b) valuables; (c) life.

三日齋 The third day's ceremonies after a death to gain Yama's favour as the deceased appears before him.

三明 The three insights; also 三達. Applied to Buddhas they are called 三達, to arhats 三明. (a) 宿命明 Insight into the mortal conditions of self and others in previous lives; (b) 天眼明 supernatural insight into future mortal conditions; (c) 漏盡明 nirvāṇa insight, i.e. into present mortal sufferings so as to overcome aIl passions or temptations. In the 倶舍論 27 the three are termed 住智識證明; 死生識證明 and 漏盡識證明. For 三明經 v. 長阿含16.

三明智 trividyā. The three clear conceptions that (1) all is impermanent 無常 anitya; (2) all is sorrowful 苦 duḥkha; (3) all is devoid of a self 無我 anātman.


三昧 (三昧地) Samādhi, "putting together, composing the mind, intent contemplation, perfect absorption, union of the meditator with the object of meditation." (M. W.) Also 三摩地 (三摩提, 三摩帝, 三摩底). Interpreted by 定 or 正定, the mind fixed and undisturbed; by 正受 correct sensation of the object contemplated; by 調直定 ordering and fixing the mind; by 正心行處 the condition when the motions of the mind are steadied and harmonized with the object; by 息慮凝心 the cessation of distraction and the fixation of the mind; by 等持 the mind held in equilibrium; by 奢摩他, i.e. 止息 to stay the breathing. It is described as concentration of the mind (upon an object). The aim is 解脫, mukti, deliverance from all the trammels of life, the bondage of the passions and reincarnations. It may pass from abstraction to ecstasy, or rapture, or trance. Dhyāna 定 represents a simpler form of contemplation; samāpatti 三摩鉢底 a stage further advanced; and samādhi the highest stage of the Buddhist equivalent for Yoga, though Yoga is considered by some as a Buddhist development differing from samādhi. The 翻譯名義 says: 思專 when the mind has been concentrated, then 志一不分 the will is undivided; when 想寂 active thought has been put to rest, then 氣虛神朗 the material becomes etherealized and the spirit liberated, on which 智 knowledge, or the power to know, has free course, and there is no mystery into which it cannot probe. Cf. 智度論 5, 20, 23, 28; 止觀 2; 大乘義章 2, 9, 1 3, 20, etc. There are numerous kinds and degrees of samādhi.

三昧佛 Samādhi Buddha, one of the ten Buddhas mentioned in the 華嚴經.

三昧月輪相 月輪三昧 The candra-maṇḍala, i.e. moon-wheel or disc samādhi; Nāgārjuna is said to have entered it and taken his departure as a cicada after delivering the Law (or patriarchate) to Kāṇadeva.

三昧火 Fire of samādhi, the fire that consumed the body of Buddha when he entered nirvāṇa.

三昧相應 The symbols or offerings should tally with the object worshipped, e.g. a white flower with a merciful or a white image.

三昧門 The different stages of a bodhisattva's samādhi; cf. 智度論 28.

三昧魔 samādhi-māra, one of the ten māras, who lurks in the heart and hinders progress in meditation, obstructs the truth and destroys wisdom.

三昧耶 samaya is variously defined as 會 coming together, meeting, convention; 時 timely; 宗 in agreement, of the same class; 平等 equal, equalized; 驚覺 aroused, warned; 除垢障 riddance of unclean hindrances. Especially it is used as indicating the vows made by Buddhas and bodhisattvas, hence as a tally, symbol, or emblem of the spiritual quality of a Buddha or bodhisattva.

三昧耶形 The distinguishing symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva, e.g. the Lotus of Guanyin; also used for 三昧耶身 q. v.

三昧耶戒 samaya commandments: the rules to be strictly observed before full ordination in the esoteric sects.

三昧耶曼荼羅 samaya-maṇḍala. One of the four kinds of magic circles in which the saints are represented by the symbols of their power, e.g. pagoda, jewel, lotus, sword.

三昧耶智 samaya wisdom. In esoteric teaching, the characteristic of a Buddha's or bodhisattva's wisdom, as shown in the maṇḍala.

三昧耶會 The samaya assembly, i.e. the second of the nine maṇḍalas, consisting of seventy-three saints represented by the symbols of their power.

三昧耶界 Samaya world, a general name for the esoteric sect.

三昧耶身 (or 三昧耶形) The embodiment of samaya, a term of the esoteric sect; i.e. the symbol of a Buddha or bodhisattva which expresses his inner nature, e.g. the stūpa as one of the symbols of Vairocana 大日; the lotus of Guanyin, etc. 身 is used for Buddha, 形 for a bodhisattva. The exoteric sects associate the term with the 報身 saṃbhogakāya.

三時 The three divisions of the day, i.e. dawn, daylight, and sunset; or morning, noon, and evening; also the three periods, after his nirvāṇa, of every Buddha's teaching, viz., 正 correct, or the period of orthodoxy and vigour, 像 semblance, or the period of scholasticism, and 末 end, the period of decline and termination.

三時坐禪 The thrice a day meditation— about 10 a.m. and 4 and 8 p.m.

三時年限 The three periods of Buddhism— 1,000 years of 正法 pure or orthodox doctrine, 1,000 years of 像法 resemblance to purity, and 10,000 years of 末法 decay. Other definitions are 正 and 像 500 years each, or 正 1,000 and 像 500, or 正 500 and 像 1,000.

三時性 i.e. 徧依圓三性 v. 三性.

三時教 (三時教判) The three periods and characteristics of Buddha's teaching, as defined by the Dharmalakṣana school 法相宗. They are: (1) 有, when he taught the 實有 reality of the skandhas and elements, but denied the common belief in 實我 real personality or a permanent soul; this period is represented by the four 阿含經 āgamas and other Hīnayāna sūtras. (2) 空 Śūnya, when he negatived the idea of 實法 the reality of things and advocated that all was 空 unreal; the period of the 般若經 prajñā sūtras. (3) 中 Madhyama, the mean, that mind or spirit is real, while things are unreal; the period of this school's specific sūtra the 解深密經, also the 法華 and later sūtras. In the two earlier periods he is said to have 方便 adapted his teaching to the development of his hearers; in the third to have delivered his complete and perfect doctrine. Another division by the 空宗 is (1) as above; (2) the early period of the Mahāyāna represented, by the 深密經; (3) the higher Mahāyāna as in the 般若經. v. also 三敎.

三時業 The three stages of karma— in the present life because of present deeds; in the next life because of present actions; and in future lives because of present actions.


三智 The three kinds of wisdom: (1) (a) 一切智 śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha knowledge that all the dharma or laws are 空 void and unreal; (b) 道種智 bodhisattva-knowledge. of all things in their proper discrimination; (c) 一切種智 Buddha-knowledge, or perfect knowledge of all things in their every aspect and relationship past, present, and future. Tiantai associates the above with 室, 候, 中. (2) (a) 世間智 earthly or ordinary wisdom; (b) 出世間智 supra-mundane, or spiritual (śrāvaka and pratyeka-buddha) wisdom; (c) 出世間上上智 supreme wisdom of bodhisattvas and Buddhas. v. 智度論 27, 止觀 3, and 概伽經 3. Cf. — 心三智.

三暮多 God of the wind, which is Vata in Sanskrit.

三曼多 samanta; tr. by 等, 普, 遍 universal, everywhere; also 三曼陀, 三滿多.

三曼陀犍陀 (or 三萬陀犍陀, or 三曼陀犍提) Samantagandha, 普熏 universally fragrant. A tree in Paradise; a title of a Buddha.

三曼陀颰陀羅 三曼颰陀, 三曼跋陀 Samantabhadra, 普賢 Puxian; v. 三滿.

三有 The three kinds of bhava, or existence; idem 三界 q. v. The three states of mortal existence in the trailokya, i. e. in the realms of desire, of form, and beyond form. Another definition is 現有 present existence, or the present body and mind; 當有 in a future state; 中有 antara-bhava, in the intermediate state. 三有對 The three sets of limitation on freedom: (a) direct resistance or opposition; (b) environment or condition; (c) attachment. 三有爲法 The three active) functioning dharmas: (1) pratigha, matter or form, i. e. that which has ' substantial resistance'; (2) mind; and (3) 非色非心 entities neither of matter nor mind; cf. 七十五法. 三有爲相 The three forms of all phenomena, birth, stay (i. e. 1ife), death; utpāda, sthiti, and nirvana.

三末多 sammata, intp. as 共許 'unanimously accorded'; i. e. name of the first king (elected) at the beginning of each world-kalpa.

三果 The third of the Hīnayāna 四果 four fruits or results, i. e. non-return to mortality.

三株 The three tree-trunks, or main stems—desire, hate, stupidity; v. 三毒.

三根 The three (evil) 'roots'— desire, hate, stupidity, idem 三毒. Another group is the three grades of good roots, or abilities 上, 中, 下 superior, medium, and inferior. Another is the three grades of faultlessness 三無漏根.

三梵 The three Brahma heavens of the first dhyāna: that of 梵衆 Brahma-pāriṣadya, the assembly of Brahma; 梵輔 Brahma-purohitas, his attendants; 大梵 Mahābrahmā, Great Brahma.

三極少 The three smallest things, i. e. an atom as the smallest particle of matter; a letter as the shortest possible name; a kṣaṇa, as the shortest period of time.

三業 trividha-dvāra. The three conditions, inheritances, or karma, of which there are several groups. (1) Deed, word, thought, 身, 口, 意. (2) (a) Present-1ife happy karma; (6) present-life unhappy karma; (c) 不動 karma of an imperturbable nature. (3) (a) Good; (b) evil; (c) neutral karma. (4) (a) 漏業 Karma of ordinary rebirth; (6) 無漏業 karma of Hīnayāna nirvana; (c) 非漏非無漏 karma of neither, independent of both, Mahāyāna nirvana. (5) (a) Present deeds and their consequences in this life; (b) present deeds and their next life consequences; (c) present deeds and consequences after the next life, There are other groups of three.

三業供養 三業相應 To serve or worship with perfect sincerity of body, mouth and mind; the second form means that in worship an three correspond.

三樂 The three joys— the joy of being born a deva, the joy of meditation, the joy of nirvana.

三機 see 三聚.

三檀 The three kinds of dāna, i. e. charity; giving of goods, of the dharma, of abhaya, or fearlessness. Idem 三施.

三權一實 The Tiantai division of the schools of Buddhism into four, three termed 權temporary, i. e. 藏, 通 and 別 q.v. v. e fourth is the 實 or圓real or perfect School of SaIvation by faith to Buddhahood, especially as revealed in the Lotus Sutra, see 一實.

三欲 three lusts, i. e. for 形貌 form, 姿態 carriage or beauty, and 細觸refinement, or softness to the touch.


三武 The three emperors Wu who persecuted Buddhism: 太武 of the Wei dynasty A.D. 424-452; 武帝 of the Zhou A.D. 561-578; 武宗 of the Tang A.D. 841-7.

三歸 Triśaraṇa, or Śaraṇa-gamana. The three surrenders to, or "formulas of refuge" in, the Three Precious Ones 三賓, i.e. to the Buddha 佛, the Dharma 法, the Saṅgha 僧. The three formulas are 歸依佛 Buddham śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依法 Dharmaṃ saraṇaṃ gacchāmi, 歸依僧 Saṅghaṃ śaraṇaṃ gacchāmi. It is "the most primitive formula fidei of the early Buddhists". The surrender is to the Buddha as teacher 師, the Law as medicine 藥, the Ecclesia as friends 友. These are known as the 三歸依.

三歸受法 The receiving of the Law, or admission of a lay disciple, after recantation of his previous wrong belief and sincere repetition to the abbot or monk of the three refuges 三歸.

三歸五戒 (三歸戒) The ceremony which makes the recipient a 優婆塞 or 優婆夷 upasaka or upāsikā male or female disciple, accepting the five commandments. There are 五種三歸 five stages of sangui; the first two are as above, at the third the eight commandments are accepted, at the fourth the ten, at the fifth an the commandments. 三歸 is also a general term for a Buddhist.

三毒 The three poisons, also styled 三根; 三株; they are 貪 concupiscence, or wrong desire, 瞋 anger, hate, or resentment, and 痴 stupidity, ignorance, unintelligence, or unwillingness to accept Buddha-truth; these three are the source of all the passions and delusions. They represent in part the ideas of love, hate, and moral inertia. v. 智度論 19, 31.

三毒尸利 The Śrī (i.e. goddess of Fortune) of the three poisons, a title of Mañjuśrī.

三治 idem 三三昧門 v. 三解脫.

三法 The three dharma, i.e. 教法 the Buddha's teaching; 行法 the practice of it; 證法 realization or experiential proof of it in bodhi and nirvāṇa.

三法印 idem 三印.

三法忍 idem 三忍.

三法妙 v. 三軌.

三法無差 idem 三無差別 q.v.

三法輪 The three law-wheels, or periods of the Buddha's preaching, according to Paramārtha, to 嘉祥 Jiaxiang of the 三論 school, and to 玄奘 Xuanzang of the 法相 school.

三波多 samāpta; finished, ended, perfect; a term used at the conclusion of Homa or Fire-worship.

三波羅聶提 The three prajñāpti, 三假 q.v.

三波訶 Sampaha, according to Eitel, Malasa, a valley in the upper Punjab; but perhaps Śāmbī, a state north of Citral in the Hindukush.

三涅槃門 The three gates to the city of nirvāṇa, i.e. 空, 無相, and 無作 the void (or the immaterial), formlessness, and inactivity; idem 三解脫門.

三淨肉 The three kinds of "clean" flesh—when a monk has not seen the creature killed, has not heard of its being killed for him, and has no doubt thereon.

三滿多跋捺囉 Samantabhadra, interpreted 普賢 Puxian, pervading goodness, or "all gracious", Eliot; also 徧吉 universal fortune; also styled Viśvabhadra. The principal Bodhisattva of Emei shan. He is the special patron of followers of the Lotus Sūtra. He is usually seated on a white elephant, and his abode is said to be in the East. He is one of the four Bodhisattvas of the Yoga school. v. 三曼.

三漸 The three progressive developments of the Buddha's teaching according to the Prajñā school: (a) the 鹿苑 initial stage in the Lumbinī deer park; (b) the 方等 period of the eight succeeding years; (c) the 般若 Prajñā or wisdom period which succeeded.

三漏 The three affluents that feed the stream of mortality, or transmigration: 欲 desire; 有 (material, or phenomenal) existence; 無明 ignorance (of the way of escape). 涅槃經 22.

三火 The three fires—desire, hate, and stupidity; v. 三毒.

三災 The three calamities; they are of two kinds, minor and major. The minor, appearing during a decadent world-period, are sword, pestilence, and famine; the major, for world-destruction, are fire, water, and wind. 倶舍諭 12.

三煩惱 v. 三惑.

三熱The three distresses of which dragons and dragon-kings are afraid— fiery heat, fierce wind, and the garuḍa bird which preys on them for food.


三無差(三無差別) The three that are without (essential) difference, i.e. are of the same nature: (a) 心 The nature of mind is the same in Buddhas, and men, and all the living; (b) 佛 the nature and enlightenment of all Buddhas is the same; (c) 衆生 the nature and enlightenment of all the living is the same. The 華嚴經 says 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別.

三無性 The three things without a nature or separate existence of their own: (a) 相無性 form, appearance or seeming, is unreal, e.g. a rope appearing like a snake; (b) 生無性 life ditto, for it is like the rope, which is derived from constituent materials; (c) 勝義無性 the 勝義, concept of the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā, is unreal, e.g. the hemp of which the rope is made; the bhūtatathatā is perfect and eternal. Every representation of it is abstract and unreal. The three are also known as 相無性, 無自然性, 法無性; v. 唯識論 9.

三無漏學 The three studies, or endeavours, after the passionless life and escape from transmigration: (a) 戒 Moral discipline; (b) 定 meditation, or trance; (c) 慧 the resulting wisdom.

三無漏根 The three roots for the passionless life and final escape from transmigration, i.e. the last three of the 二十二根 q.v. An older group was 未知欲知根; 知根; 如巳根 v. 倶舍論 3. 智度論 23.

三無盡莊嚴藏 The treasury of the three inexhaustible adornments or glories, i.e. the 身, 口, 意, deeds, words, and thoughts of a Buddha.

三照 The three shinings; the sun first shining on the hill-tops, then the valleys and plains. So, according to Tiantai teaching of the Huayan sūtra, the Buddha's doctrine had three periods of such shining: (a) first, he taught the Huayan sūtra, transforming his chief disciples into bodhisattvas; (b) second, the Hīnayāna sūtras in general to śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas in the Lumbinī garden; (c) third, the 方等 sūtras down to the 涅槃經 for all the living. See the 六十華嚴經 35, where the order is five, i.e. bodhisattvas, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, lay disciples, and all creatures.

三牟提耶 samudaya, gather together, accumulate, the 聚 or 集諦, i.e. the second of the Four Truths, the aggregation of suffering.

三猿 The three monkeys, one guarding its eyes, another its ears, a third its mouth.

三獸 The three animals— hare, horse, elephant— crossing a stream. The śrāvaka is like the hare who crosses by swimming on the surface; the pratyeka-buddha is like the horse who crosses deeper than the hare; the bodhisattva is like the elephant who walks across on the bottom. Also likened to the triyāna. 涅槃經 23, 27.

三甜 The three sweet things— cream, honey, curd.

三生 The three births, or reincarnations, past, present, future. Tiantai has (a) 種 planting the seed; (b) 熟 ripening; (c) 脫 liberating, stripping, or harvesting, i.e. beginning, development, and reward of bodhi, a process either gradual or instantaneous. Huayan has (a) 見聞生 a past life of seeing and hearing Buddha-truth; (b) 解行生 liberation in the present life; (c) 證入生 realization of life in Buddhahood. This is also called 三生成佛, Buddhahood in the course of three lives. There is also a definition of three rebirths as the shortest term for arhatship, sixty kalpas being the longest. There are other definitions.

三田 The three "fields" of varying qualities of fertility, i.e. bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, and icchantis, respectively producing a hundred-fold, fifty-fold, onefold. 涅槃經 33.

三界 Trailokya or Triloka; the three realms; also 三有. It is the Buddhist metaphysical equivalent for the Brahmanic cosmological bhuvanatraya, or triple world of bhūr, bhuvaḥ, and svar, earth, atmosphere, and heaven. The Buddhist three are 欲, 色, and 無色界, i.e. world of sensuous desire, form, and formless world of pure spirit. (a) 欲界 Kāmadhātu is the realm of sensuous desire, of 婬 and 食 sex and food; it includes the six heavens of desire, the human world, and the hells. (b) 色界 Rūpadhātu is the realm of form, meaning 質礙 that which is substantial and resistant: it is above the lust-world and contains (so to speak) bodies, palaces, things, all mystic and wonderful一a semi-material conception like that in Revelation; it is represented in the 四禪天, or Brahmalokas. (c) 無色界 Arūpadhātu, or ārūpyadhātu, is the formless realm of pure spirit, where there are no bodies, places, things, at any rate none to which human terms would apply, but where the mind dwells in mystic contemplation; its extent is indefinable, but it is, conceived of in four stages, i,e. 四空處 the four "empty" regions, or regions of space in the immaterial world, which are 四無色 the four "formless" realms, or realms beyond form; being above the realm of form, their bounds cannot be defined. v. 倶舍論世間品.

三界九地 v. 九地.


三界唯一心 The triple world is but one mind; from a verse of the 華嚴 sūtra; it proceeds 心外無別法, 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別 "outside mind there is no other thing; mind, Buddha, and all the living, these three are not different"; in other words, there is no differentiating between these three, for all is mind.

三界尊 The honoured one of the three worlds, i.e. Buddha.

三界慈父 The kindly father of the triple world— Buddha.

三界火宅 The burning house of the triple world, as in the Lotus Sūtra parable.

三界牀 The sick-bed of the trailokya, especially this world of suffering.

三界眼 The trailokya eye, i.e. Buddha, who sees all the realms and the way of universal escape.

三界萬靈牌 The tablet used at the annual ceremonial offerings to "all souls", v. 孟蘭.

三界藏 The trailokya-garbha, the womb or storehouse of all the transmigrational.

三界雄 The hero of the trailokya—Buddha.

三疑 The three doubts— of self, of teacher, of the dharma-truth.

三病 The three ailments: (1) (a) 貪 lust, for which the 不淨觀 meditation on uncleanness is the remedy; (b) 瞋 anger, or hate, remedy 慈悲觀 meditation on kindness and pity; (c) 癡 stupidity, or ignorance, remedy 因緣觀 meditation on causality. (2) (a) 謗 Slander of Mahāyāna; (b) 五逆罪 the five gross sins; (c) to be a "heathen" or outsider; the forms recorded seem to be icchantika, ecchantika, and aicchantika. Cf. 三毒.

三發心 The three resolves of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith: (a) 信成就發心 to perfect the bodhi of faith, i.e. in the stage of faith; (b) 解行發心 to understand and carry into practice this wisdom; (c) 證發心 the realization, or proof of or union with bodhi.

三白食 The three white foods— milk, cream (or curd), and rice (especially upland rice).

三白法 is the rule of the three white foods 三白食.

三百四十八戒 (or 三百四十一戒) The 348 (or 341) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules.

三百四十一戒 (or 三百四十八戒) The 341 (or 348) rules for a nun; there are also groups of 250 and 500 such rules.

三百六十會 The reputed and disputed number (360) of Śākyamuni's assemblies for preaching.

三百由旬 The 300 yojanas parable of the Magic City, erected by a leader who feared that his people would become weary and return; i.e. Hīnayāna nirvāṇa, a temporary rest on the way to the real land of precious things, or true nirvāṇa; v. 法華化城品.

三皈 idem 三歸.

三監 idem 三從.

三目 The three-eyed, a term for Śiva, i.e Maheśvara; simile for the dharmakāya, or spiritual body, prajñā, or wisdom, and nirvāṇa emancipation.

三相 The three forms or positions: 解脫相 nirvāṇa; 離相 no nirvāṇa; 滅和 or 非有非無之中道 absence of both, or the "middle way" of neither.

三相續 The three links, or consequences: (a) the worlds with their kingdoms, which arise from the karma of existence; (b) all beings, who arise out of the five skandhas; (c) rewards and punishments, which arise out of moral karma causes.

三眞如 Three aspects of the bhūtatathatā, implying that it is above the limitations of form, creation, or a soul. (1) (a) 無相眞如 without form; (b) 無生眞如 without creation; (c) 無性眞如 without anything that can be called a nature for comparison; e.g. chaos, or primal matter. (2) (a) 善法眞如 The bhūtatathatā as good; (b) 不善法眞如 as evil; (c) 無記法眞如 as neutral, or neither good nor evil.

三眉底與部 Saṃmatiīya, v. 三彌底.

三祗百劫 (三祗百大劫) The period necessary for a bodhisattva to become a Buddha, i.e. three asaṃkhyeyas 阿僧祗 to attain the 六度, and 100 kalpas to acquire the thirty-two 相 or characteristic marks of a Buddha; cf. 三阿.

三福 The three (sources of) felicity: (1) The 無量壽經 has the felicity of (a) 世福 filial piety, regard for elders, keeping the ten commandments; (b) 戒福 of keeping the other commandments; (c) 行福 of resolve on complete bodhi and the pursuit of the Buddha-way. (2) The 倶舍論 18, has the blessedness of (a) 施類福 almsgiving, in evoking resultant wealth; (b) 戒類福 observance of the 性戒 (against killing, stealing, adultery, lying) and the 遮戒 (against alcohol, etc.), in obtaining a happy lot in the heavens; (c) 修類福 observance of meditation in obtaining final escape from the mortal round. Cf. 三種淨業.

三福業 The three things that bring a happy lot— almsgiving, impartial kindness and Iove, pondering over the demands of the life beyond.

三禪 The third dhyāna heaven of form, the highest paradise of form.


三禮 Worship with 身, 口, 意, body, mouth, and mind.

三科 The three categories of 五蘊, 十二處 or 入, and eighteen 界.

三祕密 The three mysteries, a term of the esoteric school for 身, 口, and 意; i.e. the symbol; the mystic word or sound; the meditation of the mind.

三祕密身 A term for the mystic letter, the mystic symbol, and the image.

三種 Three kinds, sorts, classes, categories, etc.

三種三世 Three kinds of past, present, and future as intp. according to 道理, 神通, and 唯識.

三種三觀 The three types of meditation on the principles of the 三諦 q.v., i.e. the dogmas of 空, 假, 中.

三種世間 v. 三世間.

三種供養 Three modes of serving (the Buddha, etc.): (a) offerings of incense, flowers, food, etc.; (b) of praise and reverence; (c) of right conduct.

三種光明 The three kinds of light: (a) extemal— sun, moon, stars, lamps, etc.; (b) dharma, or the light of right teaching and conduct; (c) the effulgence or bodily halo emitted by Buddhas, bodhisattvas, devas.

三種善根 The three kinds of good roots— almsgiving, mercy, and wisdom.

三種圓融 Three kinds of unity or identity of (a) 事理 phenomena with "substance", e.g. waves and the water; (b) 事事 phenomena with phenomena, e.g. wave with wave; (c) 理理 substance with substance, e.g. water with water.

三種地獄 The three kinds of hells— hot, cold and solitary.

三種大智 The three major kinds of wisdom: (a) self-acquired, no master needed; (b) unacquired and natural; (c) universal.

三種天 Three definitions of heaven: (a) as a name or title, e.g. divine king, son of Heaven, etc.; (b) as a place for rebirth, the heavens of the gods; (c) the pure Buddha-land.

三種常 A Buddha in his three eternal qualities: (a) 本性常 in his nature or dharmakāya; (b) 不斷常 in his unbroken eternity, saṃbhogakāya; (c) 相續常 in his continuous and eternally varied forms, nirmāṇakāya.

三種心苦 The three kinds of mental distress: desire, anger, stupidity, idem 三毒.

三種忍行 Patience or forbearance of body, mouth, and mind.

三種悔法 (or 三種懺法) Three modes of repentance: (a) 無生悔 to meditate on the way to prevent wrong thoughts and delusions; (b) 取相悔 to seek the presence of the Buddha to rid one of sinful thoughts and passions; (c) 作法懺 in proper form to confess one's breach of the rules before the Buddha and seek remission.

三種慈悲 (or 三種緣慈) The three reasons of bodhisattva's pity — because all beings are like helpless infants; because of his knowledge of all laws and their consequences; without external cause, i.e. because of his own nature.

三種教相 The three modes of the Buddha's teaching of the Southern Sects: 頓 immediate, 漸 gradual or progressive, and 不定 indeterminate.

三種斷 The three kinds of uccheda— cutting-off, excision, or bringing to an end: (1) (a) 自性斷 with the incoming of wisdom, passion or illusion ceases of itself; (b) 不生斷 with realization of the doctrine that all is 空 unreal, evil karma ceases to arise; (c) 緣縛斷 illusion being ended, the causal nexus of the passions disappears and the attraction of the external ceases. (2) The three śrāvaka or ascetic stages are (a) 見所斷 ending the condition of false views; (b) 修行斷 getting rid of desire and illusion in practice; (c) 非所斷 no more illusion or desire to be cut off.

三種智 The wisdom of common men, of the heterodox, and of Buddhism; i.e. (a) 世間智 normal, worldly knowledge or ideas; (b) 出世間智 other worldly wisdom, e.g. of Hīnayāna; (c) 出世間上上智 the highest other-worldly wisdom, of Mahāyāna; cf. 三種波羅蜜.


三種有 Three kinds of existence: (a) 相待有 that of qualities, as of opposites, e.g. length and shortness; (b) 假名有 that of phenomenal things so-called, e.g. a jar, a man; (c) 法有 that of the noumenal, or imaginary, understood as facts and not as illusions, such as a "hare's horns" or a "turtle's fur".

三種欲 Three kinds of desire— food, sleep, sex.

三種止觀 Three Tiantai modes of entering dhyāna: (a) 漸次 gradual, from the shallow to the deep, the simple to the complex; (b) 不定 irregular, simple, and complex mixed; (c) 圓頓 immediate and whole.

三種法輪 v. 三輪教.

三種波羅蜜 The three kinds of pāramitā ideals, or methods of perfection: (a) 世間波羅蜜 that of people in general relating to this world; (b) 出世間波羅蜜 that of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas relating to the future life for themselves; (c) 出世間上上波羅蜜 the supreme one of bodhisattvas, relating to the future life for all; cf. 三種智.

三種淨業 The threefold way of obtaining pure karma, idem 三福.

三種淸淨 The three purities of a bodhisattva— a mind free from all impurity, a body pure because never to be reborn save by transformation, an appearance 相 perfectly pure and adorned.

三種灌頂 Three kinds of baptism: (1) (a) 摩頂灌頂 Every Buddha baptizes a disciple by laying a hand on his head; (b) 授記灌頂 by predicting Buddhahood to him; (c) 放光灌頂 by revealing his glory to him to his profit. (2) Shingon has (a) baptism on acquiring the mystic word; (b) on remission of sin and prayer for blessing and protection; (c) on seeking for reward in the next life.

三種生 The three sources, or causes of the rise of the passions and illusions: (a) 想生 the mind, or active thought; (b) 相生 the objective world; (c) 流注生 their constant interaction, or the continuous stream of latent predispositions.

三種相 The three kinds of appearance: (1) In logic, the three kinds of percepts: (a) 標相 inferential, as fire is inferred from smoke; (b) 形相 formal or spatial, as length, breadth, etc.; (c) 體相 qualitative, as heat is in fire, etc. (2) (a) 假名相 names, which are merely indications of the temporal; (b) 法相 dharmas, or "things"; (c) 無相相 the formless— all three are incorrect positions.

三種示導 Three ways in which bodhisattvas manifest themselves for saving those suffering the pains of hell, i.e. 身 physically, by supernatural powers, change of form, etc.; 意 mentally, through powers of memory and enlightenment; 口 orally, by moral exhortation.

三種色 Three kinds of rūpa, i.e. appearance or object: (1) (a) visible objects; (b) invisible objects, e.g. sound; (c) invisible, immaterial, or abstract objects. (2) (a) colour, (b) shape, (c) quality.

三種見惑 Three classes of delusive views, or illusions — those common to humanity; those of the inquiring mind; and those of the learned and settled mind.

三種身 The Tiantai School has a definition of 色身 the physical body of the Buddha; 法門身 his psychological body with its vast variety; 實相身 his real body, or dharmakāya. The esoteric sect ascribes a trikāya to each of its honoured ones. v. 三身.

三種身苦 The three duḥkha or afflictions of the body — old age, sickness, death.

三種闡提 The three kinds of icchantika: (a) 一闡提迦 the wicked; (b) 阿闡提迦 called 大悲闡提 bodhisattvas who become icchantika to save all beings; (c) 阿顚底迦 otherwise 無性闡提 those without a nature for final nirvāṇa. Cf. 三病.

三種香 Three kinds of scent, or incense, i.e. from root, branch, or flower.

三空 The three voids or immaterialities. The first set of three is (a) 空, (b) 無相, (c) 無願, v. 三三昧. The second, (a) 我空 , (b) 法空 , (c) 倶空 the self, things, all phenomena as "empty" or immaterial. The third relates to charity: (a) giver, (b) receiver, (c) gift, all are "empty".

三空門 (三空觀門) idem 三解脫門.


三等 The three equal and universal characteristics of the one Tathāgata, an esoteric definition: (1) (a) his 身 body, (b) 語 discourse, (c) 意 mind. (2) (a) his life or works 修行; (b) spiritual body 法身; (c) salvation 度生; in their equal values and universality.

三等流 Three equal or universal currents or consequences, i.e. 眞等流 the certain consequences that follow on a good, evil, or neutral kind of nature, respectively; 假等流 the temporal or particular fate derived from a previous life's ill deeds, e.g. shortened life from taking life; 分位等流 each organ as reincarnated according to its previous deeds, hence the blind.

三篋 idem 三藏 tripiṭaka.

三節 The three divisions of the 十二因緣 twelve nidānas, q.v.: (a) past, i.e. the first two; (b) present— the next eight; (c) future— the last two.

三精氣 The three auras of earth, of the animate, and of the inanimate invoked against demon influences.

三細 The three refined, or subtle conceptions, in contrast with the 六麤 cruder or common concepts, in the Awakening of Faith 起信論. The three are 無明業相 "ignorance", or the unenlightened condition, considered as in primal action, the stirring of the perceptive faculty; 能見相 ability to perceive phenomena; perceptive faculties; 境界相 the object perceived, or the empirical world. The first is associated with the 體corpus or substance, the second and third with function, but both must have co-existence, e.g. water and waves. v. 六麤.

三結 The three ties: (a) 見結 , the tie of false views, e.g. of a permanent ego; (b) 戒取結 of discipline; (c) 疑結 of doubt. The three are also parts of見惑 used for it.

三經一論 The three sūtras and one śāstra on which the Pure Land sect bases its teaching: 佛說無量壽經; 佛說觀無量壽經; 佛說阿彌陀經; 天親淨土論.

三綱 The three bonds, i.e. directors of a monastery: (a) 上座 sthavira, elder, president; (b) 寺主vihārasvāmin, v. 毘 the abbot who directs the temporal affairs; (c) 維那 karmadāna, v. 羯 who directs the monks. Another meaning: (a) 上座; (b) 維那; (c) 典座 vihārapāla, v. 毘director of worship. The three vary in different countries.

三練磨 v. 三退屈.

三縛 The three bonds— desire, anger, stupidity; idem 三毒.

三緣 The three nidānas or links with the Buddha resulting from calling upon him, a term of the Pure Land sect: (a) 親緣 that he hears those who call his name, sees their worship, knows their hearts and is one with them; (b) 近緣 that he shows himself to those who desire to see him; (c) 增上緣 that at every invocation aeons of sin are blotted out, and he and his sacred host receive such a disciple at death.

三罰業 The three things that work for punishment — body, mouth, and mind.

三耶三佛 (檀) v. 三藐三佛陀.

三耶三菩 v. 三藐三菩提.

三聖 The three sages, or holy ones, of whom there are several groups. The 華嚴Huayan have Vairocana in the center with Mañjuśrī on his left and Samantabhadra on his right. The 彌陀 Mituo or Pure-land sect, have Amitābha in the center, with Avalokiteśvara on his left and Mahāsthāmaprāpta on his right. The Tiantai use the term for the 藏, 別, and 圓教v. 三教.

三聚 The three groups, i.e. 正定聚 Those decided for the truth; 邪定聚 those who are decided for heresy; 不定聚 the undecided. Definitions vary in different schools.

三聚戒 (三聚淨戒) The three cumulative commandments: (a) the formal 5, 8, or 10, and the rest; (b) whatever works for goodness; (c) whatever works for the welfare or salvation of living, sentient beings. 三聚圓戒interprets the above three as implicit in each of the ten commandments e.g. (a) not to kill implies (b) mercy and (c) protection or salvation.

三能三不能 The three things possible and impossible to a Buddha. He can (a) have perfect knowledge of all things; (b) know all the natures of all beings, and fathom the affairs of countless ages; (c) save countless beings. But he cannot (a) annihilate causality, i.e. karma; (b) save unconditionally; (c) end the realm of the living.

三脫門 V. 三解脫 (三解脫門), but the former is only associated with無漏, or nirvāṇa.


三自 Three divisions of the eight-fold noble path, the first to the third 自調 self-control, the fourth and fifth 自淨 self-purification, the last three 自度 self-development in the religious life and in wisdom. Also 自體, 自相, 自用 substance, form, and function.

三舉 The three exposures, i,e. the three sins of a monk each entailing his unfrocking— willful non-confession of sin, unwillingness to repent, claiming that lust is not contrary to the doctrine.

三舟觀月 v. 一月三舟.

三般若 The three prajñās, or perfect enlightenments: (a) 實相般若 wisdom in its essence or reality; (b) 觀照般若 the wisdom of perceiving the real meaning of the last; (c) 方便般若 or 文字般若 the wisdom of knowing things in their temporary and changing condition.

三色 The three kinds of rūpa or form-realms: the five organs (of sense), their objects, and invisible perceptions, or ideas. Cf. 三種色.

三苦 The three kinds of duḥkha, pain, or suffering: 苦苦 that produced by direct causes; 壞苦 by loss or deprivation; 行苦 by the passing or impermanency of all things.

三草二木 A parable in the Lotus Sutra; the small plants representing ordinary men and devas, medium sized plants śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas, and 大草, 小樹 and 大樹 tall plants and small and large trees three grades of bodhisattvas. Another definition applies the term to the 五乘 five "vehicles". There are also others.

三莊嚴 The three adornments, or glories, of a country: material attractions; religion and learning; men, i.e. religious men and bodhisattvas.

三菩伽 Saṃbhoga or Saṃbhūta. An ancient ṛṣi of Mathurā.

三菩伽迦耶 saṃbhogakāya. (1) The "body of enjoyment " or recompense-body of a Buddha; his 報身 or reward-body, one of the Trikāya, 三身. (2) The third of the buddhakṣetra 佛土, the domain in which all respond perfectly to their Buddha.

三菩提 saṃbodhi, 糝帽地 intp. 正等覺. Perfect universal awareness, perfectly enlightened; v. 菩提.

三落叉 The three lakṣa; a lakṣa is a mark, sign, token, aim, object; it is also 100,000, i.e. an 億. The three lakṣa of the esoteric sects are the 字 or magic word, the 印 symbol and the 本尊 object worshipped. Other such threes are body, mouth, and mind; morning, noon, and evening; cold, heat, and rain, etc.

三藏 v. 藏.

三藏教 A Tiantai name for Hīnayāna, whose tripiṭaka is ascribed to Mahākāśyapa.

三藏學者 A student of Hīnayāna.

三藏法師 A teacher of the Law; especially 玄奘 Xuanzang of the Tang dynasty; and cf. 般若.

三藐三佛陀 saṃyaksaṃbuddha 三耶三佛 (檀). The third of the ten titles of a Buddha, defined as 正徧知 (or 覺), or 正等覺 etc., one who has perfect universal knowledge or understanding; omniscient.

三藐三菩提 三貌糝帽地; 三耶三菩 saṃyak-saṃbodhi. Correct universal intelligence, 正徧知 (道). Correct equal or universal enlightenment (正等覺). Correct universal perfect enlightenment (正等正覺). An epithet of every Buddha. The full term is anuttarā-saṃyak-saṃbodhi, perfect universal enlightenment, knowledge, or understanding; omniscience.

三蘊 The three kinds of skandhas, aggregations, or combinations, into which all life may be expressed according to the 化地 or Mahīśāsakāh school: 一念蘊 combination for a moment, momentary existence; 一期蘊 combination for a period, e.g. a single human lifetime; 窮生死蘊 the total existence of all beings.

三處傳心 The three places where Śākyamuni is said to have transmitted his mind or thought direct and without speech to Kāśyapa: at the 靈山 by a smile when plucking a flower; at the 多子塔 when he shared his seat with him; finally by putting his foot out of his coffin.

三處木叉 The mokṣa of the three places, i.e. moral control over body, mouth, and mind.

三處阿蘭若 Three classes of āraṇyakāḥ or ascetics distinguished by their three kinds of abode— those who dwell in retired places, as in forests; among tombs; in deserts; v. 阿蘭若.

三行 Three lines of action that affect karma, i.e. the ten good deeds that cause happy karma; the ten evil deeds that cause unhappy karma; 不動業 or 無動行 karma arising without activity, e.g. meditation on error and its remedy.

三衍 The three yāna, or vehicles to nirvāṇa, i.e. śrāvaka, pratyekabuddha, and bodhisattva, v. 三乘.


三術 Three devices in meditation for getting rid of Māra-hindrances: within, to get rid of passion and delusion; without, to refuse or to withdraw from external temptation.

三衣 The three regulation garments of a monk, 袈裟 kaāṣāya, i.e. 僧伽梨 saṅghāṭī, assembly robe; 鬱多羅僧 uttarāsaṅga, upper garment worn over the 安陀會 antarvāsaka, vest or shirt.

單三衣 The only proper garments of a monk.

三衰 The three deteriorators, idem 三毒.

三補吒 saṃpuṭa. One of the twelve ways of putting the hands together in worship, i.e. bringing the hands together without the palms touching.

三覆八校 The three reports 三覆 and eight investigations 八校. Two angels, 同生 and 同名, observe each individual, the first a female at his right shoulder noting the evil deeds; the second, a male, at his left shoulder noting the good deeds; both report on high and in hades six times a month. Thus in each month there are 六齋 and in each year 三覆 and 八校.

三覆 denote a day in each of the first, fifth, and ninth months when the recording angels of the four Lokapālas report on the conduct of each individual. See also 三覆八校.

八校 are the opening days of the four seasons and the two solstices and two equinoxes during which similar investigations are made. See also 三覆八校.

三覺 The three kinds of enlightenment: (1) (a) 自覺 Enlightenment for self; (b) 覺他 for others; (c) 覺行圓 (or 窮) 滿 perfect enlightenment and accomplishment; the first is an arhat's, the first and second a bodhisattva's, all three a Buddha's. (2) From the Awakening of Faith 起信論 (a) 本覺 inherent, potential enlightenment or intelligence of every being; (b) 始覺 , initial, or early stages of such enlightenment, brought about through the external perfuming or influence of teaching, working on the internal perfuming of subconscious intelligence; (c) 究竟覺 completion of enlightenment, the subjective mind in perfect accord with the subconscious (or superconscious) mind, or the inherent intelligence.

三觀 The three studies, meditations, or insights. The most general group is that of Tiantai: (a) 空觀 study of all as void, or immaterial; (b) 假觀 of all as unreal, transient, or temporal; (c) 中觀 as the via media inclusive of both. The Huayan group is 眞空觀, 理事無礙觀 and 周遍含容觀, see 華嚴經:法界觀. The 南山 group is 性空觀, 相空觀, and 唯識觀. The 慈恩 group is 有觀, 空觀 and 中觀.

三角壇 A three-cornered altar in the fire worship of Shingon, connected with exorcism.

三解脫 (三解脫門) The three emancipations, idem 三空 and 三三昧 q.v. They are 空解脫, 無相解脫 and 無作解脫. Cf. 三涅槃門.

三語 Buddha's three modes of discourse, i.e. without reserve, or the whole truth; tactical or partial, adapting truth to the capacity of his hearers; and a combination of both.

三論 The three śāstras translated by Kumārajīva, on which the 三論宗 Three śāstra School (Mādhyamika) bases its doctrines, i.e. 中論 Madhyamaka-śāstra, on "the Mean", A.D. 409; 十二門論 Dvādaśanikāya-śāstra, on the twelve points, A.D. 408; 百論 Sata-śāstra, the hundred verses, A.D. 404.

三論宗 The Sanlun, Mādhyamika, or Middle School, founded in India by Nāgārjuna, in China by 嘉祥 Jiaxiang during the reign of 安帝 An Di, Eastern Jin, A.D. 397-419. It flourished up to the latter part of the Tang dynasty. In 625 it was carried to Japan as Sanron. After the death of Jiaxiang, who wrote the 三論玄義, a northern and southern division took place. While the Mādhyamika denied the reality of all phenomenal existence, and defined the noumenal world in negative terms, its aim seems not to have been nihilistic, but the advocacy of a reality beyond human conception and expression, which in our terminology may be termed a spiritual realm.

三請 A request thrice repeated— implying earnest desire.

三諦 The three dogmas. The "middle" school of Tiantai says 卽空, 卽假. 卽中 i.e. 就是空, 假, 中; (a) by 空śūnya is meant that things causally produced are in their essential nature unreal (or immaterial) 實空無; (b) 假, though things are unreal in their essential nature their derived forms are real; (c) 中; but both are one, being of the one 如 reality. These three dogmas are founded on a verse of Nāgārjuna's— 因緣所生法, 我說卽是空 亦 爲是假名, 亦是中道義 "All causally produced phenomena, I say, are unreal, Are but a passing name, and indicate the 'mean'." There are other explanations— the 圓教 interprets the 空 and 假 as 中; the 別教 makes 中 independent. 空 is the all, i.e. the totality of all things, and is spoken of as the 眞 or 實 true, or real; 假 is the differentiation of all things and is spoken of as 俗 common, i.e. things as commonly named; 中 is the connecting idea which makes a unity of both, e.g. "all are but parts of one stupendous whole." The 中 makes all and the all into one whole, unifying the whole and its parts. 空 may be taken as the immaterial, the undifferentiated all, the sum of existences, by some as the tathāgatagarbha 如來藏; 假as the unreal, or impermanent, the material or transient form, the temporal that can be named, the relative or discrete; 中 as the unifier, which places each in the other and all in all. The "shallower" 山外 school associated 空 and 中 with the noumenal universe as opposed to the phenomenal and illusory existence represented by 假. The "profounder" 山内 school teaches that all three are aspects of the same.


三諦相卽 The unity of 空, 假, 中, three aspects of the same reality, taught by the 圓教as distinguished from the 別教which separates them.

三識 The three states of mind or consciousness: 眞識 the original unsullied consciousness or Mind, the tathāgatagarbha, the eighth or ālaya 阿賴耶識 ; 現識 mind or consciousness diversified in contact with or producing phenomena, good and evil; 分別識 consciousness discriminating and evolving the objects of the five senses. Also 意識 manas, 心識 ālaya, and 無垢識 amala, v. 識.

三變 (土田) The three transformations of his Buddha-realm made by Śākyamuni on the Vulture peak—- first, his revelation of this world, then its vast extension, and again its still vaster extension. See Lotus Sutra.

三賢十聖 (or三賢十地). The three virtuous positions, or states, of a bodhisattva are 十住, 十行 and 十廻向. The ten excellent characteristics of a 聖 saint or holy one are the whole of the 十地.

三跋致 (or 諦) saṃpatti. To turn out well, prosper, be on the path of success.

三跋羅 saṃvara. 三婆 (or 三嚩) To hinder, ward off, protect from falling into the three inferior transmigrations; a divine being that fills this office worshipped by the Tantra School. The sixth vijñāna, v. 八識.

三身 trikāya. 三寶身 The threefold body or nature of a Buddha, i.e. the 法, 報, and 化身, or dharmakāya, sambhogakāya, and nirmāṇakāya. The three are defined as 自性, 受用, and 變化, the Buddha-body per se, or in its essential nature; his body of bliss, which he "receives" for his own "use" and enjoyment; and his body of transformation, by which he can appear in any form; i.e. spiritual, or essential; glorified; revealed. While the doctrine of the trikāya is a Mahāyāna concept, it partly results from the Hīnayāna idealization of the earthly Buddha with his thirty-two signs, eighty physical marks, clairvoyance, clairaudience, holiness, purity, wisdom, pity, etc. Mahāyāna, however, proceeded to conceive of Buddha as the Universal, the All, with infinity of forms, yet above all our concepts of unity or diversity. To every Buddha Mahāyāna attributed a three-fold body: that of essential Buddha; that of joy or enjoyment of the fruits of his past saving labours; that of power to transform himself at will to any shape for omnipresent salvation of those who need him. The trinity finds different methods of expression, e.g. Vairocana is entitled 法身, the embodiment of the Law, shining everywhere, enlightening all; Locana is 報身; c.f. 三賓, the embodiment of purity and bliss; Śākyamuni is 化身 or Buddha revealed. In the esoteric sect they are 法 Vairocana, 報 Amitābha, and 化 Śākyamuni. The 三賓 are also 法 dharma, 報 saṅgha, 化 buddha. Nevertheless, the three are considered as a trinity, the three being essentially one, each in the other. (1) 法身 Dharmakāya in its earliest conception was that of the body of the dharma, or truth, as preached by Śākyamuni; later it became his mind or soul in contrast with his material body. In Mādhyamika, the dharmakāya was the only reality, i.e. the void, or the immateria1, the ground of all phenomena; in other words, the 眞如 the tathāgatagarbha, the bhūtatathatā. According to the Huayan (Kegon) School it is the 理or noumenon, while the other two are氣or phenomenal aspects. "For the Vijñānavāda... the body of the law as highest reality is the void intelligence, whose infection (saṃkleҫa) results in the process of birth and death, whilst its purification brings about Nirvāṇa, or its restoration to its primitive transparence" (Keith). The "body of the law is the true reality of everything". Nevertheless, in Mahāyāna every Buddha has his own 法身; e.g. in the dharmakāya aspect we have the designation Amitābha, who in his saṃbhogakāya aspect is styled Amitāyus. (2) 報身Sambhogakāya, a Buddha's reward body, or body of enjoyment of the merits he attained as a bodhisattva; in other words, a Buddha in glory in his heaven. This is the form of Buddha as an object of worship. It is defined in two aspects, (a) 自受用身 for his own bliss, and (b) 他受用身 for the sake of others, revealing himself in his glory to bodhisattvas, enlightening and inspiring them. By wisdom a Buddha's dharmakāya is attained, by bodhisattva-merits his saṃbhogakāya. Not only has every Buddha all the three bodies or aspects, but as all men are of the same essence, or nature, as Buddhas, they are therefore potential Buddhas and are in and of the trikāya. Moreover, trikāya is not divided, for a Buddha in his 化身 is still one with his 法身 and 報身, all three bodies being co-existent. (3) 化身; 應身; 應化身 nirmāṇakāya, a Buddha's transformation, or miraculous body, in which he appears at will and in any form outside his heaven, e.g. as Śākyamuni among men.


三身三德 The 三身 are the 法, 報, and 應; the 三德 are 法, 般, and 解, i.e. the virtue, or merit, of the (a) 法身 being absolute independence, reality; of (b) 報身, being 般若 prajñā or wisdom; and of (c) 應身, being 解脫德 liberation, or Nirvāṇa.

三身佛性 v. 三身.

三身如來 v. 三身.

三身業 The three physical wrong deeds— killing, robbing, adultery.

三車 triyāna. 三乘 or 三乘法門 (1) The three vehicles across saṃsāra into nirvāṇa, i.e. the carts offered by the father in the Lotus Sutra to lure his children out of the burning house: (a) goat carts, representing śrāvakas; (b) deer carts, pratyekabuddhas; (c) bullock carts, bodhisattvas. (2) The three principal schools of Buddhism— Hīnayāna, Madhyamayāna, Mahāyāna.

三車家 idem 三乘家.

三軌 The three rules 三法 (三法妙) of the Tiantai Lotus School: (a) 眞性軌 The absolute and real, the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā; (b) 觀照軌meditation upon and understanding of it; (c) 資成軌 the extension of this understanding to all its workings. In the 三軌弘經 the three are traced to the 法師品 of the Lotus Sutra and are developed as: (a) 慈悲室 the abode of mercy, or to dwell in mercy; (b) 忍辱衣 the garment of endurance, or patience under opposition; (c) 法空座 the throne of immateriality (or spirituality), a state of nirvāṇa tranquility. Mercy to all is an extension of 資成軌 , patience of 觀照軌 and nirvāṇa tranquility of 眞性軌 .

三輩 The three ranks of those who reach the Pure Land of Amitābha: superior i.e. monks and nuns who become enlightened and devote themselves to invocation of the Buddha of boundless age; medium, i.e. laymen of similar character who do pious deeds; inferior, i.e. laymen less perfect than the last.

三輪 The three wheels: (1) The Buddha's (a) 身 body or deeds; (b) 口 mouth, or discourse; (c) 意 mind or ideas. (2) (a) 神通 (or 變) His supernatural powers, or powers of (bodily) self-transformation, associated with 身 body; (b) 記心輪 his discriminating understanding of others, associated with 意 mind; (c) 敎誡輪 or 正敎輪 his (oral) powers of teaching, associated with 口. (3) Similarly (a) 神足輪 ; (b) 說法輪 ; (c) 憶念輪 . (4) 惑, 業, and 苦. The wheel of illusion produces karma, that of karma sets rolling that of suffering, which in turn sets rolling the wheel of illusion. (5) (a) Impermanence; (b) uncleanness; (c) suffering. Cf. 三道.

三輪世界 The three-wheel world, i.e. 風, 水, and 金輪. Every world is founded on a wheel of whirling wind; above this is one of water; above this is one of metal, on which its nine mountains and eight seas are formed.

三輪化導 idem 三種示導.

三輪教 The three periods of the Buddha's teaching as defined by Paramārtha: (a) 轉法輪 the first rolling onwards of the Law-wheel, the first seven years' teaching of Hīnayāna, i.e. the 四諦 four axioms and 空 unreality; (b) 照法輪 illuminating or explaining the law-wheel, the thirty years' teaching of the 般若 prajñā or wisdom sūtras, illuminating 空 and by 空 illuminating 有 reality; (c) 持法輪 maintaining the law-wheel, i.e. the remaining years of teaching of the deeper truths of 空有 both unreality and reality. Also the three-fold group of the Lotus School: (a) 根本法輪 radical, or fundamental, as found in the 華嚴經 sūtra; (b) 枝末法輪 branch and leaf, i.e. all other teaching; until (c) 攝末歸本法輪 branches and leaves are reunited with the root in the Lotus Sutra, 法華經.

三輪相 The three-wheel condition— giver, receiver, gift.

三轉 (三轉法輪) The three turns of the law-wheel when the Buddha preached in the Deer Park: (a) 示轉 indicative, i.e. postulation and definition of the 四諦; (b) 勸轉 hortative, e.g. 苦當知 suffering should be diagnosed; (c) 證轉 evidential, e.g. I have overcome suffering, etc.

三轉法輪十二行 (三轉法輪十二行相) The twelve 行 processes are the application of the above 示, 勸, and 證 within the three turns of the wheel of the law (三轉法輪) to each of the four postulates. The three "turns" are also applied to the four kinds of knowledge, i.e. 眼, 智, 明, and 覺.

三迦葉 Three brothers Kāsyapa, all three said to be disciples of the Buddha.

三逆 The three unpardonable sins of Devadatta, which sent him to the Avici hell— schism, stoning the Buddha to the shedding of his blood, killing a nun.


三迷 Sama, 等, equal, like, same as.

三退屈 The three feelings of oppression that make for a bodhisattva's recreancy— the vastness of bodhi; the unlimited call to sacrifice; the uncertainty of final perseverance. There are 三事練磨 three modes of training against them.

三通力 idem 三達 and 三明.

三道 (1) The three paths all have to tread; 輪廻三道, 三輪, i.e. (a) 煩惱道 ; 惑道 ; the path of misery, illusion, mortality; (b) 業道 the path of works, action, or doing, productive of karma; (c) 苦道 the resultant path of suffering. As ever recurring they are called the three wheels. (2) 聾, 緣, 菩 śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, cf. 三乘.

三道眞言 Three magical "true words" or terms of Shingon for self-purification, i.e. 吽M004603 M067153 which is the "true word" for 身 the body; 訶囉鶴 for 語 the mouth or speech; and M004603 M067153 for 意 the mind.

三達 Three aspects of the omniscience of Buddha: knowledge of future karma, of past karma, of present illusion and liberation; v. 三明.

三那三佛 idem 三藐三佛陀.

三部 Three divisions. Included under this category are such terms as 三部大法, 三部主色, 三部經, etc.

三部大法 (l) The Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, or pantheon, has the three divisions of 佛, 蓮, 金, i.e. Vairocana, Lotus, and Diamond or Vajra. (2) The teaching of the 胎藏界, 金剛界 and 蘇悉地法 is said to cover the whole of esoteric Buddhism.

三部主色 the colors of the three divisions of the great pantheon (三部大法): Vairocana, white; 觀世音 (as representing) Amitābha, yellow; and the Diamond Ruler Śākyamuni, a ruddy yellow.

三部經 There are several groups: (1) The Amitābha group, also styled 淨土三部, is 無量壽經, 觀無量壽經 and 阿彌陀經. (2) The Vairocana group is 大日經, 金剛頂經 and 蘇悉地經; also called 三部祕經. (3) The Lotus group is the 無量義經, 妙法蓮經 and 觀普賢菩薩行法經. (4) The Maitreya group is 觀彌勤菩薩上生兜率天經, 彌勒下生經 and 彌勒大成佛經.

三醫 The three modes of diagnosis: the superior, 聽聲 listening to the voice; the medium, 相色 observing the external appearance; the inferior 診脈 testing the pulse.

三重三昧 (or 三重等持) idem 三三昧.

三重法界 The three meditations, on the relationship of the noumenal and phenomenal, of the 華嚴宗 Huayan School: (a) 理法界 the universe as law or mind, that all things are 眞如, i.e. all things or phenomena are of the same Buddha-nature, or the Absolute; (b) 理事無礙法界 that the Buddha-nature and the thing, or the Absolute and phenomena are not mutually exclusive; (c) 事事無礙法界 that phenomena are not mutually exclusive, but in a common harmony as parts of the whole.

三金 The three metals, gold, silver, copper. The esoterics have (a) earth, water, fire, representing the 身密 mystic body; (b) space and wind, the 語密 mystic mouth or speech; (c) 識 cognition, the 意密 mystic mind.

三鉢羅佉哆 saṃprāpta, intp. by 善至, 正至, or 時至 well, properly, or timely arrived. Also written 僧跋 intp. 等施 bestowed equally or universally. It is a word spoken authoritatively some say before, some say after a common meal; a "blessing" to ward off evil from the food.

三鈷 A trident; emblem of the Garbhadhātu 三部; and of the 三智, 三觀等, and三軌. Also written 三古 ; 三胡; 三股.

三銖 Three twenty-fourths of a tael, the weight of a deva's garments, e.g. featherweight.

三長齋月 (三長月) The three whole months of abstinence, the first, fifth, and ninth months, when no food should be taken after noon. The four deva-kings are on tours of inspection during these months.

三門 trividha-dvāra, the three gates; a monastery; purity of body, speech, and thought; idem 三解脫門 also 三業.

三門三大侍者 The three officiators in a monastery— for incense, for writing, and for acting as host.

三阿僧祇劫 The three great asaṃkhyeya (i.e. beyond number) kalpas— the three timeless periods of a bodhisattva's progress to Buddhahood.


三陀羅尼 The three dhāraṇī, which word from dhāra, " maintaining," "preserving," is defined as the power maintaining wisdom or knowledge. Dhāraṇī are "spells chiefly for personal use" (Eliot), as compared with mantra, which are associated with religious services. The Tiantai School interprets the "three dhāraṇī" of the Lotus Sutra on the lines of the三諦, i.e. 空, 假and中. Another group is聞持陀羅尼 the power to retain all the teaching one hears; 分別陀羅尼 unerring powers of discrimination; 入音聲陀羅尼 power to rise superior to external praise or blame.

三階法 (三階佛法) The Three Stages School founded by the monk信行Xinxing in the Sui dynasty; it was proscribed in A.D. 600 and again finally in A.D. 725; also styled 三階院; 三階敎.

三際 Past, present, future, idem 三世.

三際時 The three Indian seasons, spring, summer, and winter, also styled熱, 雨, 寒時, the hot, rainy, and cold seasons.

三障 The three vighna, i.e. hinderers or barriers, of which three groups are given: (1) (a) 煩惱障 the passions, i.e. 三毒 desire, hate, stupidity; (b) 業障 the deeds done; (c) 報障 the retributions. (2) (a) 皮煩惱障 ; (b) 肉煩惱障 ; (c) 心煩惱障 skin, flesh, and heart (or mind) troublers, i.e. delusions from external objects: internal views, and mental ignorance. (3) 三重障 the three weighty obstructions: (a) self-importance, 我慢; (b) envy, 嫉妬; (c) desire, 貧欲.

雜染 The three kaṣāya, i.e. "mixed dyes" or infections: the passions; their karma; reincarnation; or illusion, karma, and suffering.

三難 The three hardships, or sufferings in the three lower paths of transmigration, v. 三惡道.

三面大黑 The three-faced great black deva, Mahākāla v. 摩, with angry mien, a form of Maheśvara, or Śiva, as destroyer. Another interpretation says he is a union of Mahākāla, Vaiśravaṇa, and a Gandharva.

三顚倒 The three subversions or subverters: (evil) thoughts, (false) views, and (a deluded) mind.

三餘 The three after death remainders, or continued mortal experiences, of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who mistakenly think they are going to 無餘涅槃final nirvāṇa, but will still find 煩惱餘 further passion and illusion, 業餘 further karma, and 果餘 continued rebirth, in realms beyond the 三界trailokya.

三馬 The three horses, one young, strong, and tractable; another similar but not tractable; a third old and intractable, i.e. bodhisattvas (or bodhisattva-monks), śrāvakas and icchantis.

三魔 The three kinds of evil spirits, of which three groups are given: (1) 煩惱魔 , 陰魔 and他化自在天子魔 ; (2) 煩惱魔 , 天魔 and 死魔 ; (3) 善知識魔 , 三昧魔 , and善提心魔 .

三默堂 Thee three halls of silence where talk and laughter are prohibited: the bathroom, the sleeping apartment, the privy.

三點 See伊字三點.

三齋月 See 三長齋月.

丸香 Incense balls made of various kinds of ingredients; typifying the aggregation of mortal suffering, and its destruction by the, fires of wisdom.

Long, for long, long ago; also 久遠.

久住者 One who has spent many years in monastic life, or in a particular monastery.

久成正覺 Perfect enlightenment long acquired; Śākya-Tathāgata in ancient kalpas having achieved complete bodhi, transmitted it to Mañjuśrī Avalokiteśvara, and others, i.e., their enlightenment is the fruit of his enlightenment. 法華經:壽量品.

久遠實成 The perfect enlightenment achieved by the Buddha in remote kalpas.

To beg.

乞丐 a beggar.

乞士 A bhikṣu, mendicant monk, or almsman.

乞M004101雙提贊Khri-srong-lde-btsan, king of Tibet (A.D. 743-798). In 747 he brought to Tibet "the real founder of Lamaism" (Eliot), Padmasaṃbhava蓮華生上師, a Buddhist of Swat (Urgyan), who introduced a system of magic and mysticism (saturated with Śivaism) which found its way into Mongolia and China. The king was converted to Buddhism by his mother, a Chinese princess, and became a powerful supporter of it. He encouraged the translation of the Buddhist canon which was completed by his successors. He is worshipped as an incarnation of Mañjuśrī.

乞灑 乞察; 乞叉; 吃灑; 葛叉; 差; 叉; 刹; kṣaya, used in the sense of omega, implying finality, or nirvāṇa.

乞眼婆羅門 The Brahman who begged one of Śāriputra's eyes in a former incarnation, then trampled on it, causing Śāriputra to give up his efforts to become a bodhisattva and turn back to the Hīnayāna.

乞食 To beg for food, one of the twelve dhūtas prescribing outward conduct of the monk; mendicancy is the 正命 right livelihood of a monk, to work for a living is 邪命 an improper life: mendicancy keeps a monk humble, frees him from the cares of life, and offers the donors a field of blessedness; but he may not ask for food.

乞食四分 The four divisions of the mendicant's dole; to provide for (1) fellow religionists, (2) the poor, (3) the spirits, (4) self.


Yu, a preposition, in, at, etc. , similar to 於.

于遮那摩羅 Used in error for 干遮那摩羅.

干遮那摩羅 Kāñcana-mālā, a hair circlet or ornament of pure gold; name of the wife of Kuṇālā, noted for fidelity to her husband when he had been disgraced.

于闍那 Kuñjara. Name of a tree.

于闍羅 Kuñjara. Name of a tree.

于闐 于遁; 于殿; 于塡; 谿丹; 屈丹; 和闐; 澳那; 瞿薩憺那 Kustana, or Khotan, in Turkestan, the principal centre of Central Asian Buddhism until the Moslem invasion. Buddhism was introduced there about 200 B.C. or earlier. It was the centre from which is credited the spread of Mahayanism, v. 西城記 12.

Gone, lost, dead, ruined; not.

亡五衆物 The things left behind at death by any one of the five orders of monks or nuns; clothing, etc., being divided among the other monks or nuns; valuables and land, etc., going to the establishment.

亡者 Dead; the dead.

亡魂 The soul of the dead.

All, everybody, common, ordinary.

凡僧 The ordinary practising monk as contrasted with the 聖僧 the holy monk who has achieved higher merit.

凡夫 波羅; 婆羅必栗託仡那; 婆羅必利他伽闍那 bālapṛthagjana. Everyman, the worldly man, the sinner. Explained by 異生 or 愚異生 one who is born different, or outside the Law of the Buddha, because of his karma.

凡夫十重妄 The serious misfortunes of the sinful man in whom the Ālaya-vijñāna, the fundamental intelligence, or life force, of everyman, is still unenlightened; they are compared to ten progressive stages of a dream in which a rich man sees himself become poor and in prison.

凡夫性 凡性The common underlying nature of all men; also called 異生性.

凡小 Common men, or sinners, also believers in Hīnayāna; also the unenlightened in general.

凡小八倒 The eight subverted views of common men and Hinayanists―counting the impermanent as permanent, the non-joy as joy, the non-ego as ego, the impure as pure; the really permanent as impermanent, the real joy, the true ego, the real purity as non-joy, non-ego, impurity; cf. 四德.

凡師 Ordinary, or worldly teachers unenlightened by Buddhist truth.

凡情 Desires or passions of the unconverted.

凡愚 Common, ignorant, or unconverted men.

凡慮 The anxieties of common or unconverted men.

凡福 The ordinary blessedness of devas and men as compared with that of the converted.

凡種 Common seed, ordinary people.

凡習 The practices, good and evil, of commom ,or unconverted men.

凡聖 Sinners and saints.

凡聖一如 Sinners and saints are of the same fundamental nature.

凡聖不二 Sinners and saints are of the same fundamental nature.

凡聖同居土 This world, where saints and sinners dwell together; one of the Tiantai 四土.

凡識 Ordinary knowledge, worldly knowledge, that of the unenlightened by Buddha.

凡身 The common mortal body, the ordinary individual.

A blade, a sword; to kill.

刃葉林 Asipattravana; the forest of swords, where every leaf is a sharp sword, v. 地獄.

sahasra. A thousand.

千二百五十人 The 1,250, i.e. the immediate disciples of Buddha's disciples, all former heretics converted to Buddha's truth.

千二百舌功德 The 1,200 merits of tongue in the Lotus Sutra.

二百耳功德 The 1,200 merits of ear in the Lotus Sutra.

千二百意功德 The 1,200 merits of mind in the Lotus Sutra.

千佛 The thousand Buddhas. Each of the past, present, and future kalpas has a thousand Buddhas; Śākyamuni is the "fourth" Buddha in the present kalpa.

千佛名經 professes to give their names. A scripture which lists the names of the thousand buddhas.

千化 The thousand-petalled lotus on which sits Locana Buddha, each petal a transformation of Śākyamuni; Locana represents also the Saṃgha, as Vairocana represents the Dharma.

千如是 The thousand "suchnesses" or characteristics, a term of the Tiantai sect. In each of the ten realms 十界, from Buddha to purgatory, the ten are present, totaling one hundred. These multiplied by the ten categories of existence make a thousand, and multiplied by the three categories of group existence make 3,000.

千手 (千手千眼); 千手千眼大慈大悲觀音菩薩 The thousand-hand Guanyin, see below. There are various sutras associated with this title, e.g. 千手經 an abbreviation of 手千眼觀世音菩薩大廣大圓滿無礙大悲心陀羅尼經; also 千手軌 or 軌經 an abbreviation of 金剛頂瑜伽千手千眼觀自在菩薩修行儀軌經; it is also called 千手陀羅尼 and 千手千眼儀軌經; there are many others, e.g. 千手千眼觀世音菩藤姥陀羅尼身經 and 千手千眼廣大圓滿無礙大悲心陀羅尼經 both idem 千手千臂陀羅尼神咒 which is the Avalokiteśvara-padma-jāla-mūla-tantra‐nāma-dhāraṇī.

千手觀音 Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes.

千手千眼觀音 Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes.

千眼千臂觀世音 Sahasrabhuja-sahasranetra. One of the six forms of Kuanyin with a thousand arms and a thousand eyes. The image usually has forty arms, one eye in each hand; and forty multiplied by twenty-five is the number of regions in this universe. For the 二十八部 or retinue, the maṇḍala and signs v. 千手經.

千法明門 The gate of understanding of the thousand laws―the second stage of a bodhisattva's study and attainment.

千泉 Bingheul 屛律 Mingbulak. A lake country 30 li E. of Talas.

千百億身 The Buddha Locana seated on a lotus of a thousand petals, each containing myriads of worlds in each world is, Śākyamuni seated under a bodhi tree, all such worlds attaining bodhi at the same instant.

千眼天 The Deva with 1,000 of a thousand petals, i.e. that of Locana Buddha.

千輻輪相 Sahasrara; the thousand-spoked wheel sign, i.e. the wrinkles on the soles of a cakravarti, or Buddha.

千部論師 (or 千部論主) Master of a thousand śāstras―a title of Nāgārjuna and of Vasubandhu.

千里駒 The thousand-li colt, a name for Xuanzang.


A fork, forked; to fold, folded.

叉手 The palms of the hands together with the fingers crossed forming ten. Also, the palms together with the middle fingers crossing each other, an old Indian form of greeting. In China anciently the left hand was folded over the right, but with women the right hand was over the left. In mourning salutations the order was reversed.

叉拏 kṣaṇa, an instant, a moment; also 刹拏.

叉磨 kṣamā, v. 懺悔.

叉耶 kṣaya, diminish, decay, end; v. 乞.

mukha, the mouth, especially as the organ of speech. 身, 口, 意 are the three media of corruption, body or deed , mouth or word, and mind or thought.

口傳 Oral transmission.

口授 Oral transmission.

口力外道 One of the eleven heretical sects of India. which is said to have compared the mouth to the great void out of which all things were produced. The great void produced the four elements, these produced herbs, and these in turn all the living; or more in detail the void produced wind, wind fire, fire warmth, warmth water, water congealed and formed earth which produced herbs, herbs cereals and life, hence life is food; ultimately all returns to the void, which is nirvana.

因力論師 Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which all things are produced; see 口力外道.

口力論師 Exponents of the doctrine which compares the mouth to the great void from which all things are produced; see 口力外道.

口印 The mouth sign, one of the fourteen symbols of 不重尊 q.v.

口和 Harmony of mouths or voices, unanimous approval.

口四 The four evils of the mouth, lying, double tongue, ill words, and exaggeration; cf. 十惡.

口密 語密 One of the 三密. Secret or magical words, either definite formulas of the Buddha or secret words from his dharma, kaya, or spirit.

口忍 Patience of the mouth, uttering no rebuke under insult or persecution; there are similarly 身忍 and 意忍.

口業 語業 One of the 三業. (1) The work of the mouth, i.e. talk, speech. (2) The evil karma produced by the mouth, especially from lying, double-tongue, ill words, and exaggeration.

口業供養 The offering of the praise or worship of the lips; also 身業供養 and 意業供養.

口疏 奥疏 Esoteric commentary or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only imparted to the initiated.

奥疏 Esoteric commentary or explanation of two kinds, one general, the other only imparted to the initiated.

口稱 Invocation.

口稱三昧 The samādhi in which with a quiet heart the individual repeats the name of Buddha, or the samādhi attained by such repetition.

口訣 Orally transmitted decisions or instructions.

口輪 正教輪 One of the 三輪. The wheel of the mouth. or the wheel of the true teaching; Buddha's teaching rolling on everywhere, like a chariot-wheel, destroying misery.

口頭禪 Mouth meditation, i.e. dependence on the leading of others, inability to enter into personal meditation.

Bhū; bhūmi; pṛthivī. Earth, locality, local, vulgar.

土地神 The local guardian deity of the soil or locality, deus loci; in the classics and government sacrifices known as 社; as guardian deity of the grave 后土. The 土地堂 is the shrine of this deity as ruler of the site of a monastery, and is usually east of the main hall. On the 2nd and 16th of each month a 土地諷經 or reading of a sutra should be done at the shrine.

土星 賒乃以室折羅 Śanaiścara. Saturn. Śani, the Hindu ruler of the planet, was "identified with the planet itself ".[Eitel.]

土波 Tibet.

土砂供養 土砂加持 The putting of earth on the grave 108 times by the Shingon sect; they also put it on the deceased's body, and even on the sick, as a kind of baptism for sin, to save the deceased from the hells and base reincarnations, and bring them to the Pure Land.

土羅遮 偸蘭遮 sthūlātyaya. Serious sin.

土饅頭 An earthen loaf, i.e. a grave; but v. 士饅頭.

土麨 Aśoka is said to have become king as a reward for offering, when a child in a previous incarnation, a double-handful of sand as wheat or food to the Buddha.

A gentleman, scholar, officer.

士夫 v. 補盧沙 puruṣa.

士夫見 One of the eight heterodox views, i.e. the pride arising from belief in a puruṣa, 補慮沙 q.v.

士饅頭 śmaśāna. A crematory; a burial place for remains from cremation. A grave; v. 土饅頭. The form is doubtful.



夕座 The evening service.

朝座 The morning service.

Maha. 摩訶; 麼賀. Great, large, big; all pervading, all-embracing; numerous 多; surpassing ; mysterious 妙; beyond comprehension 不可思議; omnipresent 體無不在. The elements, or essential things, i.e. (a) 三大 The three all-pervasive qualities of the 眞如 q.v. : its 體, 相 , 用 substance, form, and functions, v. 起信論 . (b) 四大 The four tanmātra or elements, earth, water, fire, air (or wind) of the 倶舍論. (c)五大 The five, i.e. the last four and space 空, v. 大日經. (d) 六大 The six elements, earth, water, fire, wind, space (or ether), mind 識. Hīnayāna, emphasizing impersonality 人空, considers these six as the elements of all sentient beings; Mahāyāna, emphasizing the unreality of all things 法空, counts them as elements, but fluid in a flowing stream of life, with mind 識 dominant; the esoteric sect emphasizing nonproduction, or non-creation, regards them as universal and as the Absolute in differentiation. (e) 七大 The 楞嚴經 adds 見 perception, to the six above named to cover the perceptions of the six organs 根.

大三末多 Mahāsaṃmata. The first of the five kings of the Vivarta kalpa (成劫五王 ), one of the ancestors of the Śākya clan.

大不可棄子部 Āvantikās. The great school of the son who "could not be abandoned" (a subdivision of the Saṃmatiyas 三彌底), whose founder when a newborn babe was abandoned by his parents.

大不善地法 The two great characteristics of the evil state, 無慚無愧 no sense of shame or disgrace, shameless.

大乘 Mahāyāna; also called 上乘; 妙乘; 勝乘; 無上乘; 無上上乘; 不惡乘; 無等乘, 無等等乘; 摩訶衍 The great yāna, wain, or conveyance, or the greater vehicle in comparison with the 小乘 Hīnayāna. It indicates universalism, or Salvation for all, for all are Buddha and will attain bodhi. It is the form of Buddhism prevalent in Tibet, Mongolia, China, Korea, Japan, and in other places in the Far East. It is also called Northern Buddhism. It is interpreted as 大教 the greater teaching as compared with 小教 the smaller, or inferior. Hīnayāna, which is undoubtedly nearer to the original teaching of the Buddha, is unfairly described as an endeavour to seek nirvana through an ash-covered body, an extinguished intellect, and solitariness; its followers are sravakas and pratyekabuddhas (i.e. those who are striving for their own deliverance through ascetic works). Mahāyāna, on the other hand, is described as seeking to find and extend all knowledge, and, in certain schools, to lead all to Buddhahood. It has a conception of an Eternal Buddha, or Buddhahood as Eternal (Adi-Buddha), but its especial doctrines are, inter alia, (a) the bodhisattvas 菩薩 , i.e. beings who deny themselves final Nirvana until, according to their vows, they have first saved all the living; (b) salvation by faith in, or invocation of the Buddhas or bodhisattvas; (c) Paradise as a nirvana of bliss in the company of Buddhas, bodhisattvas, saints, and believers. Hīnayāna is sometimes described as 自利 self-benefiting, and Mahāyāna as 自利利他 self-benefit for the benefit of others, unlimited altruism and pity being the theory of Mahāyāna. There is a further division into one-yana and three-yanas: the trīyāna may be śrāvaka, pratyeka-buddha, and bodhisattva, represented by a goat, deer, or bullock cart; the one-yāna is that represented by the Lotus School as the one doctrine of the Buddha, which had been variously taught by him according to the capacity of his hearers, v. 方便. Though Mahāyāna tendencies are seen in later forms of the older Buddhism, the foundation of Mahāyāna has been attributed to Nāgārjuna 龍樹. "The characteristics of this system are an excess of transcendental speculation tending to abstract nihilism, and the substitution of fanciful degrees of meditation and contemplation (v. Samādhi and Dhyāna) in place of the practical asceticism of the Hīnayāna school."[Eitel 68-9.] Two of its foundation books are the 起信論and the 妙法蓮華經 but a larnge numberof Mahāyāna sutras are ascribed to the Buddha。.

大乘二種成佛 The two Mahāyāna kinds of Buddhahood: (1) that of natural purity, for every one has the inherent nature; (2) that attained by practice.

大乘善根界 The Mahāyāna good roots realm, a name for the Amitābha Pure-land of the West.

大乘四果The four fruits, or bodhisattva stages in Mahāyāna, the fourth being that of a Buddha: 須陀洹 srota-āpanna, 斯陀含 sakṛdāgāmin, 。阿理那含 anāgāmin, and 阿羅漢 arhan. This is a 通教 category.


大乘因 Mahāyāna "cause" is variously described as the mind of enlightenment 菩提心; or the reality behind all things 諸法實相.

大乘基 "Mahāyāna‐fundament", title of 窺基 Kuiji, a noted disciple of Xuanzang 玄奘; known also as 大乘法師.

大乘妙經 idem 法華經 the Lotus Sutra.

大乘天 "Mahāyāna-deva", a title given to 玄奘 Xuanzang, who was also styled 木叉提婆 Moksa-deva.

木叉提婆 "Mokṣa-deva", a title given to 玄奘 Xuanzang.

大乘宗 The school of Mahāyāna, attributed to the rise in India of the Mādhyamika, i.e. the 中觀 or 三論 school ascribed to Nāgārjuna, and the Yoga 瑜伽 or Dharmalakṣaṇa 法相 school, the other schools being Hīnayāna. In China and Japan the 倶舍 and 成實 are classed as Hīnayāna, the rest being Mahāyāna , of which the principal schools are 律, 法相 , 三論, 華嚴, 天台, 眞言 , 淨土 , 禪 q.v.

大乘心 The mind or heart of the Mahāyāna; seeking the mind of Buddha by means of Mahāyāna.

大乘戒 The commands or prohibitions for bodhisattvas and monks, also styled 菩薩; 三聚淨戒; 圓頓戒 and other titles according to the school. The 梵網經 gives ten weighty prohibitions and forty-eight lighter ones; v. also 大乘戒經.

大乘教 v. 大乘; for 大乘教九部 v. 九部.

大乘方等經典 The sutra and scriptures of the Mahāyāna, their doctrines being 方正 square and correct and 平等 for all equally, or universal.

大乘楞伽經唯識論 Viṃśatikā-vijñaptimātratā-siddhi-śāstra. A title of one of three treatises by Vasubandhu, tr. A.D. 508-535, 大乘唯識論 tr. 557-569, and 唯識二十論 tr. by Xuanzang in 661 being the other two.

大乘法師 a title for 窺基 v. 大乘基.

大乘法相教 and 大乘破相敎 v. 法相敎.

大乘無上法 The supreme Mahāyāna truth, according to the 楞伽經, is that of ultimate reality in contrast with the temporary and apparent; also reliance on the power of the vow of the bodhisattva.

大乘無作大戒 The Mahāyāna great moral law involving no external action; a Tiantai expression for the inner change which occurs in the recipient of ordination; it is the activity within; also 大乘無作圓頓戒; 無表大戒.

大乘純界 The lands wholly devoted to Mahāyāna, i.e. China and Japan, where in practice there is no Hīnayāna.

大乘經 Mahāyāna sutras, the sūtra-piṭaka. Discourses ascribed to the Buddha, presumed to be written in India and translated into Chinese. These are divided into five classes corresponding to the Mahāyāna theory of the Buddha's life: (1) Avataṃsaka, 華嚴 the sermons first preached by Śākyamuni after enlightenment; (2) Vaipulya, 方等; (3) Prajñā Pāramitā, 般若; (4) Saddharma Puṇḍarīka, 法華; and last (5) Mahāparinirvāṇa, 涅槃. Another list of Mahāyāna sutras is 般若; 寳積; 大集; 華嚴 and 涅槃. The sutras of Hīnayāna are given as the Agamas 阿含, etc.

大乘莊嚴經論 Mahāyānasūtra-laṃkāra-ṭīkā. An exposition of the teachings of the Vijñāna-vāda School, by Asaṅga, tr. A.D. 630-3 by Prabhākaramitra. 13 chuan.

大乘起信論 Mahāyāna- śraddhotpāda-śāstra, attributed to Aśvaghoṣa 馬鳴 (without sufficient evidence), tr. by Paramārtha A.D. 553 and Śikṣānanda between 695-700; there are nineteen commentaries on it. It is described as the foundation work of the Mahāyāna. Tr. into English by Timothy Richard and more correctly by T. Suzuki as The Awakening of Faith.

大乘論 Abhidharma of the Mahāyāna, the collection of discourses on metaphysics and doctrines.

大乘頂王經 Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra, (維摩經) is the Sanskrit title of a work of which there exist six translations, one made by Upaśūnya A.D. 502-557.


大事(因緣) For the sake of a great cause, or because of a great matter―the Buddha appeared, i.e. for changing illusion into enlightenment. The Lotus interprets it as enlightenment; the Nirvana as the Buddha-nature; the 無量壽經 as the joy of Paradise.

人相印 Sealed with the sign of manhood, i.e. of the religious life. 大仙 Maharsi. Great sages, applied to Buddhist saints as superior to ordinary "immortals"; also to sravakas, and especially to Buddha; | | 戒 are the Buddha's laws or commands. Vasistha 婆私瑟侘 was one of the seven rsis 大仙 of Brahmanic mythology.

佛頂 A title of the esoteric sect for their form of Buddha, or Buddhas, especially of Vairocana of the Vajradhātu and Śākyamuni of the Garbhadhātu groups. Also, an abbreviation of a dhāraṇī as is | | | 經 of a sutra, and there are other | | | scriptures.

休歇底 Ended, finished; dead to the world; also | 死底.

信心 Great or firm faith in, or surrender to Buddha, especially to Amitabha.

信心海 A heart of faith great as the ocean.

A fully ordained monk, i.e. a bhikṣu as contrasted with the śramaņa.

僧正 The Director or Pope of monks; an office under Wudi, A.D. 502‐550, of the Liang dynasty, for the control of the monks. Wendi, 560-7, of the Ch'en dynasty appointed a 大僧統 or Director over the monks in his capital.

大元帥明王 The great commander, one of the sixteen 明王 q.v., named Atavika 阿吒薄迦 (or 倶 or 皆). There are four sutras, chiefly spells connected with his cult.

大光明王 The Great-Light Ming-wang, Śākyamuni in a previous existence, when king of Jambudvīpa, at Benares. There his white elephant, stirred by the sight of a female elephant, ran away with him into the forest, where he rebuked his mahout, who replied, "I can only control the body not the mind, only a Buddha can control the mind." Thereupon the royal rider made his resolve to attain bodhi and become a Buddha. Later, he gave to all that asked, finally even his own head to a Brahman who demanded it, at the instigation of an enemy king.

大光音天 ābhāsvara. The third of the celestial regions in the second dhyāna heaven of the form realm; v. 四禪天.

大光普照 The great light shining everywhere, especially the ray of light that streamed from between the Buddha's eyebrows, referred to in the Lotus Sutra.

大光普照觀音 One of the six forms of Guanyin.

大准提 Mahā-cundī, a form of Guanyin. There are dhāraṇīs beginning with the name Cundī.

大刧 mahākalpa. The great kalpa, from the beginning of a universe till it is destroyed and another begins in its place. It has four kalpas or periods known as vivarta 成刧 the creation period; vivarta‐siddha 住刧 the appearance of sun and moon, i.e. light, and the period of life, human and general; saṃvarta 壤刧 or 滅刧 destruction first by fire, then water, then fire, then deluge, then a great wind, i.e. water during seven small kalpas, fire during 56 and wind one, in all 64; saṃvartatthāhi 増滅刧 total destruction gradually reaching the void. A great kalpa is calculated as eighty small kalpas and to last 1,347,000,000 years.

大刧賓寧 Kapphiṇa or Mahakapphiṇa v. 劫賓那.

大力王 King Powerful, noted for his unstinted generosity. Indra to test him appeared as a Brahman and asked for his flesh; the king ungrudgingly cut of and gave him his arm. Indra was then Devadatta, King Powerful was Śākyamuni; v. 菩薩藏經 (下).

大力金剛 The mighty "diamond" or Vajra-mahārāja in the Garbhadhātu group, a fierce guardian and servant of Buddhism, see below.

大勇 Āryaśūra. Also 聖勇 The great brave, or ārya the brave. An Indian Buddhist author of several works.

大勇猛菩薩 A guardian ruler in the Garbhadhātu group called Mahānīla, the Great Blue Pearl, or perhaps sapphire, which in some way is associated with him.

大勝金剛 Another name for 金輪佛頂, one of the incarnations of Vairocana represented with twelve arms, each hand holding one of his symbols. Also 大轉輪王; 金剛手 .

大勢 See 大勢至菩薩.

勢至 See 大勢至菩薩.

大勢至菩薩 Mahāsthāma or Mahāsthāmaprāpta 摩訶那鉢. A Bodhisattva representing the Buddha-wisdom of Amitābha; he is on Amitābha's right, with Avalokiteśvara on the left. They are called the three holy ones of the western region. He has been doubtfully identified with Maudgalyāyana. Also 勢至.

大勢佛 The Buddha of mighty power (to heal and save), a Buddha's title.


大勤勇 Greatly zealous and bold― a title of Vairocana.

大化 The transforming teaching and work of a Buddha in one lifetime.

大千 (世界) A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. 三千大千.

大千世界 A major chiliocosm, or universe, of 3,000 great chiliocosms, v. 三千大千.

大召 A temple and its great bell in Lhasa Tibet, styled 老木郞, built when the T'ang princess became the wife of the Tibetan king Ts'ah-po and converted Tibet to Buddhism.

大吉祥天 The good-fortune devīs, and also devas, also called 功德天, concerning whom there are several sutras.

大吉祥金剛 idem 金剛手.

大吉祥明菩薩 The sixth bodhisattva in the second row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group.

大吉大明菩薩 The fifth bodhisattva in the second row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group..

大吉變菩薩 The sixth bodhisattva in the third row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group.

大叫喚地獄 mahāraurava. The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells. Also 大呌 ; 大號呌 ; 大呼.

大和尚 Great monk, senior monk, abbot ; a monk of great virtue and old age. Buddhoṣingha, (Fotu cheng 佛圖澄), who came to China A.D. 310, was so styled by his Chinese disciple 石子龍 Shizi long.

大和竭羅 Dīpaṃkara. The Buddha of burning light, the twenty-fourth predecessor of Śākyamuni, a disciple of Varaprabha ; v. 燃 and 提. In the Lotus Sutra he appears from his nirvana on the Vulture Peak with Śākyamuni, manifesting that the nirvana state is one of continued existence.

大命 The great order, command, destiny, or fate, i.e. life-and-death, mortality, reincarnation.

大周刋定衆經目錄 The catalogue in 14 juan of the Buddhist scripture made under the Empress Wu of the Tang dynasty, the name of which she changed to Zhou.

大品 The larger, or fuller edition of a canonical work, work, especially of the next. | | 般若經 ; 摩訶般若波羅蜜經 The Mahaprajnaparamita sutra as tr. by Kumarajiva in 27 chuan, in contrast with the 10 chuan edition.

大品經 The larger, or fuller edition of a canonical work, work, especially of the 大品般若經.

大品般若經 摩訶般若波羅蜜經 The Mahāprajñāpāramitā-sūtra as tr. by Kumārajīva in 27 chuan, in contrast with the 10 chuan edition.

大哉解脱服 Great! the robe of deliverance―verses in praise of the cassock, from the 善見論, sung on initiation into the order.

大唐内典錄 A catalogue of the Buddhist library in the Tang dynasty A.D. 664.

大唐西域記 The Record of Western Countries by Xuanzang of the Tang dynasty ; v. 西域記.

大善利 The great benefit that results from goodness, also expressed as 大善大利 implying the better one is the greater the resulting benefit.

大善地法 The ten mental conditions for cultivation of goodness, being a part of the forty-six methods mentioned in the 倶舍論 4 ; faith, zeal, renunciation, shame (for one's own sin), shame (for another's sin), no desire, no dislike, no harm, calmness, self-control. v. 大地法.

大善知識 Well acquainted with the good ; great friends.

大嚫 dakṣiṇā, v. 達嚫.

大因陀羅座 The throne of Indra, whose throne is four-square to the universe ; also 金剛輪座.

大因陀羅壇 Indra-altar of square shape. He is worshipped as the mind-king of the universe, all things depending on him.

大圓覺 Great and perfect enlightenment, Buddha-wisdom.

大圓鏡智 Great perfect mirror wisdom, i.e. perfect all-reflecting Buddha-wisdom.

大圓鏡智觀 A meditation on the reflection of the perfect Buddha-wisdom in every being, that as an image may enter into any number of reflectors, so the Buddha can enter into me and I into him 入我我入.

大地 Great earth, the whole earth, everywhere, all the land, etc.

大地法 Ten bodhisattva bhūmi, or stages above that of 見道 in the 倶舍論 4, and the mental conditions connected with them. 大地 is also defined as good and evil, the association of mind with them being by the ten methods of 受, 想, 思, 觸, 欲, 慧, 念, 作意, 勝解, 三摩地.

大域龍 Dignāga, or Mahā-Dignāga, also known as 陳那 Jina, founder of the medieval school of Buddhist logic about the fifth century A.D. His works are known only in Tibetan translations. [Winternitz.]


大壇 A great altar, the chief altar.

大士 Mahasattva. 開士 A great being, noble, a leader of men, a bodhisattva; also a śrāvaka, a Buddha; especially one who 自利利他 benefits himself to help others.

大士籤 Bamboo slips used before Kuan-yin when the latter is consulted as an oracle. '

大夜 The great night, i.e. that before the funeral pyre of a monk is lighted; also 迨夜; 宿夜.

大夢 The great dream, "the dream of life," this life, the world.

大天 Mahādeva. 摩訶提婆. (1) A former incarnation of Śākyamuni as a Cakravartī. (2) A title of Maheśvara. (3) An able supporter of the Mahāsāṃghikaḥ, whose date is given as about a hundred years after the Buddha's death, but he is also described as a favorite of Aśoka, with whom he is associated as persecutor of the Sthavirāḥ, the head of which escaped into Kashmir. If from the latter school sprang the Mahāyāna, it may account for the detestation in which Mahādeva is held by the Mahāyānists. An account of his wickedness and heresies is given in 西域記 3 and in 婆沙論 99.

大秦寺 (1) A monastery of the Manichaean sect, erected in Changan during the Tang dynasty by order of the emperor Taizong C.E. 627-650; also 波斯寺 (2) A Nestorian monastery mentioned in the Christian monument at Sianfu.

大姊 Elder sister, a courtesy title for a lay female devotee, or a nun.

大威德 Mahātejas. Of awe-inspiring power, or virtue, able to suppress evildoers and protect the good. A king of garuḍas, v. 迦. Title of a 明王 protector of Buddhism styled 大威德者; 大威德尊; 大威德明王; 百光扁照王; there are symbols, spells, esoteric words, sutras, etc., connected with this title.

大婆羅門 The great brāhmaṇa, applied to the Buddha, who though not of Brahman caste was the embodiment of Brahman virtues.

大婆羅門經 A sutra dealing with 大婆羅門.

大堅固婆羅門 The great reliable Brāhmaṇa, i.e., Śākyamuni in a previous life when minister of a country; there is sutra of this name.

大孔雀王 The mayūra, or "peacock" 明王 ,v. 孔雀王There are seven sets of spells connected with him.

大安達羅 Mahendra, or Mahendrī, or Rāja mahendrī. A city near the mouth of the Godavery, the present Rājamundry.

大安慰 The great comforter, or pacifier―a Buddha's title.

大定智悲 Great insight, great wisdom, great pity, the three virtues 三德for Buddha by which he achieves enlightenment and wisdom and saves all beings.

大寂定 The samādhi which the Tathāgata enters, of perfect tranquility and concentration with total absence of any perturbing element; also parinirvāṇa. Also 大寂三昧; 大寂靜摩地.

大寂王 The great tranquil or nirvana dharma‐king, i.e. Vairocana.

大寂滅 Parinirvāṇa; the great nirvana.

大寒林 The grove of great cold, sitavana, i.e., burial stūpas, the graveyard.

大寶 Great Jewel, most precious thing, i.e. the Dharma or Buddha-law; the bodhisattva; the fire-altar of the esoteric cult.

大寶坊 The "great precious region" described in the 大集 sutra as situated between the world of desire and the world of form.

大寶摩尼 The great precious maṇi, or pure pearl, the Buddha-truth.

大寶法王 Mahāratna-dharma-rāja. Title of the reformer of the Tibetan church, founder of the Yellow sect, b. A.D. 1417 ,worshipped as an incarnation of Amitābha, now incarnate in every Bogdo gegen Hutuktu reigning in Mongolia. He received this title in A. D. 1426. See 宗客巴 Tsong-kha-Pa.

大寶海 The "great precious ocean," (of the merit of Amitabha).

大寶積經 Mahāratnakūṭa-sūtra. Collection of forty-nine sutras, of which thirty-six were translated by Bodhiruci and collated by him with various previous translations.

大寶華 The great precious flower, a lotus made of pearls.

大寶華王 King of jewel-lotuses, i.e., the finest of the gem-flowers 大寶華.

大寶華王座 A throne for the 大寶華王.

大寶藏 The great precious treasury, containing the gems of the Buddha-truth.

大寺 Mahāvihāra. The Great Monastery, especially that in Ceylon visited by Faxian about A.D. 400 when it had 3,000 inmates; v. 毘訶羅.


大導師 The great guide, i.e. Buddha, or a Bodhisattva.

大小二乘 The two vehicles, Mahāyāna and Hinayana; v. 大乘 and 小乘.

大師 Great teacher, or leader, one of the ten titles of a Buddha.

大幻師 Great magician, a title given to a Buddha.

大度師 Great leader across mortality to nirvana, i.e. Buddha, or Bodhisattva.

大廣智三藏 He of great, wide wisdom in the Tripiṭaka, a title of Amogha 阿目佉.

大德 bhadanta. 婆檀陀 Most virtuous, a title of honor of a Buddha; in the Vinaya applied to monks.

大心力 The great mind and power, or wisdom and activity of Buddha.

大心海 Great mind ocean, i.e. omniscience.

大念 (大念佛) Invoking Buddha with a loud voice; meditating on Buddha with continuous concentration.

大念佛 Invoking Buddha with a loud voice; meditating on Buddha with continuous concentration.

大志焚身 The monk Ta-chin who sacrificed himself on the pyre, and thus caused Yang Ti of the Sui dynasty to withdraw his order for dispersing the monks.

大忍法界 The great realm for learning patience, i.e. the present world.

大恩教主 The Lord of great grace and teacher of men, Buddha.

大惡象 The great wild elephant, i.e. the untamed heart.

大悲 mahākaruṇā, "great pity"; i.e. greatly pitiful, a heart that seeks to save the suffering; applied to all Buddhas and bodhisattvas; especially to Guanyin.

大悲三昧 The samādhi of great pity, in which Buddhas and bodhisattvas develop their great pity.

大悲代受苦 Vicarious suffering (in purgatory) for all beings, the work of bodhisattvas. The same idea in regard to Guanyin is conveyed in大悲千手獄.

大悲咒 Another name of the 千手經 or 千手陀羅尼 containing a spell against lust.

大悲壇 The altar of pity, a term for the garbhadhātu maṇḍala , or for the Sakyamumi group.

大悲弓 The bow of great pity. Pity, a bow in the left hand; wisdom 智, an arrow in the right hand.

大悲四八之應 The thirty-two or thirty-three manifestations of the All-pitiful Guanyin responding to every need.

大悲普現 Great pity universally manifested, i.e. Guanyin, who in thirty-three manifestations meets every need.

大悲生心三昧耶 The samadhi of Maitreya.

大悲經 Mahākaruṇā-puṇḍarīka-sūtra, tr. by Narendrayaśas and Dharmaprajñā A.D. 552, five books.

大悲者 The great pitiful one, Kuan-yin.

大悲胎藏 The womb―store of great pity, the fundamental heart of bodhi in all: this womb is likened to a heart opening as an eight-leaved lotus, in the center being Vairocana, the source of pity.

大悲胎藏曼荼羅 The maṇḍala of the 大悲胎藏.

大悲胎藏三昧 The samādhi in which Vairocana evolves the group, and it is described as the "mother of all Buddha-sons".

大悲菩薩 Guanyin, the Bodhisattva of great pity.

大悲觀世 Guanyin, the greatly pitiful regarder of (earth's) cries.

大悲鎧冑門 A degree of samādhi in which Vairocana produced the Bodhisattva Vajrapāla 金剛護菩薩 who protects men like a helmet and surrounds them like mail by his great pity.

大悲闡提 The greatly pitiful icchantikah, who cannot become a Buddha till his saving work is done, i.e. Guanyin, Dizang.

大慈 Great mercy,or compassion.

大慈大悲 Great mercy and great pity, characteristics of Buddhas and bodhisattvas, i.e. kindness in giving joy and compassion in saving from suffering. It is especially applied to Guanyin.

大慈尊 The honored one of great kindness, Maitreya.

大慈恩寺 The monastery of "Great Kindness and Grace", built in Changan by the crown prince of Taizong C.E. 648, where Xuanzang lived and worked and to which in 652 he added its pagoda, said to be 200 feet high, for storing the scriptures and relics he had brought from India.

大慈恩三藏 "Tripitaka of the Ta Cien T'zu En Si" is one of Xuanzang's 玄奘 titles.

慈生菩薩 The director or fosterer of pity among all the living, i.e. the fifth in the 除蓋障 court of the Garbhadhātu group. Also 大慈起; 慈發生; 慈愍慧; 慈念金剛. His Sanskrit name is translit. 昧憺利也毘廋拏糵多.


大意 The general meaning or summary of a sutra or śāstra. Also, the name of a youth, a former incarnation of the Buddha : to save his nation from their poverty, he plunged into the sea to obtain a valuable pearl from the sea-god who, alarmed by the aid rendered by Indra, gave up the pearl ; v. 大意經.

大意經 tr. by Gunabhadra of the Liu Sung dynasty, 1 chuan.

大愛道 Mahā prajāpatī, 摩訶波闍波提 Gautama's aunt and foster-mother, also styled Gotami or Gautami, the first woman received into the order. There are sutras known by her name. 大愛 is also a name for the sea-god.

大應供 The great worshipful―one of the ten titles of a Buddha.

大會 A general assembly.

大會衆 The general assembly (of the saints).

大愚 The "greatly ignorant", name of a monastery and title of its patriarch, of the Ch'an (Zen) or intuitive school.

大慧 Mahāmati 摩訶摩底 (1) Great wisdom, the leading bodhisattva of the Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra. (2) Name of a Hangchow master of the Chan school, Zonggao 宗杲 of the Song dynasty, whose works are the 大慧書. (3) Posthumous title of 一行Yixing, a master of the Chan school in the Tang dynasty.

大慧刀印 The sign of the great wisdom sword, the same esoteric sign as the 寳甁印 and 塔印 There are two books, the abbreviated titles of which are 大慧語錄 and its supplement the 大慧武庫.

大成 Mahāsaṃmbhava. Great completion. The imaginary realm in which (in turn) appeared 20,000 koṭīs of Buddhas all of the same title, Bhīṣmagarjita-ghoṣasvararāja.

大戒 The complete commandments of Hīnayāna and Mahayana, especially of the latter.

大我 The greater self, or the true personality 眞我. Hīnayāna is accused of only knowing and denying the common idea of a self, or soul, whereas there is a greater self, which is a nirvana self. It especially refers to the Great Ego, the Buddha, but also to any Buddha ;v.大目經1, etc., and 涅槃經 23.

大拘絺那 Mahākauṣṭhila, 摩訶倶絺羅, 摩訶倶祉羅 an eminent disciple of Śākyamuni, maternal uncle of Śāriputra, reputed author of the Saṃgītiparyāya-śāstra.

大拏 sudana, 須達拏, 須大拏, 蘇達拏 ; i.e. Sakyamuni as a prince in a former life, when he forfeited the throne by his generosity.

大攝受 The great all-embracing receiver―a title of a Buddha, especially Amitābha.

大教 The great teaching. (1) That of the Buddha. (2) Tantrayāna. The mahātantra, yoga, yogacarya, or tantra school which claims Samantabhadra as its founder. It aims at ecstatic union of the individual soul with the world soul, Iśvara. From this result the eight great powers of Siddhi (aṣṭa-mahāsiddhi), namely, ability to (1) make one's body lighter (laghiman); (2) heavier (gaiman); (3) smaller (aṇiman); (4) larger (mahiman) than anything in the world ; (5) reach any place (prāpti) ; (6) assume any shape (prākāmya) ; (7) control all natural laws (īśitva) ; (8) make everything depend upon oneself; all at will (v.如意身 and 神足). By means of mystic formulas (Tantras or dhāraṇīs), or spells (mantras), accompanied by music and manipulation of the hands (mūdra), a state of mental fixity characterized neither by thought nor the annihilation of thought, can be reached. This consists of six-fold bodily and mental happiness (yoga), and from this results power to work miracles. Asaṅga compiled his mystic doctrines circa A.D. 500. The system was introduced into China A.D. 647 by Xuanzang's translation of the Yogācārya-bhūmi-śāstra 瑜伽師地論 ; v. 瑜. On the basis of this, Amoghavajra established the Chinese branch of the school A.D. 720 ; v. 阿目. This was popularized by the labours of Vajrabodhi A.D. 732 ; v. 金剛智.

大教經 idem 大金剛頂經.

大教網 The net of the great teaching, which saves men from the sea of mortal life.

大方便 mahopāya; the great appropriate means, or expedient method of teaching by buddhas and bodhisattvas ; v. 方便 .

大方廣 mahāvaipulya ; cf. 大方等 The great Vaipulyas, or sutras of Mahāyāna. 方廣 and 方等 are similar in meaning. Vaipulya is extension, spaciousness, widespread, and this is the idea expressed both in 廣 broad, widespread, as opposed to narrow, restricted, and in 等 levelled up, equal everywhere, universal. These terms suggest the broadening of the basis of Buddhism, as is found in Mahāyāna. The Vaipulya works are styled sutras, for the broad doctrine of universalism, very different from the traditional account of his discourses, is put into the mouth of the Buddha in wider, or universal aspect. These sutras are those of universalism, of which the Lotus 法華 is an outstanding example. The form Vaitulya instead of Vaipulya is found in some Kashgar MSS. of the Lotus, suggesting that in the Vetulla sect lies the origin of the Vaipulyas, and with them of Mahāyāna, but the evidence is inadequate.

大方廣佛 The 本尊 fundamental honoured one of the 華嚴經, described as the Buddha who has realized the universal law.

大方廣佛華嚴經 Buddhāvataṃsaka-mahāvaipulya-sūtra ; the Avataṃsaka, Hua-yen, or Kegon sutra ; tr. by Buddhabhadra and others A.D. 418-420. The various translations are in 60, 80, and 40 chuan, v. 華嚴經.

大方廣如來祕密藏經 Tathāgatagarbha-sūtra, tr. A.D.350-431, idem 大方等如來藏經, tr. by Buddhabhadra A.D. 417-420, 1 chuan.


大方等 Mahāvaipulya or vaipulya 大方廣; 毗佛畧. They are called 無量義經 sutras of infinite meaning, or of the infinite; first introduced into China by Dharmarakṣa (A.D.266―317). The name is common to Hīnayāna and Mahayana, but chiefly claimed by the latter for its special sutras as extending and universalizing the Buddha's earlier preliminary teaching. v. 大方廣 and 方等.

大方等大集經 Mahāvaipulya-mahāsaṃnipāta-sūtra, tr. A.D. 397―439, said to have been preached by the Buddha "from the age of 45 to 49 ...to Buddhas and bodhisattvas assembled from every region, by a great staircase made between the world of desire and that of form". B.N. Another version was made by Jñānagupta and others in A.D. 594 called 大方等大集賢護經.

大方等頂王説經 Vimalakīrti-nirdeśa-sūtra, tr. by Dharmarakṣa A.D.265―316.

大族王 Mihirakula 摩醯羅矩羅, an ancient Huna king in the Punjab circa A.D. 520 who persecuted Buddhism; v. 西域記 4.

大施太子 (or 善薩). The great princely almsgiver, i.e. Śākyamuni in a previous life; also 能施太子 (or 太子).

大施會 無遮大會 mokṣa-mahā-pariṣad; a great gathering for almsgiving to all, rich and poor, nominally quinquennial.

大日 Vairocana, or Mahāvairocana 大日如來; 遍照如來; 摩訶毘盧遮那; 毘盧遮那; 大日覺王 The sun, "shining everywhere" The chief object of worship of the Shingon sect in Japan, "represented by the gigantic image in the temple at Nara." (Eliot.) There he is known as Dai-nichi-nyorai. He is counted as the first, and according to some, the origin of the five celestial Buddhas (dhyāni-buddhas, or jinas). He dwells quiescent in Arūpa-dhātu, the Heaven beyond form, and is the essence of wisdom (bodhi) and of absolute purity. Samantabhadra 普賢 is his dhyāni-bodhisattva. The 大日經 "teaches that Vairocana is the whole world, which is divided into Garbhadhātu (material) and Vajradhātu (indestructible), the two together forming Dharmadhātu. The manifestations of Vairocana's body to himself―that is, Buddhas and Bodhisattvas ―are represented symbolically by diagrams of several circles ". Eliot. In the 金剛界 or vajradhātu maṇḍala he is the center of the five groups. In the 胎藏界 or Garbhadhātu he is the center of the eight-leaf (lotus) court. His appearance, symbols, esoteric word, differ according to the two above distinctions. Generally he is considered as an embodiment of the Truth 法, both in the sense of dharmakāya 法身 and dharmaratna 法寳. Some hold Vairocana to be the dharmakāya of Śākyamuni 大日與釋迦同一佛 but the esoteric school denies this identity. Also known as 最高顯廣眼藏如來, the Tathagata who, in the highest, reveals the far-reaching treasure of his eye, i.e. the sun. 大日大聖不動明王 is described as one of his transformations. Also, a śramaņa of Kashmir (contemporary of Padma-saṃbhava); he is credited with introducing Buddhism into Khotan and being an incarnation of Mañjuśrī; the king Vijaya Saṃbhava built a monastery for him.

大日供 A meeting for the worship of Vairocana.

大日宗 The cult of Vairocana especially associated with the 胎藏界 Garbhakośadhātu, or phenomenal world. The cult has its chief vogue in Japan.

大日經 The Vairocana sutra, styled in full 毘盧遮那成佛神變加持經, tr. in the Tang dynasty by Śubhākarasiṃha 善無畏 in 7 chuan, of which the first six are the text and the seventh instructions for worship. It is one of the three sutras of the esoteric school. Its teaching pairs with that of the 金剛頂經. There are two versions of notes and comments on the text, the 大日經疏 20 chuan, and 大日經義疏 14 chuan; and other works, e.g. 大日經義釋; 大日經不思議疏; 大日經義軌 in four versions with different titles.

大日覺王 Vairocana, the king of bodhi.

大明王 The angels or messengers of Vairocana, v. 明王.

大明三藏聖敎目錄 The"Great Ming"dynasty catalogue of the Tripitaka, made during the reign of the emperor Yung Lo; it is the catalogue of the northern collection.


大明白身菩薩 The great bright white-bodied bodhisattva, sixth in the first row of the Garbhadhātu Guanyin group.

大明續入藏諸集 Supplementary miscellaneous collection of Buddhist books, made under the Ming dynasty A.D. 1368-1644.

大智 Mahāmati; cf. 大慧; Great Wisdom, Buddha-wisdom, omniscience; a title of Mañjuśrī, as the apotheosis of transcendental wisdom.

大智度論 A śāstra ascribed to Nāgārjuna on the greater Prajna-paramita sutra; the sastra was tr. by Kumārajīva, A.D. 397―415, in 100 chuan.

大智慧門 The Buddha-door of great wisdom, as contrasted with that of his 大悲 great compassion.

大智灌頂地 The stage of the Great Wisdom chrism, or anointing of a Buddha, as having attained to the Great Wisdom, or omniscience; it is the eleventh stage.

大智藏 The Buddha-wisdom store.

大曼荼羅 (大曼) The great maṇḍala; one of four groups of Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the esoteric school. The esoteric word 阿 "a " is styled the great maṇḍala-king.

大本 The great, chief, or fundamental book or text. Tiantai takes the 無量壽經 as the major of the three Pure Land sutras, and the 阿彌陀經 as the 小本 minor.

大林寺 Mānavana-saṃghārāma 摩訶伐那伽藍摩 "The monastery of the great forest", S. of Mongali.

大林精舍 The Veṇuvana monastery, called 竹林精舍 or 寺 , and 竹苑, Venuvana vihāra, in the Karanda veṇuvana, near Rājagṛha, a favourite resort of Sakyamuni.

大相 mahārūpa; great form. The kalpa of Mahābhijñā-jñānabhibhu, who is to appear as Buddha in a realm called Saṃbhava.

大染法 The great taint, or dharma of defilement, sex-attraction, associated with 愛染明王 Eros, the god of love.

大梵 Mahābrāhmaṇas; the third Brahmaloka, the third region of the first dhyāna. Mahābrahman; the great Brahma, 大梵天; it is also a title of one of the six Guanyin of the Tiantai sect.

大梵天 Mahābrahman; Brahma; 跋羅吸摩; 波羅賀磨; 梵覽摩; 梵天王; 梵王; 梵. Eitel says: "The first person of the Brahminical Trimūrti, adopted by Buddhism, but placed in an inferior position, being looked upon not as Creator, but as a transitory devatā whom every Buddhistic saint surpasses on obtaining bodhi. Notwithstanding this, the Saddharma-puṇḍarīka calls Brahma 'the father of all living beings'" 一切衆生之父. Mahābrahman is the unborn or uncreated ruler over all, especially according to Buddhism over all the heavens of form, i.e. of mortality. He rules over these heavens, which are of threefold form: (a) Brahma (lord), (b) Brahma-purohitas (ministers), and (c) Brahma-pāriṣadyāh (people). His heavens are also known as the middle dhyāna heavens, i.e. between the first and second dhyānas. He is often represented on the right of the Buddha. According to Chinese accounts the Hindus speak of him (1) as born of Nārāyaṇa, from Brahma's mouth sprang the brahmans, from his arms the kṣatriyas, from his thighs the vaiśyas, and from his feet the śūdras; (2) as born from Viṣṇu; (3) as a trimūrti, evidently that of Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, but Buddhists define Mahābrahma's dharmakāya as Maheśvara (Śiva), his saṃbhogakāya as Nārāyaṇa, and his nirmāṇakāya as Brahmā. He is depicted as riding on a swan, or drawn by swans.

大梵如意天 idem 大梵天 The term is incorrectly said by Chinese interpreters to mean freedom from sexual desire. He is associated with Vairocana, and with fire. v. also 尸棄.

大梵天王 Mahābrahma deva rāja, king of the eighteen Brahmalokas.

大樂説 Mahāpratibhāna. A bodhisattva in the Lotus Sutra, noted for pleasant discourse.

大樂不空 大樂金剛 (薩埵) "Unceasing great joy ", a Shingon name for the second of its eight patriarchs, Puxian, v. 金剛薩埵. There are works under this title.

大樓炭經 A sutra, also called 起世 by 法立 Fali and others; 樓炭 is a Sanskrit term meaning 成敗 creation and destruction.

大機 The great opportunity, or Mahāyāna method of becoming a bodhisattva.

大樹 Great trees, i.e. bodhisattvas, cf. 三草.

大樹仙人 Mahāvṛkṣa ṛṣi, the ascetic Vāyu, who meditated so long that a big tree grew out of his shoulders. Seeing a hundred beautiful princesses he desired them; being spurned, he was filled with hatred, and with a spell turned them into hunchbacks; hence Kanyākubja, v. 羯 or 罽 the city of hump-backed maidens; its king was ? Brahmadatta. v. 西域記 5.

大樹緊那羅 The King of the mahādruma Kinnaras, Indra's musicians, who lives on Gandha-mādana. His sutra is 大樹緊那羅王所門經, 4 chuan, tr. by Kumārajīva.


大權 The great potentiality; or the great power of Buddhas and bodhisattvas to transform themselves into others, by which e.g. Māyā becomes the mother of 1,000 Buddhas, Rāhula the son of 1,000 Buddhas, and all beings are within the potency of the dharmakāya.

大權善經 An abbreviation of 慧上菩薩問大權善經.

大權修利菩薩 A bodhisattva―protector of monasteries, depicted as shading his eyes with his hand and looking afar, said to have been a Warden of the Coast under the emperor Aśoka.

大死底人 One who has swept away completely all illusions, or all consciousness; also 大休歇底.

大比丘 Great bhikṣu, i.e. one of virtue and old age; similar to 大和尚.

大毘盧遮那 Mahāvairocana, v. 大日.

大水火 (大水災) mahāpralaya; the final and utter destruction of a universe by (wind), flood, and fire.

大紅蓮 Great red lotuses―name of a cold hell where the skin is covered with chaps like lotuses.

大沙門 mahāśramaņa. The great shaman, i.e. Buddha; also any bhikṣu in full orders.

大沙門統 A director of the order appointed by Wendi of the Sui dynasty, A.D. 581-618.

大法 The great Dharma, or Law (of Mahāyāna salvation).

大法慢 Intellectual pride, arrogance through possession of the Truth.

大法王 Sudharmarāja, King of the Sudharma Kinnaras, the horse-headed human-bodied musicians of Kuvera.

大法螺 The Great Law conch, or Mahāyāna bugle.

大法鼓 The Great Law drum; v. 大法鼓經 Mahābherīhāraka-parivarta; tr. by Gunabhadra A.D. 420‐479.

大法雨 The raining, i.e. preaching, of the Mahāyāna.

大波羅密 The great pāramitās, or perfections, of bodhisattvas, i.e. the ten pāramitās above the 八地.

大洲 A great continent; one of the four great continents of a world; v. 四洲.

大海 mahāsamudra-sāgara 摩訶三母捺羅婆誐羅 The Ocean.

大海八不思議 The eight marvellous characteristics of the ocean―its gradually increasing depth, its unfathomableness, its universal saltness, its punctual tides, its stores of precious things, its enormous creatures, its objection to corpses, its unvarying level despite all that pours into it.

大海十相 The ten aspects of the ocean, the Huayan sutra adds two more to the eight 大海八不思議, i.e. all other waters lose their names in it; its vastness of expanse.

大海印 The ocean symbol, i.e. as the face of the sea reflects all forms, so the samādhi of a bodhisattva reflects to him all truths; it is also termed 海印三昧.

大海衆 The great ocean congregation; as all waters flowing into the sea become salty, so all ranks flowing into the sangha become of one flavour and lose old differentiations.

大滅諦金剛智 The first two of the 三德 three Buddha-powers; they are (a) his principle of nirvana, i.e. the extinotion of suffering, and (b) his supreme or vajra wisdom.

大滿 Great, full, or complete; tr. of mahā-pūrṇa, king of monster birds or garuḍas who are enemies of the nāgas or serpents; he is the vehicle of Viṣṇu in Brahmanism.

大滿願義 One of the sixteen bodhisattvas of the southern quarter, born by the will of Vairocana.

大灌頂 The greater baptism, used on special occasions by the Shingon sect, for washing way sin and evil and entering into virtue; v. 灌頂經.

大炎熱 Pratāpana or Mahātāpana; the hell of great heat, the seventh of the eight hot hells.

大無量壽經 idem 大經 q.v.

大煩惱地法 The six things or mental conditions producing passion and delusion: stupidity, excess, laziness, unbelief, confusion, discontent (or ambition); v. 倶舍論 4.

大燒炙獄 v. 大炎熱 Pratāpana.

大熾盛光 The great blazing perfect light, a title of 金輪佛頂尊.

大牛車 The great ox cart in the Lotus Sutra 法華經 parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahāyāna.

大牛音 krośa; the distance of the lowing of a great ox, the "eighth" (more correctly fourth.) part of a yojana; v. 拘盧.


大王 mahārāja 摩賀羅惹. Applied to the four guardians of the universe, 四大天王.

大生主 Mahāprajāpatī 摩訶波闍婆提, great "lady of the living", the older translation being 大愛道 the great way (or exemplar) of love; also 衆主 head of the community (of nuns), i.e. Gautami the aunt and nurse of Śākyamuni, the first nun. She is to be reborn as a Buddha named Sarvasattvapriyadarśanā.

大界 The area of a vihāra or monastic establishment.

大界外相 Four characters often placed on the boundary stones of monasterial grounds.

大白傘蓋佛母 The "mother of Buddhas" with her great snow-white (radiant) umbrella, emblem of her protection of all beings; there are two dhāraṇī-sūtras that bear this name and give her description, the 佛頂傘蓋佛母 and 佛說傘蓋佛母總持陀羅尼經.

大白光神 鬱多羅迦神 ? Uttaraka. The deva of the Himālayas, one of the retinue of the 十二神.

大白牛車 The great white-bullock cart of the Lotus Sutra, the Mahāyāna, as contrasted with the deer-cart and goat-cart of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, i.e. of Hīnayāna.

大白華 The great mandāra 曼陀羅 flower, also called 大白團華 .

大白衣 Pāṇḍaravāsinī, the great white-robed one, a form of Guanyin all in white, with white lotus, throne, etc., also called 白衣 or 白處觀音.

大目乾連 Mahāmaudgalyāyana; v. 摩訶目犍連.

大相國寺 The great aid-the-dynasty monastery at Kaifeng, Henan, founded in A.D. 555, first named 建國, changed circa 700 to the above; rebuilt 996, repaired by the Jin, the Yuan, and Ming emperors, swept away in a Yellow River flood, rebuilt under Shun Zhi, restored under Qian Long.

大相看 The reception by an abbot of all his monks on the first day of the tenth moon.

大神力 Supernatural or magical powers.

大神咒 dhāraṇī spells or magical formulae connected with supernatural powers 大神力.

大神王 The great deva king, Mahākāla, the great black one, (1) title of Maheśvara, i.e. Śiva; (2) a guardian of monasteries, with black face, in the dining hall; he is said to have been a disciple of Mahādeva, a former incarnation of Śākyamuni.

大祥忌 The great propitious anniversary, i.e. a sacrifice every third year.

大種 The four great seeds, or elements (四大) which enter into all things, i.e. earth, water, fire, and wind, from which, as from seed, all things spring.

大空 The great void, or the Mahāyāna parinirvāṇa, as being more complete and final than the nirvāṇa of Hīnayāna. It is used in the Shingon sect for the great immaterial or spiritual wisdom, with its esoteric symbols; its weapons, such as the vajra; its samādhis; its sacred circles, or maṇḍalas, etc. It is used also for space, in which there is neither east, west, north, nor south.

大笑明王 ? Vajrahāsa 跋折羅吒訶婆 The great laughing Mingwang, v. 明王.

大弟子 sthavira, a chief disciple, the Fathers of the Buddhist church; an elder; an abbot; a priest licensed to preach and become an abbot; also 上坐.

大精進菩薩 Śūra, a hero bodhisattva, one of the sixteen in the southern external part of the 金剛界 group.

大統 The head of the order, an office instituted by Wen Di of the Sui dynasty; cf. 大僧正.

大經 The great sūtra, i.e. the 2 juan 佛說無量壽經, so-called by the Pure-land sect and by Tiantai, the Amida sūtra being the小本 smaller sūtra; cf. 大本 and大日經 .

大經卷 A term for the heart.

大綱 The main principles of Buddhism, likened to the great ropes of a net.

大總法門 The bhūtatathatā as the totality of things, and Mind 心眞如 as the Absolute, 起信論.

大義王 (or 大義城) The king, or city, of all ideas, or aims, i.e. the heart as mind.

大聖 The great sage or saint, a title of a Buddha or a bodhisattva of high rank; as also are 大聖世尊 and 大聖主 the great holy honored one, or lord.

大聖天 idem 大聖歡喜天 v. 歡喜天, on whom there are three works.


大聖金剛夜叉 one of the five 大明王.

大聖妙吉祥 see Mañjuśrī 文殊; there are two works under the first of these titles, one under the second, and one under 大聖文殊.

大聖曼殊室利 see Mañjuśrī 文殊; there are two works under the first of these titles, one under the second, and one under 大聖文殊.

大自在 Īśvara, self-existent, sovereign, independent, absolute, used of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

大自在天 Maheśvara, 摩醯首濕伐羅 or Śiva, lord of the present chiliocosm, or universe; he is described under two forms, one as the prince of demons, the other as divine, i.e. 毘舍闍 Piśācamaheśvara and 淨居 Śuddhāvāsa- or Śuddhodanamaheśvara. As Piśāca, head of the demons, he is represented with three eyes and eight arms, and riding on a white bull; a bull or a linga being his symbol. The esoteric school takes him for the transformation body of Vairocana, and as appearing in many forms, e.g. Viṣṇu, Nārāyana (i.e. Brahmā), etc. His wife (śakti) is Bhīmā, or 大自在天婦. As Śuddhāvāsa, or Pure dwelling, he is described as a bodhisattva of the tenth or highest degree, on the point of entering Buddhahood. There is dispute as to whether both are the same being, or entirely different. The term also means the sixth or highest of the six desire heavens.

大自在宮 The abode of Maheśvara at the apex of the form realm. Also, the condition or place from which the highest type of bodhisattva proceeds to Buddhahood, whence it is also styled 淨居天 the pure abode heaven.

大興善寺 The great goodness-promoting monastery, one of the ten great Tang monasteries at Changan, commenced in the Sui dynasty.

大船 The great ship of salvation — Mahāyāna.

大船師 The captain of the great ship of salvation, Buddha.

大般涅槃 mahāparinirvāṇa, explained by 大入滅息 the great, or final entrance into extinction and cessation; or 大圓寂入 great entrance into perfect rest; 大滅度 great extinction and passing over (from mortality). It is interpreted in Mahāyāna as meaning the cessation or extinction of passion and delusion, of mortality, and of all activities, and deliverance into a state beyond these concepts. In Mahāyāna it is not understood as the annihilation, or cessation of existence; the reappearance of Dīpaṃkara 然燈 (who had long entered nirvāṇa) along with Śākyamuni on the Vulture Peak supports this view. It is a state above all terms of human expression. See the Lotus Sutra and the Nirvāṇa sūtra.

大般涅槃經 The Mahā-parinirvāṇa sūtras, commonly called the 涅槃經 Nirvāṇa sūtras, said to have been delivered by Śākyamuni just before his death. The two Hīnayāna versions are found in the 長阿含遊行經. The Mahāyāna has two Chinese versions, the northern in 40 juan, and the southern, a revision of the northern version in 36 juan. Faxian's version is styled 大般泥洹經 6 juan. Treatises on the sūtra are 大般涅槃經後分 2 juan tr. by Jñānabhadra; 大般涅槃經疏 33 juan; 大般涅槃經論 1 juan by Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhidharma.

大般若經 The Mahā-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra.

大般若供養 The worship of a new copy of the sūtra when finished, an act first attributed to Xuanzang.

大般若波羅蜜多經 Mahā-prajñāpāramitā sūtra, said to have been delivered by Śākyamuni in four places at sixteen assemblies, i.e. Gṛidhrakūṭa near Rājagṛha (Vulture Peak); Śrāvastī; Paranirmitavaśavartin, and Veluvana near Rājagṛha (Bamboo Garden). It consists of 600 juan as translated by Xuanzang. Parts of it were translated by others under various titles and considerable differences are found in them. It is the fundamental philosophical work of the Mahāyāna school, the formulation of wisdom, which is the sixth pāramitā.

大苦海 The great bitter sea, or great sea of suffering i.e. of mortality in the six gati, or ways of incarnate existence.

大莊嚴 Mahāvyūha; great fabric; greatly adorned, the kalpa or Buddha-aeon of Mahākāśyapa.

大莊嚴世界 The great ornate world; i.e. the universe of Akāśagarbha Bodhisattva 虛空藏菩薩; it is placed in the west by the sūtra of that name, in the east by the 大隻經 12.

大莊嚴經 Vaipulya-mahāvyūha-sūtra, tr. by Divākara, Tang dynasty, 12 juan; in which the Buddha describes his life in the Tuṣita heaven and his descent to save the world.

大莊嚴經論 or 大莊嚴論經 Sūtrālaṃkāra-śāstra. A work by Aśvaghoṣa, tr. by Kumārajīva A.D. 405, 15 juan.

大菩提心 The great bodhi, i.e. Mahāyāna or Buddha-enlightenment, as contrasted with the inferior bodhi of the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha.

大菩提幢 The banner of great bodhi, an esoteric symbol of Buddha-enlightenment.

大菩薩 bodhisattva-mahāsattva, a great Bodhisattva.


大蓮華 puṇḍarīka, 分陀利; 芬利; 奔茶 the great white lotus; the last of the eight cold hells is so called.

大蓮華法藏界 The great Lotus heaven in the Paradise of the West.

大蓮華智慧三摩地智 The wisdom of the great lotus, samādhi-wisdom, the penetrating wisdom of Amitābha.

大薩遮尼犍子 Mahāsatya-nirgrantha. An ascetic who is said to have become a disciple of the Buddha.

大藏經 The Tripiṭaka; the Buddhist canon.

大藏一覽 "The Tripitaka at a Glance" in 10 juan by 陳實 Chen Shi of the Ming dynasty.

大藏目錄 A catalogue of the Korean canon in 3 juan.

大號呌 Mahāraurava 大呌; 大呼 The hell of great wailing, the fifth of the eight hot hells.

大衆 mahāsaṅgha. The great assembly, any assembly, all present, everybody.

大衆印 The seal of a monastery.

大衆威德畏 Stage-struck, awed by an assembly, one of the five 怖畏.

大衆部 摩調僧祇部 Mahāsāṅghikāḥ, the school of the community, or majority; one of the chief early divisions, cf. 上坐部 Mahāsthavirāḥ or Sthavirāḥ, i.e. the elders. There are two usages of the term, first, when the sthavira, or older disciples assembled in the cave after the Buddha's death, and the others, the 大衆, assembled outside. As sects, the principal division was that which took place later. The Chinese attribute this division to the influence of 大天 Mahādeva, a century after the Nirvāṇa, and its subsequent five subdivisions are also associated with his name: they are Pūrvasailāḥ, Avaraśailāḥ, Haimavatāḥ, Lokottara-vādinaḥ, and Prajñapti-vādinaḥ; v. 小乘.

大衣 The monk's patch-robe, made in varying grades from nine to twenty-five patches.

大覺 The supreme bodhi, or enlightenment, and the enlightening power of a Buddha.

大覺世尊 The World-honored One of the great enlightenment, an appellation of the Buddha.

大覺母 The mother of the great enlightenment, an appellation of Mañjuśrī.

大覺金仙 The great enlightened golden ṛṣi, a name given to Buddha in the Song dynasty.

大論 idem 大智度論.

大論師 Mahāvādin, Doctor of the Śāstras, a title given to eminent teachers, especially of the Sāṅkhya and Vaiseṣika schools.

大辯天 Sarasvatī 大辯才天 (大辯才女); 大辯功德天 (大辯才功德天); 薩羅婆縛底; 薩羅酸底 A river, 'the modern Sursooty'; the goddess of it, who 'was persuaded to descend from heaven and confer her invention of language and letters on the human race by the sage Bhārata, whence one of her names is Bharatī'; sometimes assumes the form of a swan; eloquence, or literary elegance is associated with her. Cf. M. W. Known as the mother of speech, eloquence, letters, and music. Chinese texts describe this deity sometimes as male, but generally as female, and under several forms. As 'goddess of music and poetry' she is styled 妙 (or 美 ) 音天; 妙音樂天; 妙音佛母. She is represented in two forms, one with two arms and a lute, another with eight arms. Sister of Yama. 'A consort of both Brahmā and Mañjuśrī,' Getty. In Japan, when with a lute, Benten is a form of Saravastī, colour white, and riding a peacock. Tib. sbyaṅs-can-ma, or ṅag-gi-lha-mo; M. kele-yin iikin tegri; J. ben-zai-ten, or benten.

大護印 The great protective sign, a manual sign, accompanied with a transliterated repetition of 'Namaḥ sarva-tathāgatebhyaḥ; Sarvathā Haṃ Khaṃ Rākṣasī mahābali; Sarva-Tathāgata-puṇyo nirjāti; Hūṃ Hūṃ Trāta Trāta apratihati svāhā'.

大象藏 Great elephant (or nāga) treasure, an incense supposed to be produced by nāgas or dragons fighting.

大賢 Daxian (Jap. Daiken), a Korean monk who lived in China during the Tang dynasty, of the 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, noted for his annotations on the sūtras and styled 古迹記 the archaeologist.

大寶積經 大寳積經 The sūtra of this name (Mahāratnakūṭa) tr. by Bodhiruci (in abridged form) and others.

大赤華 mahāmañjūṣaka 摩訶曼珠沙 or rubia cordifolia, from which madder is made.

大路邊生 Born by the highway side, v. 周那 Cunda; also 純陀.

大身 The great body, i.e. the nirmāṇakāya, or transformable body 化身 of a Buddha. Also, Mahākāya, a king of garuḍas.

大車 The great bullock-cart in the parable of the burning house, i.e. Mahāyāna, v. Lotus Sutra.


大輪金剛 One of the thirty-three bodhisattvas in the 金剛手 court of the Garbhadhātu group, destroyer of delusion. Also 大輪明王.

大轉輪王 v. 大勝金剛.

大轉輪佛頂 idem 佛頂尊.

大迦多衍那 Mahākātyāyana or Kātyāyana 摩訶迦旃延; 迦延, v. 摩 and 迦. (1) A disciple of Śākyamuni. (2) Name of many persons.

大迦葉 Mahākāśyapa, v. 摩訶迦葉.

大通 大通智勝 Mahābhijñā Jñānābhibhu. The great Buddha of supreme penetraton and wisdom. "A fabulous Buddha whose realm was Sambhava, his kalpa Mahārūpa. Having spent ten middling kalpas in ecstatic meditation he became a Buddha, and retired again in meditation for 84,000 kalpas, during which his sixteen sons continued (as Buddhas) his preaching. Incarnations of his sons are," Akṣobhya, Merukūṭa, Siṃhaghoṣa, Siṃhadhvaja, Ākāśapratiṣṭhita, Nityapaṛvrtta, Indradhvaja, Brahmadhvaja, Amitābha, Sarvalokadhātū- padravodvegapratyuttīrna, Tamāla-patra-candanagandha, Merukalpa, Meghasvara, Meghasvararāja, Sarvaloka-bhayastambhitatva- vidhvaṃsanakāra, and Śākyamuni; v. Eitel. He is said to have lived in a kalpa earlier than the present by kalpas as numerous as the atoms of a chiliocosm. Amitābha is his ninth son. Śākyamuni his sixteenth, and the present 大衆 or assembly of believers are said to be the reincarnation of those who were his disciples in that former aeon; v. Lotus Sutra, chapter 7.

大通和尚 Title of 神秀 Shenxiu, a disciple of the fifth patriarch.

大道心 One who has the mind of or for supreme enlightenment, e.g. a bodhisattva-mahāsattva.

大醫王 Great Lord of healing, an epithet of Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

大鐘 The great bell in the bell tower of a large monastery.

大鐵圍山 (大鐵圍) Mahācakravāla. The great circular 'iron' enclosure; the higher of the double circle of mountains forming the outer periphery of every world, concentric to the seven circles around Sumeru.

大鑑禪師 The great mirror, posthumous title of the sixth 禪 Chan (Zen) patriarch, 慧能 Huineng, imperially bestowed in A.D. 815.

大陰界入 Four fundamentals, i.e. the 四大, 五陰, 十八界, and 十二入 q. v.

大雄 The great hero— a Buddha's title, indicating his power over demons.

大雄峯 Great cock peak, any outstanding peak.

大集經 Mahāsaṃghata-sūtra 大方等大集經 The sūtra of the great assembly of Bodhisattvas from 十方 every direction, and of the apocalpytic sermons delivered to them by the Buddha; 60 juan, tr. in parts at various times by various translators. There are several works connected with it and others independent, e.g. 大集須彌藏經, 大集日藏經 (and 大集月藏經) , 大集經賢 護, 大集會正法經, 大集譬喩王經, etc.

大集部 Mahāsaṃnipāta. A division of the sūtrapiṭaka containing avadānas, i.e. comparisons, metaphors, parables, and stories illustrating the doctrines.

大雲光明寺 A monastery for Uigur Manichaeans, ordered to be built by 代宗 A.D. 765.

大靑珠 mahānīla. 摩訶尼羅 A precious stone, large and blue, perhaps identical with Indra-nīla-muktā, i.e. the Indra of precious stones, a 'sapphire' (M. W.).

大願 The great vow, of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, to save all the living and bring them to Buddhahood.

大願業力 The forty-eight vows and the great meritorious power of Amitābha, or the efficacy of his vows.

大願淸淨報土 The Pure Reward-Land of Amitābha, the reward resulting from his vows.

大願船 The great vow boat, i.e. that of Amitābha, which ferries the believer over the sea of mortality to the Pure Land.

大顚 Da Dian, the appellation of a famous monk and writer, named 寶通 Baotong, whom tigers followed; he died at 93 years of age in A. D. 824; author of 般若波羅蜜多心經 and 金剛經釋義.

大風災 Great Storms, the third of the three destructive calamities to end the world.

大飮光 Mahākāśyapa q. v., he who "drank in light" (with his mother's milk), she having become radiant with golden-colored pearl, a relic of Vipaśyin, the first of the seven former Buddhas; it is a false etymology.


大高王 Abhyudgata-rāja. Great august monarch, name of the kalpa in which Śubha-vyūha 妙莊嚴王, who is not known in the older literature, is to be reborn as a Buddha.

大魚 makara 摩竭羅 a monster fish.

大黑天 Mahākāla 摩訶迦 (or 謌) 羅 the great black deva 大黑神. Two interpretations are given. The esoteric cult describes the deva as the masculine form of Kālī, i.e. Durgā, the wife of Śiva; with one face and eight arms, or three faces and six arms, a necklace of skulls, etc. He is worshipped as giving warlike power, and fierceness; said also to be an incarnation of Vairocana for the purpose of destroying the demons; and is described as 大時 the "great time" (-keeper) which seems to indicate Vairocana, the sun. The exoteric cult interprets him as a beneficent deva, a Pluto, or god of wealth. Consequently he is represented in two forms, by the one school as a fierce deva, by the other as a kindly happy deva. He is shown as one of the eight fierce guardians with trident, generally blue-black but sometimes white; he may have two elephants underfoot. Six arms and hands hold jewel, skull cup, chopper, drum, trident, elephant-goad. He is the tutelary god of Mongolian Buddhism. Six forms of Mahākāla are noted: (1) 比丘大黑 A black-faced disciple of the Buddha, said to be the Buddha as Mahādeva in a previous incarnation, now guardian of the refectory. (2) 摩訶迦羅大黑女 Kālī, the wife of Śiva. (3) 王子迦羅大黑 The son of Śiva. (4) 眞陀大黑 Cintāmaṇi, with the talismanic pearl, symbol of bestowing fortune. (5) 夜叉大黑 Subduer of demons. (6) 摩迦羅大黑 Mahākāla, who carries a bag on his back and holds a hammer in his right hand. J., Daikoku; M., Yeke-gara; T., Nag-po c'en-po.

大黑飛礫法 The black deva's flying shard magic: take the twig of a 榎 jia tree (Catalpa Bungei), the twig pointing north-west; twist it to the shape of a buckwheat grain, write the Sanskrit letter भ on each of its three faces, place it before the deva, recite his spell a thousand times then cast the charm into the house of a prosperous person, saying may his wealth come to me.

大齋 (大齋會) A feast given to monks.

大龍權現 The Bodhisattva who, having attained the 大地 stage, by the power of his vow transformed himself into a dragon-king, 西域記 1.

Women, female; u. f. 汝 thou, you.

女人 Woman, described in the Nirvāṇa sūtra 浬槃經 9 as the "abode of all evil", 一切女人皆是衆惡之所住處 The 智度論 14 says: 大火燒人是猶可近, 淸風無形是亦可捉, 蚖蛇含毒猶亦可觸, 女人之心不可得實 "Fierce fire that would burn men may yet be approached, clear breezes without form may yet be grasped, cobras that harbour poison may yet be touched, but a woman's heart is never to be relied upon." The Buddha ordered Ānanda: "Do not Look at a woman; if you must, then do not talk with her; if you must, then call on the Buddha with all your mind"— an evidently apocryphal statement of 文句 8.

女人六欲 The six feminine attractions; eight are given, but the sixth and eighth are considered to be included in the others: color, looks, style, carriage, talk, voice, refinement, and appearance.

女人定 v. 女子出定.

女人往生願 The thirty-fifth vow of Amitābha that he will refuse to enter into his final joy until every woman who calls on his name rejoices in enlightenment and who, hating her woman's body, has ceased to be reborn as a woman; also 女人成佛願.

女人拜 A woman's salutation, greeting, or obeisance, performed by standing and bending the knees, or putting hands together before the breast and bending the body.

女人禁制 " Women forbidden to approach," a sign placed on certain altars.

女人眷屬論師 One of the twenty heretical sects, who held that Maheśvara created the first woman, who begot all creatures.

女僧 A nun, or 此丘尼 bhikṣuṇī, which is abbreviated to 尼. The first nunnery in China is said to have been established in the Han dynasty.

女國 The woman-kingdom, where matriarchal government is said to have prevailed, e.g. Brahmapura, v. 婆, and Suvarṇagotra, v. 蘇.

女天 Female devas in the desire-realm. In and above the Brahmalokas 色界 they do not exist.

女子出定 The story of a woman named Liyi 離意 who was so deeply in samādhi before the Buddha that Mañjuśrī 文殊 could not arouse her; she could only be aroused by a bodhisattva who has sloughed off the skandhas and attained enlightenment.

女居士 A lay woman who devotes herself to Buddhism.

女德 A woman of virtue, i.e. a nun, or bhikṣuṇī. The emperor Hui Zong of the Song dynasty (A.D. 1101-1126) changed the term 尼 to 女德.


女情 Sexual desire.

女根 Yoni. The female sex-organ.

女犯 The woman offence, i.e. sexual immorality on the part of a monk.

女病 Woman as a disease; feminine disease.

女色 Female beauty— is a chain, a serious delusion, a grievous calamity. The 智度論 14 says it is better to burn out the eyes with a red-hot iron than behold woman with unsteady heart.

女賊 Woman the robber, as the cause of sexual passion, stealing away the riches of religion, v. 智度論 14.

女鏁 Woman as chain, or lock, the binding power of sex. 智度論 14.

kumāra; son; seed; sir; 11-1 midnight.

子合國 Kukyar, Kokyar, or Kukejar, a country west of Khotan, 1,000 li from Kashgar, perhaps Yarkand.

子斷 The seed 種子 cut off, i.e. the seed which produces the miseries of transmigration.

子果 Seed and fruit; seed-produced fruit is 子果, fruit-produced seed is 果子. The fruit produced by illusion in former incarnation is 子果, which the Hīnayāna arhat has not yet finally cut off. It is necessary to enter Nirvāṇa without remnant of mortality to be free from its "fruit", or karma.

子滿果 The fruit full of seeds, the pomegranate.

子璿 A famous learned monk Zixuan, of the Song dynasty whose style was 長水 Changshui, the name of his district; he had a large following; at first he specialized on the Śūraṃgama 楞嚴經; later he adopted the teaching of 賢首 Xianshou of the 華嚴宗 Huayan school.

子縛 The seed bond, or delusion of the mind, which keeps men in bondage.

子院 Small courts and buildings attached to central monastery.

An inch.

寸絲不掛 Questioned as to what he did with his day, 陸亙日 Lu Xuanri replied "one does not hang things on an inch of thread".

Small, little; mean, petty; inferior.

小乘 Hīnayāna 希那衍. The small, or inferior wain, or vehicle; the form of Buddhism which developed after Śākyamuni's death to about the beginning of the Christian era, when Mahāyāna doctrines were introduced. It is the orthodox school and more in direct line with the Buddhist succession than Mahāyānism which developed on lines fundamentally different. The Buddha was a spiritual doctor, less interested in philosophy than in the remedy for human misery and perpetual transmigration. He "turned aside from idle metaphysical speculations; if he held views on such topics, he deemed them valueless for the purposes of salvation, which was his goal" (Keith). Metaphysical speculations arose after his death, and naturally developed into a variety of Hīnayāna schools before and after the separation of a distinct school of Mahāyāna. Hīnayāna remains the form in Ceylon, Burma, and Siam, hence is known as Southern Buddhism in contrast with Northern Buddhism or Mahāyāna, the form chiefly prevalent from Nepal to Japan. Another rough division is that of Pali and Sanskrit, Pali being the general literary language of the surviving form of Hīnayāna, Sanskrit of Mahāyāna. The term Hīnayāna is of Mahāyānist origination to emphasize the universalism and altruism of Mahāyāna over the narrower personal salvation of its rival. According to Mahāyāna teaching its own aim is universal Buddhahood, which means the utmost development of wisdom and the perfect transformation of all the living in the future state; it declares that Hīnayāna, aiming at arhatship and pratyekabuddhahood, seeks the destruction of body and mind and extinction in nirvāṇa. For arhatship the 四諦Four Noble Truths are the foundation teaching, for pratyekabuddhahood the 十二因緣 twelve-nidānas, and these two are therefore sometimes styled the two vehicles 二乘. Tiantai sometimes calls them the (Hīnayāna) Tripiṭaka school. Three of the eighteen Hīnayāna schools were transported to China: 倶舍 (Abhidharma) Kośa; 成實 Satya-siddhi; and the school of Harivarman, the律 Vinaya school. These are described by Mahāyānists as the Buddha's adaptable way of meeting the questions and capacity of his hearers, though his own mind is spoken of as always being in the absolute Mahāyāna all-embracing realm. Such is the Mahāyāna view of Hīnayāna, and if the Vaipulya sūtras and special scriptures of their school, which are repudiated by Hīnayāna, are apocryphal, of which there seems no doubt, then Mahāyāna in condemning Hīnayāna must find other support for its claim to orthodoxy. The sūtras on which it chiefly relies, as regards the Buddha, have no authenticity; while those of Hīnayāna cannot be accepted as his veritable teaching in the absence of fundamental research. Hīnayāna is said to have first been divided into minority and majority sections immediately after the death of Śākyamuni, when the sthāvira, or older disciples, remained in what is spoken of as "the cave", some place at Rājagṛha, to settle the future of the order, and the general body of disciples remained outside; these two are the first 上坐部 and 大衆部 q. v. The first doctrinal division is reported to have taken place under the leadership of the monk 大天 Mahādeva (q.v.) a hundred years after the Buddha's nirvāṇa and during the reign of Aśoka; his reign, however, has been placed later than this by historians. Mahādeva's sect became the Mahāsāṅghikā, the other the Sthāvira. In time the two are said to have divided into eighteen, which with the two originals are the so-called "twenty sects" of Hīnayāna. Another division of four sects, referred to by Yijing, is that of the 大衆部 (Arya) Mahāsaṅghanikāya, 上座部 Āryasthavirāḥ, 根本說一切有部 Mūlasarvāstivādaḥ, and 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ. There is still another division of five sects, 五部律. For the eighteen Hīnayāna sects see 小乘十八部.


小乘三印 The three characteristic marks of all Hīnayāna sūtras: the impermanence of phenomena, the unreality of the ego, and nirvāṇa.

小乘九部 The nine classes of works belonging to the Hīnayāna, i.e. the whole of the twelve discourses; the Vaipulya, or broader teaching; and the Vyākaraṇa, or prophesies.

小乘二部 The 上座部 Sthaviravādin, School of Presbyters, and 大衆部 Sarvāstivādin, q.v.

小乘偏漸戒 The Hīnayāna partial and gradual method of obeying laws and commandments, as compared with the full and immediate salvation of Mahāyāna.

小乘十八部 A Chinese list of the "eighteen" sects of the Hīnayāna, omitting Mahāsāṅghikāḥ, Sthavira, and Sarvāstivādah as generic schools: I. 大衆部 The Mahāsāṅghikāḥ is divided into eight schools as follows: (1) 一說部 Ekavyavahārikāḥ; (2) 說出世部 Lokottaravādinaḥ; (3) 雞胤部 Kaukkuṭikāḥ (Gokulikā); (4) 多聞部 Bahuśrutīyāḥ; (5) 說假部 Prajñāptivadinaḥ; (6) 制多山部 Jetavaniyāḥ, or Caityaśailāḥ; (7) 西山住部 Aparaśailāḥ; (8) 北山住部 Uttaraśailāḥ. II. 上坐部 Āryasthavirāḥ, or Sthāviravādin, divided into eight schools: (1) 雪山部 Haimavatāḥ. The 說一切有部 Sarvāstivādaḥ gave rise to (2) 犢子部 Vātsīputrīyāḥ, which gave rise to (3) 法上部 Dharmottarīyāḥ; (4) 賢冑部 Bhadrayānīyāḥ; (5) 正量部 Saṃmatīyāḥ; and (6) 密林山 Saṇṇagarikāḥ; (7) 化地部 Mahīśāsakāḥ produced (8) 法藏部 Dharmaguptāḥ. From the Sarvāstivādins arose also (9) 飮光部 Kāśyaḥpīyā and (10) 經量部 Sautrāntikāḥ. v. 宗輪論. Cf Keith, 149-150. The division of the two schools is ascribed to Mahādeva a century after the Nirvāṇa. Under I the first five are stated as arising two centuries after the Nirvāṇa, and the remaining three a century later, dates which are unreliable. Under II, the Haimavatāḥ and the Sarvāstivādaḥ are dated some 200 years after the Nirvāṇa; from the Sarvāstivādins soon arose the Vātsīputrīyas, from whom soon sprang the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth; then from the Sarvāstivādins there arose the seventh which gave rise to the eighth, and again, nearing the 400th year, the Sarvāstivādins gave rise to the ninth and soon after the tenth. In the list of eighteen the Sarvāstivādah is not counted, as it split into all the rest.

小乘四門 Tiantai's division of Hīnayāna into four schools or doctrines: (1) 有門 Of reality, the existence of all phenomena, the doctrine of being (cf. 發智六足論, etc.); (2) 空門 of unreality, or non-existence (cf. 成實論); (3) 亦有亦空門 of both, or relativity of existence and non-existence (cf. 毘勒論); (4) 非有非空 of neither, or transcending existence and non-existence (cf. 迦旃延經).

小乘外道 Hīnayāna and the heretical sects; also, Hīnayāna is a heretical sect.

小乘戒 The commandments of the Hīnayāna, also recognized by the Mahāyāna: the five, eight, and ten commandments, the 250 for the monks, and the 348 for the nuns.


小乘經 The Hīnayāna sūtras, the four sections of the Āgamas 阿含經 v. 小乘九部.

小乘論 The Hīnayāna śāstras or Abhidharma.

小乘阿毗達磨 The philosophical canon of the Hīnayāna, now supposed to consist of some thirty-seven works, the earliest of which is said to be the Guṇanirdeśa śāstra, tr. as 分別功德論 before A.D. 220. "The date of the Abhidharma" is "unknown to us" (Keith).

小五條 The robe of five patches worn by some monks in China and by the 淨土宗 Jōdo sect of Japan; v. 掛.

小使 To urinate; also 小行. Buddhist monks are enjoined to urinate only in one fixed spot.

小劫 antarā-kalpa, or intermediate kalpa; according to the 倶舍論 it is the period in which human life increases by one year a century till it reaches 84,000 with men 8,400 feet high; then it is reduced at the same rate till the life-period reaches ten years with men a foot high; these two are each a small kalpa; the 智度論 reckons the two together as one kalpa; and there are other definitions.

小千世界 (小千) A small chiliocosm, consisting of a thousand worlds each with its Mt. Sumeru, continents, seas, and ring of iron mountains; v. 三千大千世界.

小參 Small group, a class for instruction outside the regular morning or evening services; also a class in a household.

小參頭 The leader of a small group.

小品 A summarized version.

小品般若波羅蜜經 (小品經) Kumārajīva's abbreviated version, in ten juan, of the Mahā-prajñā-pāramitā-sūtra.

小宗 The sects of Hīnayāna.

小師 A junior monk of less than ten years full ordination, also a courtesy title for a disciple; and a self-depreciatory title of any monk; v. 鐸 dahara.

小律儀 The rules and regulations for monks and nuns in Hīnayāna.

小念 To repeat Buddha's name in a quiet voice, opposite of 大 |.

小本 A small volume; Tiantai's term for the (小) 阿彌陀經; the large sūtra being the 無量壽經.

小根 小機 Having a mind fit only for Hīnayāna doctrine.

小機 小根; Having a mind fit only for Hīnayāna doctrine.

小樹 Small trees, bodhisattvas in the lower stages, v. 三草二木.

小水穿石 A little water or "dripping water penetrates stone"; the reward of the religious life, though difficult to attain, yields to persistent effort.

小法 The laws or methods of Hīnayāna.

小煩惱地法 upakleśabhūmikāh. The ten lesser evils or illusions, or temptations, one of the five groups of mental conditions of the seventy-five Hīnayāna elements. They are the minor moral defects arising from 無明 unenlightenment; i.e. 忿 anger, 覆 hidden sin, 慳 stinginess, 嫉 envy, 惱 vexation, 害 ill-will, 恨 hate, 謟 adulation, 誑 deceit, 憍 pride.

小王 The small rājās, called 粟散王 millet scattering kings.

小界 A small assembly of monks for ceremonial purposes.

小白華 One of the four divine flowers, the mandāra-flower, v. 曼.

小目連 The small Maudgalyāyana, one of six of that name, v. 目.

小祥忌 An anniversary (sacrifice).

小空 The Hīnayāna doctrine of the void, as contrasted with that of Mahāyāna.

小經 v. 小本; also styled 小彌經.

小聖 The Hīnayāna saint, or arhat. The inferior saint, or bodhisattva, as compared with the Buddha.


小草 Smaller herbs, those who keep the five commandments and do the ten good deeds, thereby attaining to rebirth as men or devas, v. 三草二木.

小行 The practice, or discipline of Hīnayāna; also, urination.

小赤華 Mañjūṣaka. 量殊沙華; 量殊顏 Explained by 柔軟 pliable. Rubia cordifolia, yielding the madder (munjeeth) of Bengal.

小遠 The monk 慧遠 Huiyuan of the Sui dynasty. There was a 晉 Chin dynasty monk of the same name.

小阿師 A junior monk ordained less than ten years.

小院 A junior teacher.

小食 The small meal, breakfast, also called 點心.

A corpse: to manage: u. f. 尸羅.

尸利 Sri. 師利; 室利; 室離; 室哩; 修利; 昔哩; 悉利 (1) Fortune, prosperity; high rank, success, good fortune, virtues, these four are named as its connotation. (2) The wife of Viṣṇu. (3) An honorifc prefix or affix to names of gods, great men, and books. (4) An exclamation at the head of liturgies. (5) An abbreviation for Mañjuśrī.

尸利佛逝 Śrībhuja, i. e. Mālaya.

尸利夜 Śrīyaśas , a god who bestows good luck.

尸利沙 尸利灑; 舍利沙; 夜合樹 śirīṣa. acacia sirissa. The marriage tree 合婚樹. The 尸利沙 is described as with large leaves and fruit; another kind the 尸利駛 with small leaves and fruit. Also called 沙羅樹.

尸利沙迦 Śirīṣaka. Name of a monk.

尸利毱多 尸利崛多; 室利毱多 Śrīgupta, an elder in Rājagṛha, who tried to kill the Buddha with fire and poison; v. 尸利毱多長者經.

尸利蜜多羅 屍黎密 Śrīmitra, an Indian prince who resigned his throne to his younger brother, became a monk, came to China, translated the 灌頂 and other books.

尸半尸 To kill a person by the 毘陀羅 vetala method of obtaining magic power by incantations on a dead body; when a headless corpse, or some part of the body, is used it is 半尸; when the whole corpse it is 尸.

尸城 Kuśinagara or Kuśigramaka. 拘尸那城; 拘尸那揭羅; 拘夷那竭; 拘尸城 Explained by 九土生地 the birthplace of nine scholars. An ancient kingdom and city, near Kasiah, 180 miles north of Patna; the place where Śākyamuni died.

尸多婆那 Śītavana, see 尸陀林.

尸摩舍那 (or 尸摩賖那) śmaśāna, aśmaśāyma, a cemetery, idem 尸陀林.

尸梨伽那 Śrīguṇa, 厚德 abundantly virtuous, a title of a Buddha.

尸棄 Śikhin, 式棄; 式詰; 尸棄那 (or 尸棄佛); 罽那尸棄; crested, or a fame; explained by 火 fire; 刺那尸棄 Ratnaśikhin occurs in the Abhidharma. In the 本行經 it is 螺髻 a shell like tuft of hair. (1) The 999th Buddha of the last kalpa, whom Śākyamuni is said to have met. (2) The second of the seven Buddhas of antiquity, born in Prabhadvaja 光相城 as a Kṣatriya. (3) A Maha-brahma, whose name Śikhin is defined as 頂髻 or 火災頂 having a flaming tuft on his head; connected with the world-destruction by fire. The Fanyimingyi 翻譯名義 describes Śikhin as 火 or 火首 fame, or a flaming head and as the god of fire, styled also 樹提 Suddha, pure; he observed the 火定 Fire Dhyāna, broke the lures of the realm of desire, and followed virtue.

尸棄毘 A deva of music located in the East.

尸毘迦 Śivi, 尸毘伽; 尸毘略; also wrongly 濕鞞; one of Śākyamuni's former incarnations, when to save the life of a dove he cut off and gave his own flesh to an eagle which pursued it, which eagle was Śiva transformed in order to test him. 智度論 35.

尸羅 Sila, 尸; 尸怛羅 intp. by 淸凉 pure and cool, i.e. chaste; also by 戒 restraint, or keeping the commandments; also by 性善 of good disposition. It is the second pāramitā, moral purity, i. e. of thought, word, and deed. The four conditions of śīla are chaste, calm, quiet, extinguished, i. e. no longer perturbed by the passions. Also, perhaps śīla, a stone, i. e. a precious stone, pearl, or coral. For the ten śīlas or commandments v. 十戒, the first five, or pañca-śīla 五戒, are for all Buddhists.

尸羅不淸淨 If the śīla, or moral state, is not pure, none can enter samādhi.

尸羅婆羅蜜 śīla-pāramitā. Morality, the second of the pāramitās.

尸羅幢 A curtain made of chaste precious stones.

尸羅拔陀提 戒賢 Śīlabhadra, a prince mentioned in 賢 愚 經 6.


尸羅淸淨 Moral purity, essential to enter into samadhi.

尸羅跋提 Sravasti, idem 舍衞.

尸羅跋陀羅 Śīlabhadra. A learned monk of Nalanda, teacher of Hsumzang, A. D. 625.

尸羅達磨 Śīladharma, a śramaṇa of Khotan.

尸羅鉢頗 Śīlaprabha. the Sanskrit name of a learned monk.

||阿迭多 Śīladitya, son of Pratapaditya and brother of Rajyavardhana. Under thc spiritual auspices of Avalokiteśvara, he became king of Kanyakubja A. D. 606 and conquered India and the Punjab. He was merciful to all creatures, strained drinking water for horses and elephants, was a most liberal patron of Buddhism, re-established the great quinquennial assembly, built many stūpas, showed special favour to Śīlabhadra and Xuanzang, and composed the 八大靈塔梵讚 Aṣṭama-hāśrī -caitya-saṃskṛta-stotra. He reigned about forty years.

尸棄尼 Also 識 (or 瑟 or 式) 匿. Chavames accepts the identification with Chighnan, a region of the Pamirs (Documents sur les Tou-kiue Occidentaux, p. 162).

尸賴底 Hiranyavati, M003296 離刺拏伐底; 阿利羅伐底; the gold river, a river of Nepal, now called the Gandaki, near which Śākyamuni is said to have entered nirvāṇa. The river is identifed with the Ajitavati.

尸迦羅 越 said to be Sujāta, son of an elder of Rājagṛha and the same as 須闍陀.

尸陀 (林) Śītavana, 尸林; 尸陀婆; 尸多婆那; 屍陀 cold grove 寒林, i. e. a place for exposing corpses, a cemetery. It is also styled 恐毘林, 安陀林, 晝暗林; also v. 尸摩賖那 or 深摩舍那 śmaśāna.

A hill, mountain; a monastery.

山世 'Mountain world' i. e. monasteries.

山僧 (1) 'Hill monk', self-deprecatory term used by monks. (2) A monk dwelling apart from monasteries.

山外 A branch of the Tiantai School founded by 晤恩 Wu En (d. A. D. 986) giving the 'shallower' interpretation of the teaching of this sect; called Shan-wai because it was developed in temples away from the Tiantai mountain. The 'Profounder' sect was developed at Tien-tai and is known as 山家宗 'the sect of the mountain family ' or home sect.

山家 The 'mountain school', the ' profounder ' interpretation of Tiantai doctrines developed by 四明 Ssu-ming; v. last entry.

山斤 The weight of a mountain, or of Sumeru— may be more readily ascertained than the eternity of the Buddha.

山毫 Writing brushes as numerous as mountains, or as the trees on the mountains (and ink as vast as the ocean).

山水衲 ' Mountain and water robe, ' the name of a monastic garment during the Sung dynasty; later this was the name given to a richly embroidered dress.

山海如來 Sāgara-varadhara-buddhi-vikiditā-bhijñā. 山海慧 (or 惠) 自在通王如來. The name under which Ānanda is to reappear as Buddha, in Anavanamita-vaijayanta, during the kalpa Manojna-sabdabhigarjita, v. 法華經.

山海空市 'Mountains, seas, the sky, the (busy) market place' cannot conceal one from the eye of 無常 Impermanence, the messenger of death, a phrase summing up a story of four brothers who tried to use their miraculous power to escape death by hiding in the mountains, seas, sky, and market places. The one in the market place was the first to be reported as dead, 法句經 2.

山王 The king of the mountains, i. e. the highest peak.

山門 The gate of a monastery; a monastery.

A stream, a mountain stream; Ssu-ch'uan province.

川施餓鬼 Making offerings at the streams to the ghosts of the drowned.

Work, a period of work, a job.

工夫 Time, work, a term for meditation; also 功夫.

工巧明 Śilpasthana-vidyā. 巧業明 One of the five departments of knowledge dealing with the arts, e. g. the various crafts, mechanics, natural science (yin-yang), calculations (especially for the calendar and astrology), etc.

工伎鬼 Nata, a dancer; the skilful or wily one, i. e. the heart or mind.

Self, personal, own.

己利 Personal advantage, or profit.

己心 One's own heart.


己心法門 己心中所行法門 The method of the self-realization of truth, the intuitive method of meditation, 止觀 1.

己界 The buddha-kāya, or realm of Buddha in contrast with the realm of ordinary beings.

己證, 自證 Self-attained assurance of the truth, such as that of the Buddha.

己身彌陀唯心淨土 Myself (is) Amitābha, my mind (is) the Pure Land. All things are but the one Mind, so that outside existing beings there is no Buddha and no Pure Land. Thus Amitābha is the Amitābha within and the Pure Land is the Pure Land of the mind. It is an expression of Buddhist pantheism— that all is Buddha and Buddha is all.

Already, past; end, cease.

已今當 Past, present, future, 過去, 現在, 未來.

已今當往生 Those born into the 'future life, ' (of the Pure Land) in the past, in the present, and to be born in the future.

已生 部多 bhūta. Become, the moment just come into existence, the present moment; being, existing; a being, ghost, demon; a fact; an element, of which the Hindus have five— earth, water, fire, air, ether; the past.

已知根 ājñendriya. The second of the 三無漏根 q. v. One who already knows the indriya or roots that arise from the practical stage associated with the Four Dogmas, i. e. purpose, joy, pleasure, renunciation, faith, zeal, memory, abstract meditation, wisdom.

已過大德 A monk far advanced in religion; an arhat.

已還 Already returned, or, begun again, e. g. the recommencement of a cycle, or course.

已離欲者 Those who have abandoned the desire-realm; divided into two classes, 異生 ordinary people who have left desire, but will be born into the six gati; 聖者 the saints, who will not be reborn into the desire-realm; e. g. non-Buddhists and Buddhists.

A shield; a stem, or pole; to offend; to concern; to seek.

干栗馱 干栗太; 乾栗馱; 訖利多 hṛd, hṛdaya, the physical heart.

干闍那 建折那 kāñcana, golden; i. e. a tree, a shrub of the same type, with golden hue, described as of the leguminous order; perhaps the Kunjara. Wrongly written 于 (or 那) 于闍羅 and 千闍那.

Dhanus. A bow; a bow's length, i. e. the 4, 000th part of a yojana. Seven grains of wheat 麥 make 1 finger-joint 指節; 24 finger-joints make 1 elbow or cubit 肘; 4 cubits make 1 bow; or 1 foot 5 inches make 1 elbow or cubit: 4 cubits make 1 bow; 300 bows make 1 li; but the measures are variously given.

弓槃茶 Kumbhāṇḍa demons, v. 鳩.


No, not, none. (Sanskrit a, an. ).

不一不異 Neither unity nor diversity, or doctrine of the 中論, v. 八不.

不久 Not long (in time).

不久詣道場 Not long before he visits the place of enlightenment or of Truth, i. e. soon will become a Buddha.

不了 Not to bring to a finish, not to make plain, not plain, not to understand, incomprehensible.

不了義經 Texts that do not make plain the Buddha's whole truth, such as Hīnayāna and 通敎 or intermediate Mahāyāna texts.

不了佛智 The incomprehensible wisdom of Buddha.

不二 advaya. No second, non-duality, the one and undivided, the unity of all things, the one reality、 the universal Buddha-nature. There are numerous combinations, e. g. 善惡不二 good and evil are not a dualism: nor are 有 and 空 the material and immaterial, nor are 迷 and 悟 delusion and awareness— all these are of the one Buddha-nature.

不二不異 neither plural nor diverse, e. g. neither two kinds of nature nor difference in form.

不二之法 The one undivided truth, the Buddha-truth. Also, the unity of the Buddha-nature.

不二法門 is similar to 不二之法; also the cult of the monistic doctrine; and the immediacy of entering into the truth.

不但空 ' Not only the void '; or, non-void; śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas see only the 'void', bodhisattvas see also the non-void, hence 不但空 is the 中道空 the 'void' of the 'mean'. It is a term of the 通敎 Intermediate school.

不來 Not coming (back to mortality), an explanation of 阿那含 anāgāmin.

不來不去 anāgamana-nirgama. Neither coming into nor going out of existence, i. e. the original constituents of all 法 things are eternal; the eternal conservation of energy, or of the primal substance.

不來迎 Without being called he comes to welcome; the Pure-land sect believes that Amitābha himself comes to welcome departing souls of his followers on their calling upon him, but the 淨土眞宗 (Jōdo Shin-shu sect) teaches that belief in him at any time ensures rebirth in the Pure Land, independently of calling on him at death.


不修外道 One of the ten kinds of ' heresies' founded by Sañjayin Vairāṭīputra, v. 删, who taught that there is no need to 求道 seek the right path, as when the necessary kalpas have passed, mortality ends and nirvana naturally follows.

不偸盜 adinnādāna-veramaṇī; the second of the ten commandments, Thou shalt not steal.

不共 Not in the same class, dissimilar, distinctive, each its own.

不共三昧 asakṛt-samādhi; a samādhi in more than one formula, or mode.

不共不定 One of the six 不定因 indefinite statements of a syllogism, where proposition and example do not agree.

不共中共 The general among the particulars, the whole in the parts.

不共業 Varied, or individual karma; each causing and receiving his own recompense.

不共法 āveṇika-buddhadharma. The characteristics, achievements, and doctrine of Buddha which distinguish him from all others. See 十八不共法.

十八不共法 the eighteen distinctive characteristics as defined by Hīnayāna are his 十力, 四無畏, 三念住 and his 大悲; the Mahāyāna eighteen are perfection of body; of speech; of memory; impartiality or universality; ever in samādhi; entre self-abnegation; never diminishing will (to save); zeal; thought; wisdom; salvation; insight into salvation; deeds and mind accordant with wisdom; also his speech; also his mind; omniscience in regard to the past; also to the present; and to the future.

不共無明 Distinctive kinds of unenlightenment, one of the two kinds of ignorance, also styled 獨頭無明; particular results arising from particular evils.

不共相 Dissimilarity, singularity, sui generis.

不共般若 The things special to bodhisattvas in the 般若經 in contrast with the things they have in common with śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas.

不共變 Varied, or individual conditions resulting from karma; every one is his own transmigration; one of the 四變.

不分別 The indivisible, or middle way 中道.

不動 acala; niścala; dhruva. The unmoved, immobile, or motionless; also 無動 the term is used for the unvarying or unchanging, for the pole-star, for fearlessness, for indifference to passion or temptation. It is a special term of Shingon 異言 applied to its most important Bodhisattva, the 不動明王 q. v.

不動佛 不動如來; 阿閦鞞 or 阿閦婆, Akṣobhya, one of the 五智如來 Five Wisdom, or Dhyāni-Buddhas, viz., Vairocana, Akṣobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitābha, and Amoghasiddhi. He is especially worshipped by the Shingon sect, as a disciple of Vairocana. As Amitābha is Buddha in the western heavens, so Akṣobhya is Buddha in the eastern heaven of Abhirati, the realm of joy, hence he is styled 善快 or 妙喜, also 無瞋恚 free from anger. His cult has existed since the Han dynasty, see the Akṣobhya-Tathāgatasya-vyūha. He is first mentioned in the prajnapāramitā sutra, then in the Lotus, where he is the first of the sixteen sons of Mahābhijñā-jñānabhibhu. His dhyāni-bodhisattva is Vajrapāṇi. His appearance is variously described, but he generally sits on a lotus, feet crossed, soles upward, left hand closed holding robe, right hand fingers extended touching ground calling it as color is pale gold, some say blue a vajra is before him. His esoteric word is Hum; his element the air, his human form Kanakamuni, v. 拘. Jap. Ashuku, Fudo, and Mudo; Tib. mi-bskyod-pa, mi-'khrugs-pa (mintug-pa); Mong. Ülü küdelükci. v. 不動明王.

不動供 Offerings to 不動明王.

不動使者 The messengers of Akṣobhya-buddha 不動佛.

不動咒 不動慈救咒; 不動慈護咒; 不動陀羅尼; 不動使者祕密法; 不動使者陀羅尼祕密法. Prayers and spells associated with Akṣobhya-buddha 不動佛 and his messengers.

不動地 The eighth of the ten stages in a Buddha's advance to perfection.

不動安鎭法 Prayers to 不動明王 to protect the house.

不動定 The samādhi, or abstract meditation, in which he abides.

不動明王 不動尊 Aryacalanatha 阿奢羅曩 tr. 不動尊 and 無動尊 and Acalaceta, 阿奢囉逝吒 tr. 不動使者. The mouthpiece or messenger, e. g. the Mercury, of the Buddhas; and the chief of the five Ming Wang. He is regarded as the third person in the Vairocana trinity. He has a fierce mien overawing all evil spirits. He is said to have attained to Buddhahood, but also still to retain his position with Vairocana. He has many descriptive titles, e. g. 無量力神通無動者; 不動忿怒王, etc. Five different verbal signs are given to him. He carries a sharp wisdom-sword, a noose, a thunder-bolt. The colour of his images is various—black, blue, purple. He has a youthful appearance; his hair falls over his left shoulder; he stands or sits on a rock; left eye closed; mouth shut, teeth gripping upper lip, wrinkled forehead, seven locks of hair, full-bodied, A second representation is with four faces and four arms, angry mien, protruding teeth, with fames around him. A third with necklaces. A fourth, red, seated on a rock, fames, trident, etc. There are other forms. He has fourteen distinguishing symbols, and many dharanis associated with the realm of fire, of saving those in distress, and of wisdom. He has two messengers 二童子 Kimkara 矜羯羅 and Cetaka 制吒迦, and, including these, a group of eight messengers 八大童子 each with image, symbol, word-sign, etc. Cf. 不動佛.

不動法 Prayer for the aid of 不動明王 to end calamity and cause prosperity.


不動無爲 One of the six 無爲 kinds of inaction, or laissez aIIer, the state of being unmoved by pleasure or pain.

不動解脫 liberation from being disturbed (by the illusions of life).

不動阿羅漢 an arhat who has attained to the state of the immovable liberation 不動解脫.

不動生死 Immortality, nirvana.

不動義 Immobility, one of the ten meanings of the void.

不動講 An assembly for preaching and praising the virtues of 不動尊.

不動金剛明王 The 不動尊 as the vajra representative, or embodiment, of Vairocana for saving all sentient beings.

不卽不離 Neither the thing itself nor something apart, e. g. the water and the wave; similar to 不一不異.

不取正覺願 Amitābha's vow of not taking up his Buddhahood till each of his forty-eight vows is fulfilled, an affix to each of the vows.

不受一切法 Free from the receptivity, or sensation, of things, emancipated from desire.

不受三昧 In the Lotus Sutra, cap. 25, the bodhisattva 無盡意 obeying the Buddha's command, offered Guanyin a jewel-garland, which the latter refused saying he had not received the Buddha's command to accept it. This attitude is attributed to his 不受 samādhi, the samādhi of 畢竟空 utter 'voidness', or spirituality.

不可 May not, can not: unpermissible, for-bidden; unable. Buke, the name of a monk of the 靈妙寺 Ling Miao monastery in the Tang dynasty, a disciple of Subha-karāṣimha, and one of the founders of 眞言 Shingon.

不可得 ampalabhya; alabhya. Beyond laying hold of, unobtainable, unknowable, unreal, another name for 空 the void. See 三世心不可得.

三世心不可得 The mind or thought, past, present, future, cannot be held fast; the past is gone, the future not arrived, the present does not stay.

不可得空 One of the eighteen 空; it is the 言亡慮絕之空, the 'void' that is beyond words or thought.

不可思議 Beyond thought or description, v. 不思議.

言亡慮絕之空 The 'void' that is beyond words or thought.

四不可思議 The four indescribables, v. 增一阿含經 18, are the worlds; living beings; dragons (nagas); and the size of the Buddha-lands.

五不可思議 The five indescribables, of the 智度論 30, are: The number of living beings; all the consequences of karma; the powers of a state of dhyāna; the powers of nagas; the powers of the Buddhas.

不可思議尊 不可思議光如來 The ineffable Honoured One; the Tathāgata of ineffable light; titles of Amitābha.

不可思議解脫經 A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.

不可思議經 A name for the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra. The full title is also a name for the 維摩經 Vimalakīrti-sūtra.

不可思議解脫法門 The samādhi, or liberation of mind, that ensures a vision of the ineffable.

不可有 The existence of those who do the 不可, or forbidden, i. e. the hells.

不可棄 Not to be cast away— said to be the name of the founder of the Mahīśāsakah, or 化地 school, cast into a well at birth by his mother, saved by his father, at first brahman, afterwards a Buddhist; v. 文殊問經, but probably apocryphal.

不可稱智 The Buddha wisdom that in its variety is beyond description.

不可見有對色 invisible, perceptible, or material things, e. g. sound, smell, etc.

不可見無對色 Invisible, imperceptible, or immaterial things.

不可說 Unmentionable, indefinable; truth that can be thought but not expressed.

不可說佛 Gaṇendra; the 733rd of the Buddhas of the present kalpa 賢劫, in which 1,000 Buddhas are to appear, of whom four have appeared.

不可越守護 Two guardians of the Law on the right of Mañjuśrī in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, named 難持 and 難勝.

不和合性 unharmonizing natures, one of the 五法.

不善 Not good; contrary to the right and harmful to present and future life, e. g. 五逆十惡.

不善律儀 idem 非律儀, i. e. 不法 or 非善戒.

不喞M066116 Ignorant, rustic: immature or ignorant.

不坐高廣大牀 anuccaśayanāmahāśayana. Not to sit on a high, broad, large bed, the ninth of the ten commandments.

不增不減 Neither adding nor subtracting; nothing can be added or taken away. In referenc to the absolute 實相之空理 nothing can be added or taken away; vice versa with the relative.

不增減眞如 the unvarying 眞如 bhūtatathatā, one of the ten 眞如; also the eighth of the 十地.

不壞 avināśya; indestructible, never decaying, eternal.

不壞句 A term in 眞言 Shingon for the magic word 阿 'a', the indestructible embodiment of Vairocana.

不壞四禪 The four dhyāna heavens, where the samādhi mind of meditation is indestructible, and the external world is indestructible by the three final catastrophes.

不壞法 Two kinds of arhats practice the 白骨觀 skull meditation, the dull who consider the dead as ashes, the intelligent who do not, but derive supernatural powers from the meditation.


不壞金剛 Vairocana the indestructible, or eternal.

不壞金剛光明心殿 The luminous mind-temple of the eternal 大日 Vairocana, the place in the Vajradhātu, or Diamond realm, of Vairocana as teacher.

不如蜜多 The twenty-sixth patriarch, said to be Puryamitra (Eitel), son of a king in Southern India, labored in eastern India, d. A. D. 388 by samādhi.

不妄語 musāvādā-veramaṇī, the fourth commandment, thou shalt not lie; no false speaking.

不婬慾 abrahamacaryā-veramaṇī, the third commandment, thou shalt not commit adultery, i. e. against fornication and adultery for the lay, and against all unchastity for the clerics.

不學 aśaikṣa; no longer studying, graduated, one who has attained.

不定 Unfixed, unsettled, undetermined, uncertain.

不定受業 One of the 'four karma' — aniyata or indefinite karma; opposite of 定業.

不定地法 One of the six mental conditions, that of undetermined character, open to any influence good or evil.

不定性 (不定種性) Of indeterminate nature. The 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school divides all beings into five classes according to their potentialities. This is one of the divisions and contains four combinations: (1) Bodhisattva-cum-śrāvaka, with uncertain result depending on the more dominant of the two; (2) bodhisattva-cum-pratyekabuddha; (3) śrāvaka-cum-pratyekabuddha; (4) the characteristcs of all three vehicles intermingled with uncertain results; the third cannot attain Buddhahood, the rest may.

不定性聚 不定聚 One of the three Tiantai groups of humanity, the indeterminate normal class of people, as contrasted with sages 定性聚 whose natures are determined for goodness, and the wicked 邪定性聚 whose natures are determined for evil.

不定教 Indeterminate teaching. Tiantai divides the Buddha' s mode of teaching into four; this one means that Buddha, by his extraordinary powers of 方便 upāya-kauśalya, or adaptability, could confer Mahāyāna benefits on his hearers out of his Hīnayāna teaching and vice versa, dependent on the capacity of his hearers.

不定觀 (不定止觀) Direct insight without any gradual process of samādhi; one of three forms of Tiantai meditation.

不害 ahiṃsā. Harmlessness, not injuring, doing harm to none.

不審 A term of greeting between monks. i. e. I do not take the liberty of inquiring into your condition.

不廻 Anagamin. He who does not return; one exempt from transmigration.

不律儀 Practices not in accord with the rule: immoral or subverted rules, i. e. to do evil, or prevent good; heretical rules and practices.

不忘禪 The meditation against forgetfulness.

不思議 acintya. 阿軫帝也 Beyond thought and words, beyond conception, baffling description, amazing.

不思議乘 The ineffable vehicle, Buddhism.

不思議慧童子 The youth of ineffable wisdom, one of the eight youths in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu.

不思議智 acintya-jñāna, inconceivable wisdom, the indescribable Buddha-wisdom.

不思議業相 Inexpressible karma-merit always working for the benefit of the living.

不思議界 acintyadhātu. The realm beyond thought and words, another name for the bhūtatathatā, 眞如.

不思議眞言相道法 The practice of the presence of the invisible Dharmakāya in the esoteric word.

不思議空 第一義空 The Void beyond thought or discussion, a conception of the void, or that which is beyond the material, only attained by Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

不思議空智 The wisdom thus attained which removes all distresses and illusions.

不思議經 The 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.

不思議解脫經 The 華嚴經 Huayan sutra.

不思議薰 The indescribable vāsanā, i. e. suffusion, or 'fuming', or influence of primal 無明 ignorance, on the 眞如 bhūtatathatā, producing all illusion. v 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

不思議變 The indescribable changes of the bhūtatathatā in the multitudinous forms of all things.

不思議易生死 Ineffable changes and transmigrations, i. e. to the higher stages of mortality above the traidhātuka or trailokya 三界.

不悅 Unhappy, uneasy, the disturbing influence of desire.

不惜身命 The bodhisattva virtue of not sparing one's life (for the sake of bodhi).

不懺舉 The excommunication of an unrepentant monk; one of the 三舉.

不才淨 Neither clever nor pure— a term of rebuke.


不拜 Lay Buddhists may not pay homage to the gods or demons of other religions; monks and nuns may not pay homage to kings or parents.

不捉持生像金銀寶物 jātarūpa-rajata-pratigrahaṇād vaira maṇī (virati). The tenth commandment, not to take or possess uncoined or coined gold and silver, or jewels.

不捨誓約 Amitābha's vow of non-abandonment, not to enter Buddhahood till all were born into his Paradise.

不放逸 No slackness or looseness; concentration of mind and will on the good.

不斷 Without ceasing, unceasing.

不斷光 The unceasing light (or glory) of Amitābha.

不斷光佛 One of the twelve shining Buddhas.

不斷常 Unceasing continuity.

不斷念佛 Unceasing remembrance, or invocation of the Buddha.

不斷相應染 One of the 六染心.

不斷讀經 Unceasing reading of the sutras.

不斷經 Unceasing reading of the sutras.

不斷輪 Unceasing turning of the wheel, as in a monastery by relays of prayer and meditation.

不時解脫 The sixth, or highest of the six types of arhats; the other five groups have to bide their time and opportunity 時解脫 for liberation in samādhi, the sixth can enter immediately.

不更惡趣願 The second of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that those born in his kingdom should never again enter the three evil lower paths of transmigration.

不染世間法 Unsullied by the things of the world (e. g. the lotus).

不染汚無知 Uncontaminated ignorance.

不染著諸法三昧 The samādhi which is uncontaminated by any (evil) thing, the samādhi of purity; i. e. Mañjuśrī in samādhi holding as symbol of it a blue lotus in his left hand.

不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽 nāṭya-gīta-vāditra-viśūkadarśanād-vairamaṇī (virati). The seventh commandment against taking part in singing, dancing, plays, or going to watch and hear them.

不正食 Not strict food, not exactly food, things that do not count as a meal, e. g. fruit and nuts.

不死 Undying, immortal.

不死甘露 Sweet dew of immortality, a baptismal water of 眞言 Shingon.

不死藥 Medicine of immortality, called shāhē 裟訶, which grows on 雪山 the Himālayas and bestows on anyone seeing it endless and painless life.

不死覺 One of the eight 覺, the desire for long life.

不死門 The gate of immortality or nirvana, i. e. Mahāyāna.

不殺生 prāṇātipātād vairamaṇī (virati). The first commandment, Thou shalt not kill the living.

不法 Not in accordance with the Buddha law, wrong, improper, unlawful.

不活畏 The fear of giving all and having nothing to keep one alive: one of the five fears.

不滅 anirodha, not destroyed, not subject to annihilation.

不滅不生 anirodhānupāda, neither dying nor being reborn, immortal, v. 不生.

不淨 Unclean, common, vile.

不淨忿怒 不淨金剛; 鳥樞沙摩明王 or 鳥芻沙摩明王; 觸金剛 Ucchuṣma, a bodhisattva connected with 不動明王 who controls unclean demons.

不淨施 'Unclean' almsgiving, i. e. looking for its reward in this or the next life.

不淨肉 'Unclean', flesh, i. e. that of animals, fishes, etc., seen being killed, heard being killed, or suspected of being killed; Hīnayāna forbids these, Mahāyāna forbids all flesh.

不淨行 非梵行 Ignoble or impure deeds, sexual immorality.

不淨觀 The meditation on the uncleanness of the human body of self and others, e. g. the nine stages of disintegration of the dead body 九想 q.v.; it is a meditation to destroy 貪 desire; other details are: parental seed, womb, the nine excretory passages, the body's component parts, worm-devoured corpse — all unclean.

不淨觀經 A sutra of Dharmatrata.

不淨說法 邪命說法 'Unclean' preaching, i. e. to preach, whether rightly or wrongly, from an impure motive, e. g. for making a living.

不淨輪 One of the three 輪: impermanence, impurity, distress 無常, 不淨, 苦.

不生 anutpatti; anutpāda. Non-birth: not to be reborn, exempt from rebirth; arhan is mistakenly interpreted as 'not born', meaning not born again into mortal worlds. The 'nir' in nirvana is also erroneously said to mean 'not born'; certain schools say that nothing ever has been born, or created, for all is eternal. The Shingon word 'a' is interpreted as symbolizing the uncreated. The unborn or uncreated is a name for the Tathāgata, who is not born, but eternal ; hence by implication the term means "eternal". ādi, which means"at first, " "beginning","primary", is also interpreted as 不生 uncreated.


不生斷 One of the 三斷, when illusion no longer arises the sufferings of being reborn in the evil paths are ended.

不生不滅 v. 不滅 'Neither (to be) born nor ended' is another term for 常住 permanent, eternal; nothing having been created nothing can be destroyed; Hīnayāna limits the meaning to the state of nirvana, no more births and deaths; Mahāyāna in its Mādhyamika form extends it universally, no birth and death, no creation and annihilation, see 中論.

四不生 Nothing is produced (1) of itself; (2) of another, i. e. of a cause without itself; (3) of both; (4) of no-cause.

不疑殺 Not in doubt that the creature has been killed to feed me, v. 不淨肉.

不相應心 The non-interrelated mind, see 起信論.

不相應行 Actions non-interrelated (with mind).

不空 Amogha, Amoghavajra. 不空三藏; 智藏; 阿目佉跋折羅 Not empty (or not in vain) vajra. The famous head of the Yogācāra school in China. A Singhalese of northern brahmanic descent, having lost his father, he came at the age of 15 with his uncle to 東海, the eastern sea, or China, where in 718 he became a disciple of 金剛智 Vajrabodhi. After the latter's death in 732, and at his wish, Eliot says in 741, he went to India and Ceylon in search of esoteric or tantric writings, and returned in 746, when he baptized the emperor Xuan Tsung. He was especially noted for rain-making and stilling storms. In 749 he received permission to return home, but was stopped by imperial orders when in the south of China. In ?756 under Su Tsung he was recalled to the capital. His time until 771 was spent translating and editing tantric books in 120 volumes, and the Yogacara 密教 rose to its peak of prosperity. He died greatly honoured at 70 years of age, in 774, the twelfth year of Tai Tsung, the third emperor under whom he had served. The festival of feeding the hungry spirits 孟蘭勝會 is attributed to him. His titles of 智藏 and 不空三藏 are Thesaurus of Wisdom and Amogha Tripitaka.

不空供養菩薩 Āryāmogha-pūrṇamaṇi, also styled 如意金剛 'At will vajra'; in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, the fifth on the south of the 悉地 court.

不空如來藏 不空眞如 The realm of phenomena; in contrast with the universal 眞如 or 法身 dharmakāya, unmingled with the illusion of phenomena.

不空成就如來 Amoghasiddhi. The Tathāgata of unerring performance, the fifth of the five wisdom or dhyāni-buddhas of the diamond-realm. He is placed in the north; his image is gold-colored, left hand clenched, right fingers extended pointing to breast. Also, 'He is seated in 'adamantine' pose (legs closely locked) '(Getty), soles apparent, left hand in lap, palm upwards, may balance a double vajra, or sword; right hand erect in blessing, fingers extended. Symbol, double vajra; color, green (Getty); word, ah!; blue-green lotus; element, earth; animal, garuḍa; Śakti (female personification), Tārā; Mānuṣi-Buddha (human or savior Buddha), Maitreya. T., dongrub; J., Fukū jō-jū.

不空羂索 An unerring lasso. See 不空羂索菩薩.

不空羂索菩薩 (不空羂索觀音 or 不空羂索王); Amoghapāśa 阿牟伽皤賖. Not empty (or unerring) net, or lasso. One of the six forms of Guanyin in the Garbhadhātu group, catching deva and human fish for the bodhi-shore. The image has three faces, each with three eyes and six arms, but other forms have existed, one with three heads and ten arms, one with one head and four arms. The hands hold a net, lotus, trident, halberd, the gift of courage, and a plenipotentiary staff; sometimes accompanied by 'the green Tārā, Sudhana-Kumāra, Hayagrīva and Bhṛkuṭī (Getty). There are numerous sutras, etc.

不空見菩薩 Amoghadarśin, the unerringly seeing Bodhisattva, shown in the upper second place of Titsang's court in the Garbhadhātu; also 普觀金剛.

不空金剛菩薩 Amoghavajra-bodhisattva. 阿目佶跋折羅 A Bodhisattva in the 蘇悉地 court of the Garbhadhātu.

不空鉤觀音 Amoghāṅkuśa. 央倶捨 Guanyin of the 'Unerring hook', similar to 不空羂索觀音; also styled 淸淨蓮華明王央倶捨; in the court of the empyrean.

不立文字 (不立文字教) The 禪 ch'an or intuitive School does 'not set up scriptures'; it lays stress on meditation and intuition rather than on books and other external aids: cf. Laṅkāvatāra-sūtra.

不輕 Never Despise, 常不輕菩薩 a previous incarnation of the Buddha, as a monk whose constant greeting to all he met, that they were destined for Buddhahood, brought him much persecution; see the chapter of this title in the Lotus Sutra.

不輕行 The practice of 'Never Despise'. See 不輕.

不綺語 Unrefined, indecent, improper, or smart speech.

不著香華鬘不香塗身 mālā-gandha-vilepana-dhāraṇa-maṇḍana-vibhūṣaṇasthānād vairamaṇī (virati). The eighth commandment against adorning the body with wreaths of fragrant fowers, or using fragrant unguents.


不聞惡名願 The sixteenth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that he would not enter final Buddhahood as long as anyone of evil repute existed.

不臘次 (or 不臈次) Not in order of age, i. e. clerical age; disorderly sitting; taking a seat to which one is not entitled.

不自在 Not independent, not one's own master, under governance.

不與取 adattādāna. Taking that which is not given, i. e. theft; against this is the second commandment.

不苦不樂受 one of the 三受, the state of experiencing neither pain nor pleasure, i. e. above them. Also styled 捨受 the state in which one has abandoned both.

不蘭迦葉 Pūraṇa-kāśyapa. 富蘭那迦葉 One of the six heretics, or Tirthyas, opposed to Śākyamuni.

不虛妄性 Not of false or untrue nature; true, sincere; also 眞實性.

不行而行 Without doing yet to do, e. g. 無爲而爲.

不覺 Unenlightened, uncomprehending, without 'spiritual' insight, the condition of people in general, who mistake the phenomenal for the real, and by ignorance beget karma, reaping its results in the mortal round of transmigration; i. e. people generally.

不覺現行位 The first two of the 十地 of the saint, in which the illusion of mistaking the phenomenal for the real still arises.

不說四衆過罪戒 The prohibition of mentioning the errors and sins of other disciples, cleric or lay.

不請 Not to request; uninvited; voluntary.

不請之友 The uninvited friend, i. e. the Bodhisattva.

不請法 Uninvited preaching or offering of the Law, i. e. voluntarily bestowing its benefits.

不變易性 Unchanging nature, immutable, i. e. the bhūtatathatā.

不變眞如 The immutable bhūtatathatā in the absolute, as compared with 隨緣眞如, i. e. in relative or phenomenal conditions.

不變隨緣 The conditioned immutable, i. e. immutable as a whole, but not in its parts, i. e. its phenomenal activity.

不起法忍 The stage of endurance, or patient meditation, that has reached the state where phenomenal illusion ceases to arise, through entry into the realization of the Void, or noumenal; also 生法忍 (or 起法忍) .

不退 (不退轉) avaivartika, or avinivartanīya. Never receding, always progressing, not backsliding, or losing ground; never retreating but going straight to nirvana; an epithet of every Buddha.

三不退 Never receding from 位 position attained; from a right course of 行 action; from pursuing a right line of 念 thought, or mental discipline. These are duties of every bodhisattva, and have numerous interpretations.

四不退 The four kinds of non-backsliding, which includes three kinds of non-backsliding 三不退, on top of which the Pure Land sect adds another 處 place or abode, i. e. that those who reach the Pure Land never fall away, for which five reasons are given termed 五種不退. The 法相 Dharmalakṣaṇa sect makes their four 信, 位, 證, and 行, faith, position attained, realization, and accordant procedure.

不退住 The seventh of the 十住, the stage of never receding, or continuous progress.

不退土 The Pure Land, from which there is no falling away.

不退地 The first of a bodhisattva's 十地; it is also interpreted by right action and right thought.

不退相 One of the nine 無學 aśaikṣa, i. e. the stage beyond study, where intuition rules. Name of one of the twenty-seven sages.

不退菩薩 A never receding bodhisattva, who aims at perfect enlightenment.

不退輪 (不退轉法輪) The never-receding Buddha vehicle, of universal salvation.

不還 Not to return, never returning. Cf. 不退.

不還向 The third of the 四向 four directions or aims, see 阿那含 anāgāmin, not returning to the desire-world, but rising above it to the 色界 or the 無色界 form-realm, or even formless realm.

不還果 The fruits, fruition, or rewards of the last. Various stages in the final life of parinirvāṇa are named, i. e. five, six, seven, eight, nine, or eleven kinds.

不釐務侍者 A nominal assistant or attendant, an attendant who has no responsibilities.


不非時食 Vikāla-bhojanād vairamaṇī (virati); part of the sixth of the ten commandments, i. e. against eating out of regulation hours, v. 不食肉.

不顧論宗 One of the 因明四宗, a philosophical school, whose rule was self-gratification, 'not caring for' others.

不飮酒 surā-maireya-madya-pramādasthānād vairamaṇī (virati). The fifth of the ten commandments, i. e. against alcohol.

不食肉 vikālabhojana; part of the sixth of the ten commandments, i. e. against eating flesh; v. 不非時食.

madhya. Middle, central, medium, the mean, within; to hit the centre. v. also 三諦.

中乘 The middle vehicle to nirvana, includes all intermediate or medial systems between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. It also corresponds with the state of a pratyekabuddha, who lives chiefly for his own salvation but partly for others, like a man sitting in the middle of a vehicle, leaving scarcely room for others. It is a definition made by Mahayanists unknown to Hīnayāna.

中價衣 Another name for the uttarā saṅghāṭī, the middle garment of price, or esteem.

中元 The fifteenth of the seventh moon; see 孟蘭盆.

上元 The fifteenth of the first moon. See 孟蘭盆.

下元 The fifteenth of the tenth moon; cf. 孟蘭盆.

中劫 Middling kalpa, a period of 336, 000, 000 years.

中千界 (中千世界) A middling chiliocosm, see 三千大千世界.

中印 Central India, i. e. of the 五印 five Indies, as mentioned by Xuanzang in the 西域記.

中含 The middle Agama 阿含經.

中品 Middle rank or class.

中唄 Chanting of 梵唄 Buddhist hymns is divided into three kinds 初, 中, and 後.

中因 An arrangement by the esoteric sect of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, Vairocana being the first in position, Akṣobhya east, and so on.

中國 Madhyadesa. 中天 (中天竺); 中梵 The middle kingdom, i. e. Central North India, v. 中印.

中士 medium disciples, i. e. śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, who can gain emancipation for themselves, but cannot confer it on others: cf. 下士 and 上士.

中天 (中天竺) Central North India, idem 中國.

中天竺寺 A monastery on the 飛來 Feilai peak at Hangchow.

中宗 The school or principle of the mean, represented by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣaṇa school, which divides the Buddha's teaching into three periods, the first in which he preached 有 existence, the second 空 non-existence, the third 中 neither, something 'between' or above them, e. g. a realm of pure spirit, vide the 深密經 Saṃdhinirmocana-sūtra and the Lotus Sutra.

中宿依 A monk's inner garment, i. e. the five-patch garment; also 中着依.

中實 idem 中道實相.

中尊 The central honored one— in any group of Buddhas, e. g. 不動尊 among the five 明王.

中心 idem 忠心經.

中悔 Repenting or recanting midway, i. e. doubting and falling away.

中有 One of the 四有, i. e. the antarā-bhāva or intermediate state of existence between death and reincarnation; hence 中有之旅 is an unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation; v. 中陰.

中有之旅 An unsettled being in search of a new habitat or reincarnation; v. 中陰.

中根 Medium capacity, neither clever nor dull, of each of the six organs 六根; there are three powers of each organ 上根, 中根, and 下根.

中梵 Central North India, idem 中國.


中洲 Each of the four great continents at the foot of Mount Sumeru has two middling continents.

中流 In the midst of the stream, i. e. of 生死 mortality, or reincarnations.

中胎 (中胎藏) The central figure of the eight-petalled group of the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala; i. e. the phenomenal Vairocana who has around him four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas, each on a petal. From this maṇḍala spring the four other great maṇḍalas.

中臺 The name of a Buddha in the center of lotus.

中臺八葉院 The Court of the eight-petaled lotus in the middle of the Garbhadhātu, with Vairocana in its center and four Buddhas and four bodhisattvas on the eight petals. The lotus is likened to the human heart, with the Sun-Buddha 大日 at its center. The four Buddhas are E. Akṣobhya, S. Ratnasambhava, W. Amitābha, N. Amoghasiddhi; the four bodhisattvas are S. E. Samantabhadra, S. W. Mañjuśrī, N. W. Avalokiteśvara, and N. E. Maitreya.

中般 One of the five kinds of those who never recede but go on to parinirvāṇa, cf. 不還.

中草 Medium-sized herbs, medium capacity, v. 三草.

中觀 Meditation on the Mean, one of the 三觀; also meditation on the absolute which unites all opposites. There are various forms of such meditation, that of the 法相宗, the 三論宗, the 天台宗. v. 中論.

中論 中觀論 Prāñnyāya-mūla-śāstra-ṭīkā, or Prāṇyamula-śāstra-ṭīkā; the Mādhyamika-śāstra, attributed to the bodhisattvas Nāgārjuna as creator, and Nīlacakṣus as compiler; tr. by Kumārajīva A. D. 409. It is the principal work of the Mādhyamika, or Middle School, attributed to Nāgārjuna. Versions only exist in Chinese and Tibetan; an English translation by Miyamoto exists and publication is promised; a German version is by Walleser. The 中論 is the first and most?? important of the 三論 q. v. The teaching of this School is found additionally in the 順中論; 般若燈論釋大乘中觀釋論 and 中論疏. Cf. 中道. The doctrine opposes the rigid categories of existence and non-existence 假 and 空, and denies the two extremes of production (or creation) and nonproduction and other antitheses, in the interests of a middle or superior way.

中論性教 The Mādhyamika school, which has been described as a system of sophisiic nihilism, dissolving every proposition into a thesis and its antithesis, and refuting both; but it is considered by some that the refuting of both is in the interests of a third, the 中 which transcends both.

中諦 The third of the 三諦 three postulates of the Tiantai school, i. e. 空, 假, and 中 q. v.

中輩 The middle stage of the 三輩 referred to in the 無量壽經 i. e. the middle class of those in the next life; also 中輩生.

中輩觀 the meditation on the condition of 中輩.

中道 The 'mean' has various interpretations. In general it denotes the mean between two extremes, and has special reference to the mean between realism and nihilism, or eternal substantial existence and annihilation; this 'mean' is found in a third principle between the two, suggesting the idea of a realm of mind or spirit beyond the terminology of 有 or 無, substance or nothing, or, that which has form, and is therefore measurable and ponderable, and its opposite of total non-existence. See 中論. The following four Schools define the term according to their several scriptures: the 法相 School describes it as the 唯識, v. 唯識中道; the 三論 School as the 八不 eight negations, v. 三論; the Tiantai as 實相 the true reality; and the Huayan as the 法界 dharmadhātu. Four forms of the Mean are given by the 三論玄義.

中道卽法界 The doctrine of the 'mean', is the dharmadhātu, or 'spiritual ' universe.

中道宗 The third period of the Buddha's teaching, according to the 法相宗, giving the via media between the two extremes, the absolute as not confined to the phenomenal or the noumenal; also called 中道教.

中道實相 The reality of the 'mean' is neither 有 substance or existent, nor 空 void or non-existent, but a reality which is neither, or a mean between the two extremes of materialism and nihilism; also 中實.

中道應本 The 'mean' as the basic principle in the 別 and 圓 schools of the doctrine of the 應化身 'transformation body'.

中道第一義 The 'mean' is the first and chief of all principles, nothing is outside it.

中道觀 One of the Tiantai 三觀 three meditations, i. e. on the doctrine of the Mean to get rid of the illusion of phenomena.


中邊論 A treatise by Vasubandhu, translated by Xuanzang in three chuan and by 陳眞諦Chen Zhen-ti in two fascicles. It is an explanation of the 辨中邊論頌 Madhyānta-vibhāga-śāstra, said to have been given by Maitreya to Asaṅga.

中間定 An intermediate dhyāna stage between two dhyāna-heavens; also 中間三昧; 中間靜慮.

中陰 The intermediate existence between death and reincarnation, a stage varying from seven to forty-nine days, when the karma-body will certainly be reborn; v. 中有.

中陰法事 The means used (by the deceased' s family) for ensuring a favorable reincarnation during the intermediate stage, between death and reincarnation.

中食 The midday meal, after which nothing whatever may be eaten.

中體 The central Buddha in a group.

Red, cinnabar color; a remedy, drug, elixir.

丹田 The pubic region, 2 1/2 inches below the navel.

To say, speak.

云云 Continuing to speak; they say, people say; as follows, and so on, etc.

云何 Why?

云何唄 The opening stanza of the Nirvana sutra 3.

Interlock, dovetail-mutual.

互用罪 The fault of transferring from one object of worship over to another a, gift, or duty, e. g. using gilt given for an image of Śākyamuni to make one for Maitreya; or 'robbing Peter to pay Paul'.

互跪 Kneeling with both knees at once, as in India; in China the left knee is first placed on the ground; also 互胡跪.

互裟伽藍 Haṃsa saṃghārāma, 'Wild goose monastery, ' on Mount Indraśailaguhā, whose inmates were once saved from starving by the self-sacrifice of a wild goose; also 僧裟伽藍 (or 僧鷹伽藍) .

A well.

井中撈月 Like ladling the moon out of the well; the parable of the monkeys who saw the moon fallen into a well, and fearing there would be no more moonlight, sought to save it; the monkey-king hung on to a branch, one hung on to his tail and so on, but the branch broke and all were drowned.

井河 'Like the well and the river', indicating the impermanence of life. The 'well ' refers to the legend of the man who running away from a mad elephant fell into a well; the 'river ' to a great tree growing on the river bank yet blown over by the wind.

井華 The flower of the water, i. e. that drawn from the well in the last watch of the night, at which time the water is supposed not to produce animal life.

pañca, five.

五三八二 Five, three, eight, two, a summary of the tenets of the 法相 school, 五法, 三性, 八識, and 二無我 q. v.

五上分結 The five higher bonds of desire still existing in the upper realms, i. e. in both the form and formless realms.

五下分結 The five bonds in the lower desire-realms, i. e. desire, dislike, self, heretical ideals, doubt 貪, 瞋, 我, 邪戒, 疑.

五不可思議 The five inconceivable, or thought-surpassing things. v. 不可思議.

五不正食 Five improper things for a monk to eat— twigs, leaves, flowers, fruit, powders.

五不還天 idem 五淨居天.

五不還果 idem 五種阿那含.

五乘 The five vehicles conveying to the karma reward which differs according to the vehicle: they are generally summed up as (1) 入乘 rebirth among men conveyed by observing the five commandments; (2) 天乘 among the devas by the ten forms of good action; (3) 聲聞乘 among the śrāvakas by the four noble truths; (4) 緣覺乘 among pratyekabuddhas by the twelve nidānas; (5) 菩薩乘 among the Buddhas and bodhisattvas by the six pāramitās 六度 q. v. Another division is the various vehicles of bodhisattvas; pratyekabuddhas; śrāvakas; general; and devas-and-men. Another is Hīnayāna Buddha, pratyekabuddhas, śrāvakas, the gods of the Brahma heavens, and those of the desire-realm. Another is Hīnayāna ordinary disciples: śrāvakas: pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas; and the one all-inclusive vehicle. And a sixth, of Tiantai, is for men; devas; śrāvakas-cum-pratyekabuddhas; bodhisattvas: and the Buddha-vehicle. The esoteric cult has: men, corresponding with earth; devas, with water: śrāvakas, with fire: pratyekabuddhas, with wind; and bodhisattvas, with 空 the 'void'.

五乘齊入 All the different classes will obtain an entrance into the Pure Land by the vow of Amitābha.

五事妄語 The five things fallaciously explained by Mahādeva, as stated in the Kathāvatthu.


五五百年 The five periods each of 500 years. In the tenth chapter of the 大集月藏經 the Buddha is reported as saying that after his death there would be five successive periods each of 500 years, strong consecutively in power (1) of salvation, (2) of meditation, (3) of learning, (4) of stūpa and temple building, and finally (5) of dissension.

五五菩薩 The twenty-five Bodhisattvas 二十五菩薩.

五人說經 v. 五種說人.

五住地 (五住) The five fundamental condition of 煩惱 the passions and delusions: wrong views which are common to the trailokya; clinging, or attachment, in the desire-realm; clinging, or attachment, in the form-realm; clinging, or attachment, in the formless realm which is still mortal: the state of unenlightenment or ignorance in the trailokya 三界 which is the root-cause of all distressful delusion, Also 五住地惑.

五佛 The Five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the Vajradhātu and Garbhadhātu; v. 五智如來.

五佛五身 A Shingon term for the five Buddhas in their five manifestations: Vairocana as eternal and pure dharmakāya; Akṣobhya as immutable and sovereign; Ratnasaṃbhava as bliss and glory; Amitābha as wisdom in action; Śākyamuni as incarnation and nirmāṇakāya.

五佛子 Five classes of Buddhists; also idem 五比丘 q. v.

五佛寶冠 五佛冠; 五智冠 (五智寶冠) ; 五寶天冠; 寶冠 A Buddha-crown containing the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas. The five Buddhas 'are always crowned when holding the śakti, and hence are called by the Tibetans the 'crowned Buddhas' (Getty). Vairocana in the Vajradhātu wears a crown with five points indicative of the five qualities of perfect wisdom, etc., as represented by the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas.

五佛性 The five characteristics of a Buddha' s nature: the first three are the 三因佛性 q. v., the fourth is 果佛性 the fruition of perfect enlightenment, and the fifth 果果佛性 the fruition of that fruition, or the revelation of parinirvāṇa. The first three are natural attributes, the two last are acquired.

五佛羯磨印 The manual signs by which the characteristic of each of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas is shown in the Diamond-realm group, i. e. Vairocana, the closed hand of wisdom; Akṣobhya, right fingers touching the ground, firm wisdom; Ratnasaṃbhava, right hand open uplifted, vow-making sign; Amitābha, samādhi sign, right fingers in left palm, preaching and ending doubts; and Amoghasiddhi, i. e. Śākyamuni, the karma sign, i. e. final nirvana. These mūdra, or manual signs, are from the 瑜祇經 but other forms are common.

五佛頂 (五佛頂尊); 五頂輪王 Five bodhisattvas sometimes placed on the left of Śākyamuni, indicative of five forms of wisdom: (1) 白傘佛頂輪王 (白蓋佛頂輪王); 白 M027897佛頂, Sitāta-patra, with white parasol, symbol of pure mercy, one of the titles of Avalokiteśvara; (2) 勝佛頂 Jaya, with sword symbol of wisdom, or discretion; (3) 最勝佛頂 (一字最勝佛頂輪王); 金輪佛頂 (最勝金輪佛頂); 轉輪王佛頂 Vijaya, with golden wheel symbol of unexcelled power of preaching; (4) 火聚佛頂; 光聚佛頂 (or 放光佛頂 or 火光佛頂) ; 高佛頂 Tejorāṣi, collected brilliance, with insignia of authority 如意寶 or a fame; (5) 捨除佛頂; 除障佛頂; 摧碎佛頂; 除業佛頂; 除蓋障佛頂; 尊勝, etc. Vikīrṇa, scattering and destroying all distressing delusion, with a hook as symbol.

五佛頂法 The forms, colors, symbols, etc., of the 五佛頂.

五佛頂經 Abbreviation for— 一字佛頂輪王經. There is also a 五佛頂三昧陀羅尼經 translated by Bodhiruci circa A. D. 503.

五佛灌頂 Baptism with five vases of perfumed water, symbol of Buddha-wisdom in its five forms.

五作業根 The five working organs: the mouth, hands, feet, sex organ, and anus.

五位 The five categories, or divisions; there are several groups, e. g. (1) Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna have groupings of all phenomena under five heads, i. e. Hīnayāna has 75 法 which are 11 色法, 1 心法, 46 心所法, 14 不相離法, and 3 無爲法; Mahāyāna has 100 法 which are 8 心, 51 心所, 11 色, 24 不相因, and 6 無爲法. (2) The five divisions of 唯識 are 資糧位, 加行位, 通達位, 修習位, and 究竟 or 佛位. (3) The five evolutions in the womb are: kalalaṃ, embryo-initiation; arbudaṃ, after 27 days; peśī, 37; ghana, 47; praśākha, 57 days when form and organs are all complete. (4) Certain combinations of the 八卦 Eight Diagrams are sometimes styled 五位君臣 five positions of prince and minister.

五位三昧 五種三昧 The five kinds of samādhi: (1) On mortality, the 四禪 and 八定; (2) śrāvaka on the four axioms; (3) pratyekabuddha on the twelve nidānas; (4) bodhisattva on the 六度 and the 萬行; (5) Buddha on the one Buddha-vehicle, which includes all others; v. 五乘.

五供養 The five kinds of offerings— unguents, chaplets, incense, food, and lamps (or candles).

五使者 The five messengers of Mañjuśrī, 丈殊五使者, 五種金剛使; they are shown on his left in his court in the Garbhadhātu group; their names are (1) Keśīnī 髻設尼 (or 計設尼) ; 繼室尼. (2) Upakeśīnī 鄔波髻設尼; 烏波髻施儞 (or 烏波髻施尼); 優婆計設尼. (3) Citrā 質多羅 (or 質怛羅). (4) Vasumatī, tr. 慧 and 財慧; 嚩蘇磨 底. (5) Ākarṣaṇī, tr. 請召 , 釣召 and 招召 ;阿羯沙尼.


五倶倫 The five comrades, i. e. Śākyamuni's five old companions in asceticism and first converts, v. 五比丘. Also 五拘鄰.

五條袈裟 (五條) The monk' s robe of five patches or lengths, also termed 下衣 as the lowest of the grades of patch-robes. It is styled 院内道行雜作衣 the garment ordinarily worn in the monastery, when abroad and for general purposes; also written 五帖袈裟、五條衣.

五停四念 idem 五停心觀 and 四念處 i. e. the five meditations for settling the mind and ridding it of the five errors of desire, hate, ignorance, the self, and a wayward or confused mind; the five meditations are 不淨觀, 慈悲觀, 因緣觀, 界分別觀 and 數息觀 i. e. the vileness of all things, pity for all, causality, right discrimination, breathing; some substitute meditation on the Buddha in place of the fourth; another division puts breathing first, and there are other differences.

五八 Five eights, i. e. forty.

五八十具 All the five, eight, and ten commandments, i. e. the three groups of disciples, laity who keep the five and eight and monks who keep the ten.

五八尊 The forty forms of Guanyin, or the Guanyin with forty hands: the forty forms multiplied by the twenty-five things 二十五有 make 1, 000, hence Guanyin with the thousand hands.

五八識 The five sense perceptions and the eighth or ālaya vijñāna, the fecundating principle of consciousness in man.

五具足 The five complete utensils for worship— two flower vases, two candlesticks, and a censer.

五刀 The 'five swords' or slayers who were sent in pursuit of a man who fled from his king, e. g. the five skandhas 五蘊.

五分 idem 五分法身 and 五部大論.

五分律 五分戒本 The Mahīśāsaka Vinaya, or five divisions of the law according to that school.

五分法身 pañca-dharmakāya, the five attributes of the dharmakāya or 'spiritual' body of the Tathāgata, i. e. 戒 that he is above all moral conditions; 定 tranquil and apart from all false ideas; 慧 wise and omniscient; 解脫 free, unlimited, unconditioned, which is the state of nirvana; 解脫知見 that he has perfect knowledge of this state. These five attributes surpass all conditions of form, or the five skandhas; Eitel interprets this by exemption from all materiality (rūpa); all sensations (vedana); all consciousness (saṃjñā); all moral activity (karman); all knowledge (vijñāna). The esoteric sect has its own group. See also 五種法身.

五分香 The five kinds of incense, or fragrance, corresponding with the 五分法身, i. e. the fragrance of 戒香, 定香, etc.

五利使 Five of the ten 'runners 'or lictors, i. e. delusions; the ten are divided into five 鈍 dull, or stupid, and five 利 sharp or keen, appealing to the intellect; the latter are 身見, 邊見, 邪見, 見取見, 戒禁取見.

五劫思惟 The five kalpas spent by Amitābha thinking out and preparing for his vows.

五力 pañcabalāni, the five powers or faculties — one of the categories of the thirty-seven bodhipakṣika dharma 三十七助道品; they destroy the 五障 five obstacles, each by each, and are: 信力 śraddhābala, faith (destroying doubt); 精進力 vīryabala, zeal (destroying remissness); 念 or 勤念 smṛtibala, memory or thought (destroying falsity); 正定力 samādhibala, concentration of mind, or meditation (destroying confused or wandering thoughts); and 慧力 prajñābala, wisdom (destroying all illusion and delusion). Also the five transcendent powers, i. e. 定力 the power of meditation; 通力 the resulting supernatural powers; 借識力 adaptability, or powers of 'borrowing' or evolving any required organ of sense, or knowledge, i. e. by beings above the second dhyāna heavens; 大願力 the power of accomplishing a vow by a Buddha or bodhisattva; and 法威德力 the august power of Dharma. Also, the five kinds of Mara powers exerted on sight, 五大明王.

五功德門 The five effective or meritorious gates to Amitābha's Pure Land, i. e. worship of him, praise of him, vows to him, meditation on him, willingness to suffer for universal salvation.

五十三佛 Fifty-three past Buddhas, of which the lists vary.

五十三尊 The fifty-three honored ones of the Diamond group, i. e. the thirty-seven plus sixteen bodhisattvas of the present kalpa.

五十三智識 五十三參 The fifty-three wise ones mentioned in the 入法界 chapter of the Huayan Sutra.


五十二位 The fifty-two stages in the process of becoming a Buddha; of these fifty-one are to bodhisattvahood, the fifty-second to Buddhahood. They are: Ten 十信 or stages of faith; thirty of the 三賢 or three grades of virtue i. e. ten 十住, ten 十行, and ten 十廻向; and twelve of the three grades of 聖 holiness, or sainthood, i. e. ten 地, plus 等覺 and 妙覺. These are the Tiantai stages; there are others, and the number and character of the stages vary in different schools.

五十二衆 五十二類 The fifty-two groups of living beings, human and not-human, who, according to the Nirvana-sutra, assembled at the nirvana of the Buddha.

五十二種供物 The fifty-two kinds of offerings of the 五十二衆.

五十二身像 The maṇḍala of Amitābha with his fifty-two attendant Bodhisattvas and Buddhas. Also known as 阿彌陀佛五十菩薩像 or 五十 ニ 尊 or 五通曼荼羅; said to have been communicated to 五通菩薩 in India at the 鷄頭磨寺.

五十五善知識 similar to 五十三智識. 五十八戒 The ten primary commands and the forty-eight secondary commands of the 梵綱經. 五十六億七千萬歳 The perod to elapse between Śākyamuni's nirvana and the advent of Maitreya, 56, 070, 000 years.

五十天供 The fifty (or fify-two) objects of worship for suppressing demons and pestilences, and producing peace, good harvests, etc.; the lists differ.

五十字門 The Sanskrit alphabet given as of fifty letters.

五十小劫 The fifty minor kalpas which, in the 涌出 chapter of the Lotus, are supernaturally made to seem as but half a day.

五十展轉 The fiftieth turn, i. e. the great-ness of the bliss of one who hears the Lotus Sutra even at fiftieth hand: how much greater that of him who hears at first hamd ! 五十功德 idem 五十展轉 and 五十轉五十惡 The fifty evils produced by the five skandhas, i. e. 色 seventeen, 受 eight, 想 eight, 行 nine, 識 eight.

五十法 Fifty modes of meditation mentioned in the 大品般若; i. e. the 三十七品 bodhi paksika dharma, the 三三昧, four 禪, four 無量心, four 無色定, eight 背捨, eight 勝處, nine 次第定, and eleven 切處.

五千上慢 The five thousand supremely arrogant (i. e. Hīnayāna) monks who left the great assemibly, refusing to hear the Buddha preach the new doctrine of the Lotus Sutra; see its 方便 chapter.

(度) The five Indias, or five regions of India, idem 五天竺 q. v.

Worship on the four fives, i. e. the fifth, tenth, twentieth, and twenty-fifth days of the month; also ||上堂.

叉地獄 The hell in which the sufferers are dismembered with five-pronged forks.

取蘊 The five tenacious bonds, or skandhas, attaching to mortality.

五受 The five vedanas, or sensations; i. e. of sorrow, ofjoy; of pain, of pleasure; of freedom from them all; the first two are limited to mental emotions, the two next are of the senses, and the fifth of both; v. 唯識論 5.

五同緣意識 One of the four kinds of 意識 q. v.; the mental concept of the perceptions of the five senses. 五味 The five flavours, or stages of making ghee, which is said to be a cure for all ailments; it is a Tiantai illustration of the five periods of the Buddha's teaching: (1) M000190 |ksira, fresh milk, his first preaching, i. e. that of the 華嚴經 Avatamsaka, for śrāvakas and pratyeka-buddhas; (2) 酪 |dadhi, coagulated milk, cream, the 阿含經 Agamas, for Hīnayāna generally; (3) 生酥 | navanita, curdled, the 方等經 Vaipulyas, for the Mahāyāna 通經(4) 涅槃經 |ghola, butter, the 般若經 Prajna, for the Mahāyāna 別教; (5) 醍醐 |sarpirmandla, clarified butter, ghee, the 法華 Lotus and 涅槃經 Nirvana sutras, for the Mahāyāna 圓教; see also 五時教, and v. 涅槃經 14. Also, the ordinary five flavours -sour, bitter, sweet, pungent, and salty.


五味禪 Five kinds of concentration, i. e. that of heretics, ordinary people, Hīnayāna, Mahāyāna, and 最上乘 the supreme vehicle, or that of believers in the fundamental Buddha-nature of all things; this is styled 如來滿淨禪; 一行三昧,; 眞如三昧.

五味粥 The porridge of five flavors made on the eighth day of the twelfth moon, the anniversary of the Buddha's enlightenment.

五周因果 The five circuits or areas of cause and effect, i. e. the five main subjects of the Huayan sutra.

五品 A division of the disciples, in the Lotus Sutra, into five grades— those who hear and rejoice; read and repeat; preach; observe and meditate; and transform self and others.

五唯 (五唯量) pañcatanmātrāṇi, the five subtle or rudimentary elements out of which rise the five sensations of sound, touch, form, taste, and smell. They are the fourth of the 二十五諦.

五善 The five good (things), i. e. the first five commandments.

五因 The five causes, v. 倶舍論 7. i. e. (1) 生因 producing cause; (2) 依因supporting cause; (3) 立因 upholding or establishing cause; (4) 持因 maintaining cause; (5) 養因 nourishing or strengthening cause. These all refer to the four elements, earth, water, fire, wind, for they are the causers or producers and maintainers of the infinite forms of nature. Another list from the Nirvana-Sutra 21 is (1) 生因 cause of rebirth, i. e. previous delusion; (2) 和合因 intermingling cause, i. e. good with good, bad with bad, neutral with neutral; (3) 住因 cause of abiding in the present condition, i. e. the self in its attachments; (4) 增長因 causes of development, e. g. food, clothing, etc.; (5) 遠因 remoter cause, the parental seed.

五堅固 idem 五五百年.

五執 The five planets, see 五星.

五境 The objects of the five senses, corresponding to the senses of form, sound, smell, taste, and touch.

五塵 The objects of the five senses, which being dusty or earthly things can taint the true nature; idem 五境.

五壇法 The ceremonies before the 五大明王.

五夢 The five bad dreams of King Ajātaśatru on the night that Buddha entered nirvana— as the moon sank the sun arose from the earth. the stars fell like rain, seven comets appeared, and a great conflagration filling the sky fell on the earth.

五大 The five elements— earth, water, fire, wind, and space. v. also 五行 the five agents. In the esoteric cult the five are the physical manifestation, or garbhadhātu, v. 胎; as being in all phenomena they are called 五輪 the five evolvers; their phonetic embryos 種子 are those of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas of the five directions, v. 五佛.

五大使者 五天使者 The five dūta, i. e. great lictors, or deva-messengers— birth, old age, disease, death, earthly laws and punishments— said to be sent by Māra as warnings.

五大力菩薩 The five powerful Bodhisattvas, guardians of the four quarters and the centre.

五大尊 idem 五大明王.

五大形 The symbols of the five elements— earth as square, water round, fire triangular, wind half-moon, and space a combination of the other four.

五大施 The five great gifts, i. e. ability to keep the five commandments.

五大明王 The five Dharmapālas, or Law-guardians of the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, of whom they are emanations or embodiments in two forms, compassionate and minatory. The five kings are the fierce aspect, e. g. Yamantaka, or the 六足尊金剛 Six-legged Honoured One is an emanation of Mañjuśrī, who is an emanation of Amitābha. The five kings are 不動, 降三世, 軍荼梨, 六足尊, and 淨身, all vajra-kings.

五大色 The five chief colours— yellow for earth, white for water, red for fire, black for wind, azure for space (or the sky). Some say white for wind and black for water.

五大觀 The meditation on the five elements 五大.

五大院 The fifth of the thirteen great courts of the Garbhadhātu-maṇḍala, named 持明院, the court of the five Dharmapālas 五大明王.

五大龍王 五類龍王 The five great dragon-kings of India.

五天 (五天子) Five devas in the Garbhadhātumaṇḍala located in the north-east. Also 五乘居天 (or 五乘居衆 ); 五那含天子.

五天 五天竺; The five regions of India, north, south, east, west, and central; v. 西域記.

五如來 The five Tathāgatas, or Dhyāni-Buddhas, in their special capacity of relieving the lot of hungry ghosts; i. e. Ratnasambhava. Akṣobhya, Amoghasiddhi, Vairocana, and Śākyamuni; v. 五智如來. '


五妙 The five wonders, i. e. of purified or transcendental sight, sound, taste, smell, and touch in the Pure-land.

五妙境界樂 The joys in the Pure land.

五妙欲 The five creature desires stimulated by the objects of the five earthly senses.

五學處 idem 五戒.

五官 The five controlling powers, v. 五大使, birth, old age, sickness, death, and the (imperial) magistrate.

五官王 The fourth of the 十王 judges of the dead, who registers the weight of the sins of the deceased.

五宗 The five great schools of Mahāyāna, i. e. 天台, 華嚴法相, 三論, and 律宗. There are other classes, or groups.

五家七宗 (五家) Division in China of the 禪 Ch'an, Intuitive or Meditative School. It divided into northern and southern schools under 神秀 Shenxiu and 慧能 Huineng respectively. The northern school continued as a unit, the southern divided into five or seven 宗, viz. 潙仰宗, 臨濟宗, 曹洞宗, 雲門宗, and 法眼宗; the two others are 黃龍 and 揚岐.

五家所共 What the five classes, i. e. rulers, thieves, water, fire, and prodigal sons, have as their common prey, the wealth struggled for by others.

五寶 The five precious things, syn. all the precious things. There are several groups, e. g. — gold, silver, pearls, cowries, and rubies; or, coral, crystal, gold, silver, and cowries; or, gold, silver, pearls, coral, and amber; etc.

五專 The five special things, or five devotions, observance of any one of which, according to the Japanese 眞宗 Shin sect, ensures rebirth in the Pure Land; they are 專禮, 專讀, 專觀, 專名, or 專讚嘆 either worship, reading, meditation, invocation, or praise.

五居 idem 五淨居天.

五山 Five mountains and monasteries: (1) in India, sacred because of their connection with the Buddha: 鞞婆羅跋怒 Vaibhāra-vana; 薩多般那求呵 Saptaparṇaguhā; 因陀羅勢羅求呵 Indraśailaguhā; 薩簸恕魂直迦鉢婆羅 Sarpiṣ kuṇḍikā-prāgbhāra; 耆闍崛 Gṛdhrakūṭa; (2) in China, established during the Five Dynasties and the Southern Sung dynasty, on the analogy of those in India; three at Hangzhou at 徑山 Jingshan, 北山 Beishan, and 南山 Nanshan and two at Ningbo at 阿育王山 King Aśoka Shan and 太白山 Taiboshan. Later the Yuan dynasty established one at 全陵 Chin Ling, the 天界大龍翔隻慶寺 which became chief of these under the Ming dynasty.

五師 The five masters or teachers, i. e. respectively of the sutras, the vinaya, the śāstras, the abhidharma, and meditation. A further division is made of 異世五師 and 同世五師. The first, i. e. of different periods, are Mahākāśyapa, Ānanda, Madhyāntika, Śāṇavāsa, and Upagupta; another group connected with the Vinaya is Upāli, Dāsaka, Sonaka, Siggava, and Moggaliputra Tissva. The 同世 or five of the same period are variously stated: the Sarvāstivādins say they were the five immediate disciples of Upagupta, i. e. Dharmagupta, etc.; see 五部.

五師子 The five lions that sprang from the Buddha's five fingers; 涅槃經 16.

五年大會 pañca-vārṣika-pariṣad, or mokṣa-mahā-parisad, v. 般. The ancient quinquennial assembly for confession and exhortation, ascribed by some to Aśoka.

五度 The five means of transportation over the sea of mortality to salvation; they are the five pāramitās 五波羅蜜— almsgiving, commandment-keeping, patience under provocation, zeal, and meditation.

五律 The doctrines of the 五部 q. v.

五德 The five virtues, of which there are various definitions. The five virtues required in a confessor at the annual confessional ending the rainy retreat are: freedom from predilections, from anger, from fear, not easily deceived, discernment of shirkers of confession. Another group is the five virtues for a nurse of the sick, and there are others.

五心 The five conditions of mind produced by objective perception: 卒爾心 immediate or instantaneous, the first impression; 尋求心attention, or inquiry; 決定心conclusion, decision; 染淨心the effect, evil or good; 等流心the production therefrom of other causations.


五忍 The five stages of bodhisattva-kṣānti, patience or endurance according to the 別教: (1) 伏忍the causes of passion and illusion controlled but not finally cut off, the condition of 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (2) 信忍 firm belief, i. e. from the 初地 to the 三地; (3) 順忍 patient progress towards the end of all mortality, i. e. 四地 to 六地; (4) 無生忍 patience for full apprehension, of the truth of no rebirth, 七地 to 九地; and (5) 寂滅忍 the patience that leads to complete nirvana, 十地 to 妙覺; cf. 五位.

五忿怒 The five angry ones, idem 五大明王.

五念門 The five devotional gates of the Pure-land sect: (1) worship of Amitābha with the 身 body; (2) invocation with the 口 mouth; (3) resolve with the 意 mind to be reborn in the Pure-land; (4) meditation on the glories of that land, etc.; (5) resolve to bestow one's merits, e. g. works of supererogation, on all creatures.

五性 The five different natures as grouped by the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana sect; of these the first and second, while able to attain to non-return to mortality, are unable to reach Buddhahood; of the fourth some may, others may not reach it; the fifth will be reborn as devas or men: (1) śrāvakas for arhats; (2) pratyekabuddhas for pratyekabuddha-hood; (3) bodhisattvas for Buddhahood; (4) indefinite; (5) outsiders who have not the Buddha mind. The Sutra of Perfect Enlightenment 圓覺經 has another group, i. e. the natures of (1) ordinary good people; (2) śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas; (3) bodhisattvas; (4) indefinite; (5) heretics.

五性宗 idem 法相宗.

五怖畏(五畏) The five fears of beginners in the bodhisattva-way: fear of (1) giving away all lest they should have no means of livelihood; (2) sacrificing their reputation; (3) sacrificing themselves through dread of dying; (4) falling into evil; (5) addressing an assembly, especially of men of position.

五悔 The five stages in a penitential service. Tiantai gives: (1) confession of past sins and forbidding them for the future; (2) appeal to the universal Buddhas to keep the law-wheel rolling; (3) rejoicing over the good in self and others; (4) 廻向 offering all one's goodness to all the living and to the Buddha-way; (5) resolve, or vows, i. e. the 四弘誓. The Shingon sect 眞言宗 divides the ten great vows of Samantabhadra 普賢 into five 悔, the first three vows being included under 歸命 or submission; the fourth is repentance; the fifth rejoicing; the sixth, seventh, and eighth appeal to the Buddhas; the ninth and tenth, bestowal of acquired merit.

五惑 The five delusions, idem 五鈍使.

五情 The feelings, or passions, which are stirred by the 五根 five senses.

五惡 The five sins— killing, stealing, adultery, lying, drinking intoxicants. Cf. 五戒.

五惡見 idem 五見.

五惡趣 idem 五趣 and 五道.

五慳 The five kinds of selfishness, or meanness: monopolizing (1) an abode; (2) an almsgiving household; (3) alms received; (4) praise; (5) knowledge of the truth, e. g. of a sutra.

五戒 pañca-veramaṇī; the first five of the ten commandments, against killing, stealing, adultery, lying, and intoxicating liquors. 不殺生; 不偸盜; 不邪婬; 不妄語; 不飮酒 They are binding on laity, male and female, as well as on monks and nuns. The observance of these five ensures rebirth in the human realm. Each command has five spirits to guard its observer 五戒二十五神.

五所依土 The five Buddha-kṣetra, or dependencies, the realms, or conditions of a Buddha. They are: (1) 法性土 his dharmakāya-kṣetra, or realm of his 'spiritual nature', dependent on and yet identical with the 眞如 bhutatathata; (2) 實 with its five immortal skandhas, i. e. his glorified body for his own enjoyment;. (3) 色相土 the land or condition of his self-expression as wisdom; (4) 他受用土 his saṃbhogakāya realm for the joy of others; (5) 變化土 the realm on which his nirmāṇakāya depends, that of the wisdom of perfect service of all, which results in his relation to every kind of condition.

五扇提羅 idem 五闡提羅.

五拔刀賊 The five skandhas, idem 五刀.

五攝論 A śāstra of Asaṅga 無著, also translated as the 攝大乘論, giving a description of Mahāyāna doctrine; Vasubandhu prepared a summary of it; tr. by 無性 Wuxiang. Translations were also made by Paramārtha and Xuanzang; other versions and treatises under various names exist.


五支作法 (or 五分作法) The five parts (avayava) of a syllogism: 立宗 pratijñā, the proposition; 辯因 hetu, the reason; 引喩 udāharaṇa, the example; 合 upanaya, the application; and 結 nigamana, the summing up, or conclusion. These are also expressed in other terms, e. g. 立義; 因; 譬如; 合譬;, and 決定.

五支戒 The five moral laws or principles arising out of the idea of the mahā-nirvāṇa in the 大涅槃經 11.

五教 The five division of Buddhism according to the Huayan School, of which there are two That of 杜順 Dushun down to 賢首 Xianshou is (1) 小乘教 Hīnayāna which interprets nirvana as annihilation; (2) 大乘始教 the primary stage of Mahāyāna, with two sections the 相始教 and 空 始教 or realistic and idealistic, (3) 大乘終教 Mahāyāna in its final stage, teaching the 眞如 and universal Buddhahood; (4) 頓教 the immediate, direct, or intuitive school, e. g. by right concentration of thought, or faith, apart from 'works'; (5) 圓教 the complete or perfect teaching of the Huayan, combining all the rest into one all-embracing vehicle. The five are now differentiated into 十宗 ten schools. The other division, by 圭峯 Guifeng of the same school, is (1) 人天教 rebirth as human beings for those who keep the five commandments and as devas those who keep the 十善 as 相始教 above; (4) 大乘破相教 as 空始教 above; and (5) 一乘顯性教 the one vehicle which reveals the universal Buddha-nature; it includes (3), (4), and (5) of the first group. See also 五時教.

五教章 The work in three juan by 法藏 Fazang of the Tang dynasty, explaining the doctrines of the Five Schools.

五方五智 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the five regions; see the esoteric 五大.

五方便 An abbreviation for 五五才便, i. e. 二十五才便; also the Tiantai 五方便念佛門.

五族如來 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas of the Vajradhātu.

五旬 pañca-bhijñā. The five supernatural or magical powers; six is the more common number in Chinese texts, five is the number in Ceylon; v. 五神通.

五更 The five night watches; also the fifth watch.

五明 pañca-vidyā, the five sciences or studies of India: (1) śabda, grammar and composition; śilpakarmasthāna, the arts and mathematics; cikitsā, medicine; hetu, logic; adhyātma, philosophy, which Monier Williams says is the 'knoowledge of the supreme spirit, or of ātman', the basis of the four Vedas; the Buddhists reckon the Tripiṭṭaka and the 十二部教 as their 内明, i. e. their inner or special philosophy.

五星 The five planets, Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus, and Mercury; also 五執.

五時八教 A Tiantai classification of the Buddha's teaching into five periods and eight kinds of doctrine, which eight are subdivided into two groups of four each, 化儀四教 and 化法四教.

五時 (五時教) The five periods or divisions of Śākyamuni's teaching. According to Tiantai they are (1) 華嚴時 the Avataṃsaka or first period in three divisions each of seven days, after his enlightenment, when he preached the content, of this sutra; (2) 鹿苑時 the twelve years of his preaching the Āgamas 阿含 in the Deer Park; (3) 方等時 the eight years of preaching Mahāyāna-cum-Hīnayāna doctrines, the vaipulya period; (4) 般若時 the twenty-two years of his preaching the prajñā or wisdom sutras; (5) 法華涅槃時 the eight years of his preaching the Lotus Sutra and, in a day and a night, the Nirvana Sutra. According to the Nirvana School (now part of the Tiantai) they are (1) 三乘別教 the period when the differentiated teaching began and the distinction of the three vehicles, as represented by the 四諦 Four Noble Truths for śrāvakas, the 十二因緣 Twelve Nidānas for pratyekabuddhas, and the 六度 Six Pāramitās for bodhisattvas; (2) 三乘通教 the teaching common to all three vehicles, as seen in the 般若經; (3) 抑揚教 the teaching of the 維摩經, the 思益梵天所問經, and other sutras olling the bodhisattva teaching at the expense of that for śrāvakas; (4) 同歸教 the common objective teaching calling all three vehicles, through the Lotus, to union in the one vehicle; (5) 常住教 the teaehmg of eternal life i. e. the revelation through the Nirvana sutra of the eternity of Buddhahood; these five are also called 有相; 無相; 抑揚; 曾三歸—; and 圓常. According to 劉虬 Liu Chiu of the 晉 Chin dynasty, the teaching is divided into 頓 immediate and 漸 gradual attainment, the latter having five divisions called 五時教 similar to those of the Tiantai group. According to 法寶 Fabao of the Tang dynasty the five are (1) 小乘; (2) 般着 or 大乘; (3) 深密 or 三乘; (4) 法華 or 一乘; (5) 涅槃 or 佛性教.


五智 The five kinds of wisdom of the 眞言宗 Shingon School. Of the six elements 六大 earth, water, fire, air (or wind), ether (or space) 曇空, and consciousness (or mind 識 ), the first five form the phenomenal world, or Garbhadhātu, the womb of all things 胎藏界, the sixth is the conscious, or perceptive, or wisdom world, the Vajradhātu 金剛界, sometimes called the Diamond realm. The two realms are not originally apart, but one, and there is no consciousness without the other five elements. The sixth element, vijñāna, is further subdivided into five called the 五智 Five Wisdoms: (1) 法界體性智 dharmadhātu-prakṛti-jñāna, derived from the amala-vijñāna, or pure 識; it is the wisdom of the embodied nature of the dharmadhātu, defined as the six elements, and is associated with Vairocana 大日, in the centre, who abides in this samādhi; it also corresponds to the ether 空 element. (2) 大圓鏡智 adarśana-jñāna, the great round mirror wisdom, derived from the ālaya-vijñāna, reflecting all things; corresponds to earth, and is associated with Akṣobhya and the east. (3) 平等性智 samatā-jñāna, derived from mano-vijñāna, wisdom in regard to all things equally and universally; corresponds to fire, and is associated with Ratnasaṃbhava and the south. (4) 妙觀察智 pratyavekṣaṇa-jñāna, derived from 意識, wisdom of profound insight, or discrimination, for exposition and doubt-destruction; corresponds to water, and is associated with Amitābha and the west. (5) 成所作智 kṛtyānuṣṭhāna-jñāna, derived from the five senses, the wisdom of perfecting the double work of self-welfare and the welfare of others; corresponds to air 風 and is associated with Amoghasiddhi and the north. These five Dhyāni-Buddhas are the 五智如來. The five kinds of wisdom are the four belonging to every Buddha, of the exoteric cult, to which the esoteric cult adds the first, pure, all-refecting, universal, all-discerning, and all-perfecting.

五智如來 五智五佛; 五佛; 五如來 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas, or Wisdom-Tathāgatas of the Vajradhātu 金剛界, idealizations of five aspects of wisdom; possibly of Nepalese origin. The Wisdom Buddha represents the dharmakāya or Buddha-mind, also the Dharma of the triratna, or trinity. Each evolves one of the five colours, one of the five senses, a Dhyani-bodhisattva in two forms one gracious, the other fierce, and a Mānuṣi-Buddha; each has his own śakti, i. e. feminine energy or complement; also his own bīja, or germ-sound 種子 or 印 seal, i. e. 眞言 real or substantive word, the five being for 大日 aṃ, for 阿閦 hūṃ, for 寶生 ? hrīḥ, for 彌陀 ? aḥ, for 不 空 ? āḥ. The five are also described as the emanations or forms of an Ādi-Buddha, Vajrasattva; the four are considered by others to be emanations or forms of Vairocana as the Supreme Buddha. The five are not always described as the same, e. g. they may be 藥師 (or 王) Bhaiṣajya, 多寶 Prabhūtaratna, Vairocana, Akṣobhya, and either Amoghasiddhi or Śākyamuni. Below is a classified list of the generally accepted five with certain particulars connected with them, but these differ in different places, and the list can only be a general guide. As to the Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, each Buddha evolves three forms 五佛生 五菩薩, 五金剛, 五忿怒, i. e. (1) a bodhisattva who represents the Buddha's dharmakāya, or spiritual body; (2) a vajra or diamond form who represents his wisdom in graciousness; and (3) a fierce or angry form, the 明王 who represents his power against evil. (1) Vairocana appears in the three forms of 轉法輪菩薩 Vajra-pāramitā Bodhisattva, 遍照金 剛 Universally Shining Vajrasattva, and 不動明王 Ārya-Acalanātha Rāja; (2) Akṣobhya's three forms are 虛空藏 Ākāśagarbha, 如意 complete power, and 軍荼 利明王 Kuṇḍalī-rāja; (3 ) Ratnasaṃbhava's are 普賢 Samantabhadra, 薩埵 Sattvavajra, and 孫婆 or 降三世明王 Trailokyavijayarāja; (4) Amitābha's are 觀世音 Avalokiteśvara, 法金剛 Dharmarāja, and 馬頭明王 Hayagrīva, the horse-head Dharmapāla; (5) Amoghasiddhi's are 彌勒 Maitreya, 業金剛 Karmavajra, and 金剛夜叉 Vajrayakṣa. The above Bodhisattvas differ from those in the following list: —
Table 1

Vairocana 大日 centreethersightwhite
Akṣobhya 阿閦 eastearthsoundblue
Ratnasaṃbhava 寶生 southfiresmellyellow
Amitābha 彌陀 westwatertastered
Amoghasiddhi 不空 northairtouchgreen
Table 2
aṃlionSamantabhadra 普賢 Krakucchanda
hūṃelephantVajrapāṇi 金剛力士Kanakamuni
? aḥhorseRatnapāṇi 寶手 Kāśyapa
? hrīḥgoose or peacockAvalokiteśvara 觀音 Śākyamuni
? āḥgaruḍaVisvapāṇi ?Maitreya

五智寶冠 idem 五佛寶冠.

五智所生三身 Each of the Five Dhyani-Buddhas is accredited with the three forms which represent his 身業 body, 口業 speech, and 意業 mind, e. g. the embodiment of Wisdom is Vairocana, his preaching form is 普賢, and his will form is 不動明王; the embodiment 身 of the mirror is Akṣobhya, his 口 is Mañjuśrī, his 意 is 降三世金剛; and so on; v. 五智如來.

五會念佛 Five ways of intoning 'Amitābha' established by 法照 Fazhao of the Tang dynasty, known as 五曾法師 from his brochure 五曾法事讚.


五果 The five fruits, or effects; there are various groups, e. g. I. (1) 異熟果 fruit ripening divergently, e. g. pleasure and goodness are in different categories; present organs accord in pain or pleasure with their past good or evil deeds; (2) 等流果 fruit of the same order, e. g. goodness reborn from previous goodness; (3) 土用果 present position and function fruit, the rewards of moral merit in previous lives; (4) 增上果 superior fruit, or position arising from previous earnest endeavor and superior capacity: (5) 離繋果 fruit of freedom from all bonds, nirvana fruit. II. Fruit, or rebirth: (1) 識 conception (viewed psychologically); (2) 名色 formation mental and physical; (3) 六處 the six organs of perception complete; (4) 觸 their birth and contact with the world; (5) 受 consciousness. III. Five orders of fruit, with stones, pips, shells (as nuts), chaff-like (as pine seeds), and with pods.

五根 pañcendriyāṇi. (1) The five roots, i. e. the five organs of the senses: eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and body as roots of knowing. (2) The five spiritual organs pr positive agents: 信 faith, 精進 energy, 念 memory, 定 visionary meditation, 慧 wisdom. The 五力 q. v. are regarded as negative agents.

五根色 see 五色.

五根本 They are the six great kleśa, i. e. passions, or disturbers, minus 見 views, or delusions; i. e. desire, anger, stupidity (or ignorance), pride, and doubt.

五業 The five kinds of karma: of which the groups are numerous and differ.

五樂 The pleasures of the five senses, v. 五欲.

五欲 The five desires, arising from the objects of the five senses, things seen, heard, smelt, tasted, or touched. Also, the five desires of wealth, sex, foodand-drink, fame, and sleep.

五正色 idem 五色.

五正行 五種正行 The five proper courses to ensure the bliss of the Pure Land: (1) Intone the three sutras 無量壽經, 觀無量壽經, and 阿彌陀經; (2) meditate on the Pure Land; (3) worship solely Amitābha; (4) invoke his name; (5 ) extol and make offerings to him. Service of other Buddhas, etc., is styled 五 (種) 雜行.

五正食 半者蒲膳尼 pañcabhojanīya. The five foods considered proper for monks in early Buddhism: boiled rice, boiled grain or pease, parched grain, flesh, cakes.

五股 (五股杵 or 五股金剛); also 五鈷, 五古, or 五M029401 The five-pronged vajra or thunderbolt emblem of the 五部 five groups and 五智 five wisdom powers of the vajradhātu; doubled it is an emblem of the ten pāramitās. In the esoteric cult the 五股印 five-pronged vajra is the symbol of the 五智 five wisdom powers and the 五佛 five Buddhas, and has several names 五大印, 五智印, 五峯印; 金剛慧印, 大羯印, and 大率都婆印, and has many definitions.

五比丘 The first five of Buddha's converts, also called 五佛子, Ājñāta-Kauṇḍinya 憍陳如, Aśvajit 額鞞, Bhadrika 拔提, Daśabala-Kāśyapa 十力迦葉, and Mahānāma-Kulika 摩男拘利, i. e. but there are numerous other forms of their names.

五法 pañcadharma. The five laws or categories, of which four groups are as follows: I. 相名五法 The five categories of form and name: (1) 相 appearances, or phenomena; (2) 名 their names; (3) 分別 sometimes called 妄想 ordinary mental discrimination of them— (1) and (2) are objective, (3) subjective; (4) 正智 corrective wisdom, which corrects the deficiencies and errors of the last: (5) 如如 the 眞如 Bhutatathata or absolute wisdom, reached through the 如理智 understanding of the law of the absolute, or ultimate truth. II. 事理五法 The five categories into which things and their principles are divided: (1) 心法 mind; (2) 心所法 mental conditions or activities; (3) 色法 the actual states or categories as conceived; (4) 不相應法 hypothetic categories, 唯識 has twenty-four, the Abhidharma fourteen; (5) 無爲法 the state of rest, or the inactive principle pervading all things; the first four are the 事 and the last the 理. III. 理智五法 cf. 五智; the five categories of essential wisdom: (1) 眞如 the absolute; (2) 大圓鏡智 wisdom as the great perfect mirror reflecting all things; (3) 平等性智 wisdom of the equal Buddha nature of all beings; (4) 妙觀察智 wisdom of mystic insight into all things and removal of ignorance and doubt; (5) 成所作智 wisdom perfect in action and bringing blessing to self and others. IV. 提婆五法 The five obnoxious rules of Devadatta: not to take milk in any form, nor meat, nor salt; to wear unshaped garments, and to live apart. Another set is: to wear cast-off rags, beg food, have only one set meal a day, dwell in the open, and abstain from all kinds of flesh, milk, etc.

五法人 Followers of the five ascetic rules of Devadatta, the enemy of the Buddha.

五法成身 idem 五相成身.

五法身 idem 五分法身.

五波羅密 The five pāramitās (omitting the sixth, wisdom), i. e. dāna, almsgiving: śīla, commandment-keeping; kṣānti, patience (under provocation): vīrya, zeal; and dhyāna, meditation.

五海 The five 'seas' or infinities seen in a vision by Puxian, v. 舊華嚴經 3, viz., (1) all worlds, (2) all the living, (3) universal karma, (4) the roots of desire and pleasure of all the living, (5) all the Buddhas, past, present, and future.


五淨 The five 'clean' products of the cow, its pañca-gavya, i. e. urine, dung, milk, cream (or sour milk), and cheese (or butter); cf M. W.

五淨居天, 五不還天 Cf. 色界. The five pure-dwelling heavens in the fourth dhyāna heaven, into which arhats are finally born: 無煩天 Avṛhās, the heaven free from all trouble; 無熱天 Atapās, of no heat or distress; 善現天 Sudṛsās, of beautiful presentation; 善見天 Sudarśanās, beautiful; and 色究竟天 Akaniṣṭhās, the highest heaven of the form-realm.

五淨食, 五種淨食 idem 五正食.

五濁 五滓; 五渾 The five kaṣāya periods of turbidity, impurity, or chaos, i. e. of decay; they are accredited to the 住 kalpa, see 四劫, and commence when human life begins to decrease below 20,000 years. (1) 劫濁 the kalpa in decay, when it suffers deterioration and gives rise to the ensuing form; (2) 見濁 deterioration of view, egoism, etc., arising; (3) 煩惱濁 the passions and delusions of desire, anger, stupidity, pride, and doubt prevail; (4) 衆生濁 in consequence human miseries increase and happiness decreases; (5) 命濁 human life time gradually diminishes to ten years. The second and third are described as the 濁 itself and the fourth and fifth its results.

五濁增時 The period of increasing turbidity or decay; see 五濁.

五燒 The five burnings, or 五痛 five pains, i. e. infraction of the first five commandments leads to state punishment in this life and the hells in the next.

五無量 The five infinites, or immeasurables — body, mind, wisdom, space, and all the living— as represented respectively by the five Dhyāni Buddhas, i. e. 寶生, 阿閦, 無量壽, 大日, and 不空.

五無間 The uninterrupted, or no-interval hell, i. e. avīci hell, the worst, or eighth of the eight hells. It is ceaseless in five respects— karma and its effects are an endless chain with no escape; its sufferings are ceaseless; it is timeless; its fate or life is endless; it is ceaselessly full. Another interpretation takes the second, third, and fifth of the above and adds that it is packed with 罪器 implements of torture, and that it is full of all kinds of living beings.

五無間業 or 五無間罪 The five karma, or sins, leading to the avīci hell v. 五逆 and 五無間.

五燈錄 The five Teng-lu are (1) 傳燈錄 A. D 1004-8; (2) 廣燈錄; (3) 讀燈錄; (4) 聯燈錄, and (5) 普燈錄; the 燈錄會元 and 燈錄嚴統 are later collections.

五甁 The five vases used by the esoteric school for offering flowers to their Buddha, the flowers are stuck in a mixture of the five precious things, the five grains and the five medicines mingled with scented water.

五甁智水 The five vases are emblems of the five departments of the Vajradhātu, and the fragrant water the wisdom of the five. Wisdom— Buddhas.

五甁灌頂 Baptism with water of the five vases 五甁 representing the wisdom of the five Buddhas 五佛.

五生 Five rebirths, i. e. five states, or conditions of a bodhisattva's rebirth: (1) to stay calamities, e. g. by sacrificing himself; (2) in any class that may need him; (3) in superior condition, handsome, wealthy, or noble; (4) in various grades of kingship; (5) final rebirth before Buddhahood; v. 瑜伽論 4.

五畏 idem 五怖畏.

五痛 idem 五燒.

五百 pañcaśata. Five hundred, of which there are numerous instances, e. g. 500 former existences; the 500 disciples, etc.

五百世 or 五百生 500 generations.

五百世無手 A disciple who even passes the wine decanter to another person will be reborn without hands for 500 generations; v. 梵網經下.

五百羅漢 (五百大羅漢) 500 great arhats who formed the synod under Kaniṣka and are the supposed compilers of the Abhidharma-mahāvibhāṣā-śāstra, 400 years after Buddha entered nirvana (阿毗達磨大毗婆娑論), tr. by Xuanzang (A. D. 656-9). The 500 Lohans found in some monasteries have various definitions.

五百戒 The 'five hundred ' rules for nuns, really 348, viz. 8 波羅夷, 17 僧殘, 30 捨墮, 178 單提, 8 提捨尼, 100 衆學, and 7 滅諍.

五百生 idem 五百世.

五百部 五百小乘; 五百異部 The 500 sects according to the 500 years after the Buddha's death; 智度論 63.

五百問 (五百問事) The 500 questions of Mahā-maudgalyāyana to the Buddha on discipline.

五百由旬 The 500 yojanas of difficult and perilous journey to the Land of Treasures: v. the Lotus Sutra.

五盛陰苦 The mental and physical sufferings arising from the full-orbed activities of the skandhas 五陰, one of the eight sufferings; also 五陰盛 (五陰盛苦).


五眼 The five kinds of eyes or vision: human; deva (attainable by men in dhyāna); Hīnayāna wisdom; bodhisattva truth; and Buddha-vision or omniscience. There are five more relate to omniscience making 十眼 ten kinds of eyes or vision.

五相 idem 五相成身 and 五衰.

五相成身 (五相成身觀) A contemplation of the five stages in Vairocana Buddhahood— entry into the bodhi-mind; maintenance of it; attainment of the diamond mind; realization of the diamond embodiment; and perfect attainment of Buddhahood. It refers also to the 五智 of the Vairocana group; also 五轉成身 (or 五法成身) .

五知根 The five indriyas or organs of perception— eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin. v. 五根.

五礙 idem 五障.

五神通 (or 五神變) pañcabhijñā; also 五通 (力) the five supernatural powers. (1 ) 天眼通 (天眼智證通) divyacakṣus ; deva-vision, instantaneous view of anything anywhere in the form-realm. (2) 天耳通 (天耳智證通) divyaśrotra, ability to hear any sound anywhere. (3) 他心通 (他心智證通) paracitta-jñāna, ability to know the thoughts of all other minds. (4) 宿命通 (宿命智證通) pūrvanivāsānusmṛti-jñāna, knowledge of all formed existences of self and others. (5) 神通 (神通智證通) 通; 神足通; 神如意通 ṛddhi-sākṣātkriyā, power to be anywhere or do anything at will. See 智度論 5. Powers similar to these are also attainable by meditation, incantations, and drugs, hence heterodox teachers also may possess them.

五祖 The five patriarchs. Those of the Huayan (Kegon) sect are 終南杜順; 雲華智儼; 賢首法藏; 淸涼澄觀, and 圭峯宗密. The Pure-land sect five patriarchs are 曇鸞; 道綽; 善導; 懷感 and 少康. The 蓮社 (白蓮社) Lianshe sect has 善導; 法照; 少康; 省常, and 宗賾.

五禁 idem 五戒.

五祕密 (五祕) The five esoteric or occult ones, i. e. the five bodhisattvas of the diamond realm, known as Vajrasattva in the middle; 欲 desire on the east; 觸 contact, south; 愛 love, west; and 慢 pride, north. Vajrasattva represents the six fundamental elements of sentient existence and here indicates the birth of bodhisattva sentience; desire is that of bodhi and the salvation of all: contact with the needy world for its salvation follows; love of all the living comes next; pride or the power of nirvana succeeds.

五祕密曼荼羅 or 十七尊曼荼羅 The maṇḍala of this group contains seventeen figures representing the five above named, with their twelve subordinates.

五種 The five kinds; but frequently the 種 is omitted, e. g. for 五種正食 see 五正食.

五種三歸 The five modes of trisarana, or formulas of trust in the Triratna, taken by those who (1) 翻邪 turn from heresy; (2) take the five commandments; (3) the eight commandments; (4) the ten commandments; (5) the complete commandments.

五種不女 The five kinds of sexually incomplete females, 螺, 筋, 鼓, 角, and 脉. v. 大藏法數 32.

五種不男 The five kinds of 般荼迦 paṇḍakas, i. e. eunuchs, or impotent males: by birth; emasculation; uncontrollable emission; hermaphrodite; impotent for half the month; they are known as 扇搋 Sandha; 留拏 ? Runda; 伊梨沙掌拏 Irṣyāpaṇḍaka; 半擇迦 Paṇḍaka; 博叉 Pakṣapaṇḍaka; there are numerous subdivisions.

五種不翻 The five kinds of terms which Xuanzang did not translate but transliterated— the esoteric (such as 陀羅尼); those with several meanings (such as 薄伽梵); those without equivalent in China (such as 閻浮樹); old-established terms (such as 阿耨菩提); and those which would be less impressive when translated.

五種不還 The five kinds of anāgāmins 那含, who never return to the desire-realm: (1) 中般 the anāgāmin who enters on the intermediate stage between the realm of desire and the higher realm of form; (2) 生般 who is born into the form world and soon overcomes the remains of illusion; (3) 有行般 who diligently works his way through the final stages; (4) 無行般 whose final departure is delayed through lack of aid and slackness; (5) 上流般 who proceeds from lower to higher heavens into nirvana. Also 五種那含 and 五種般 the 般 being 'Parinirvāṇa'.

五種修法 Five kinds of esoteric ceremonial, i. e. (1) 扇底迦 śāntika, for stopping calamities; (2) 布瑟徵迦 or 補瑟徵迦 pauṣṭika, for success or prosperity; (3) 阿畏遮迦 abhicāraka, for suppressing, or exorcising; (4) 阿羯沙尼 ākarṣaṇī, for calling, or attracting (good beings, or aid); (5) 伐施迦囉軌 vaśīkaraṇa, for seeking the aid of Buddhas and bodhisattvas; also 五部尊法 and cf. 五種灌頂.


五種印 The signs of the five kinds of vision, v. 五眼.

五種唯識 The five kinds of weishi, or idealistic representation in the sutras and śāstras as summed up by Cien 慈恩 of the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school: (1) 境唯識 wisdom or insight in objective conditions; (2) 教唯識 in interpretation; (3) 理唯識 in principles; (4) 行唯識 in meditation and practice; (5) 果唯識 in the fruits or results of Buddhahood. The first four are objective, the fifth subject.

五種壇法 The five kinds of maṇḍala ceremonials, v. 五部尊法.

五增上緣 (種增上緣) ; 五緣 Five excellent causes, e.g. of blessedness: keeping the commandments; sufficient food and clothing; a secluded abode; cessation of worry; good friendship. Another group is: riddance of sin; protection through long life; vision of Buddha (or Amitābha, etc. ); universal salvation (by Amitābha); assurance of Amitābha's heaven.

五種布施 The five kinds of almsgiving or dānas— to those from afar, to those going afar, to the sick, the hungry, and those wise in Buddhist doctrine.

五種性 The five germ-natures, or roots of bodhisattva development: (1) 習種性 the germ nature of study of the 空 void (or immaterial), which corrects all illusions of time and space; it corresponds to the 十住 stage; (2) 性種性 that of ability to discriminate all the 性 natures of phenomena and transform the living; the 十行 stage; (3) 道種性(the middle-) way germ-nature, which attains insight into Buddha-laws; the 十廻向; (4) 聖種性 the saint germ-nature which produces holiness by destroying ignorance; the 十廻向 which the bodhisattva leaves the ranks of the 賢 and becomes 聖; (5) 等覺種性 the bodhi-rank germ-nature which produces Buddhahood, i. e. 等覺.

五種惡病 Five epidemics in Vaiśālī during the Buddha's lifetime— bleeding from the eyes, pus from the ears, nose-bleeding, lockjaw, and astringent taste of all food.

五種散亂 The five kinds of mental aberration: (1) the five senses themselves not functioning properly; (2) external distraction, or inability to concentrate the attention; (3) internal distraction, or mental confusion; (4) distraction caused by ideas of mean and mine, personality, possession, etc. (5) confusion of thought produced by Hīnayāna ideas.

五種比量 The five inferences in (Indian) logic: (1) 相比量 from appearance, e. g. fire from smoke; (2) 體比量 from the corporeal, e. g. two or more things from one; (3) 業比量 from action, e. g. the animal from its footmark; (4) 法比量 from recognized law, old age from birth; (5) 因果比量 from cause and effect, that a traveler has a destination.

五種法師 The five kinds of masters of the Law, v. Lotus Sutra, 法師品— one who receives and keeps; reads; recites; expounds; and copies the sutra.

五種法界 The Huayan school's five forms of dharmadhātu: (1) 有爲法界 or 事世界 the phenomenal realm; (2) 無爲法界 or 理世界 the dependent and interactive; the inactive, quiescent, or noumenal realm; (3) 亦有爲亦無爲世界 or 事理無礙世界, both, i.e., interdependent and interactive; (4) 非有爲非無爲世界 either active nor inactive, but it is also 事理無礙世界, e. g. water and wave, wave being water and water wave; (5) 無障礙世界 or 事事無礙世界 the unimpeded realm, the unity of the phenomenal and noumenal, of the collective and individual.

五種法身 The five kinds of a Buddha's dharmakāya. There are four groups. I. (1) 如如智法身 the spiritual body of bhūtatathatā-wisdom; (2) 功德法身 of all virtuous achievement; (3) 自法身 of incarnation in the world; (4) 變化法身 of unlimited powers of transformation; (5) 虛空法身 of unlimited space; the first and second are defined as saṃbhogakāya, the third and fourth as nirmāṇakāya, and the fifth as the dharmakāya, but all are included under dharmakāya as it possesses all the others. II. The esoteric cult uses the first four and adds as fifth 法界身 indicating the universe as pan-Buddha. III. Huayan gives (1) 法性生身 the body or person of Buddha born from the dharma-nature. (2) 功德生身 the dharmakāya evolved by Buddha virtue, or achievement; (3) 變化法身 the dharmakāya with unlimited powers of transformation; (4) 實相法身 the real dharmakāya; (5) 虛 空法身 the universal dharmakāya. IV. Hīnayāna defines them as 五分法身 q. v.


五種灌頂 The five abhiṣecanī baptisms of the esoteric school— for ordaining ācāryas, teachers, or preachers of the Law: for admitting disciples: for putting an end to calamities or suffering for sins; for advancement, or success; and for controlling (evil spirits ) or getting rid of difficulties, cf. 五種修法. Also, baptism of light: of sweet dew (i. e. perfume): of the 'germ-word' as seed; of the five baptismal signs of wisdom made on the forehead, shoulders, heart, and throat, indicating the five Dhyāni-Buddhas; and of the ' true word' on the breast.

五種藏 The five 'stores', or the five differentiations of the one Buddha-nature; (1) 如來藏 the Tathāgata-nature, which is the fundamental universal nature possessed by all the living: (2) 正法藏 the source or treasury of all right laws and virtues: (3) 法身藏 the storehouse of the dharmakāya obtained by all saints: (4) 出世藏 the eternal spiritual nature, free from earthly errors; (5) 自性淸淨藏 the storehouse of the pure Buddha-nature. Another similar group is 如來藏, 法界藏, 法身藏, 出世間上上藏, and 自性淸淨藏.

五種般 see 五種不還.

五種行 The acts of the 五種法師 q. v.; also idem 五正行.

五種說人 The five kinds of those who have testified to Buddhism; also 五人說經; 五說; i. e. the Buddha,. his disciples, the ṛṣis, devas, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, sages, devas, supernatural beings, and incarnate beings. Also, the Buddha, bodhisattvas, śrāvakas, men, and things. See 五類說法.

五種通 Five kinds of supernatural power: (1) 道通 of bodhisattvas through their insight into truth; (2) 神通 of arhats through their mental concentration; (3) 依通 supernatural or magical powers dependent on drugs, charms, incantations, etc.; (4) 報通 or 業通 reward or karma powers of transformation possessed by devas, nāgas, etc.; (5) 妖通 magical power of goblins, satyrs, etc.

五種那含 v. 五種不還.

五種鈴 The five kinds of bells used by the Shingon sect in Japan, also called 金剛鈴, i. e. 五鈷鈴, 賣鈴, 一鈷. 三鈷鈴, 塔鈴; the different names are derived from their handles; the four first named, beginning with the five-pronged one, are placed each at a corner of the altar, the last in the middle.

五種雜行 see 五正行.

五種魔 The five māras associated with the five skandhas; also 五蘊魔; 五陰魔, 五衆魔.

五箭 The five arrows, i. e. the five desires 五欲.

五納衣 A monk's garment of patches.

五結 The five bonds to mortality: 貧 desire, 恚 hata, 慢 pride, 嫉 envy, 慳 grudging.

五結樂子 One of Indra's musicians who praised Buddha on a crystal lute; v. 中阿含經 33.

五繫 The five suspended corpses, or dead snakes, hanging from the four limbs and neck of Mara as Papiyan; v. Nirvana sutra 6.

五翳 The five films, or interceptors of the light of sun and moon— smoke, cloud dust, fog, and the hands of asuras.

五聲 idem 五音.

五臺山 Pañcaśirsha, Pancaśikha. Wutai Shan, near the northeastern border of Shanxi, one of the four mountains sacred to Buddhism in China. The principal temple was built A. D. 471-500. There are about 150 monasteries, of which 24 are lamaseries. The chief director is known as Changjia Fo (the ever-renewing Buddha). Mañjuśrī is its patron saint. It is also styled 淸涼山.

五色 The five primary colors, also called 五正色 (or 五大色): 靑 blue, 黃 yellow, 赤 red, 白 white, 黑 black. The 五間色 or compound colors are 緋 crimson, 紅, scarlet, 紫 purple, 綠 green, 磂黃 brown. The two sets correspond to the cardinal points as follows: east, blue and green; west, white, and crimson; south, red and scarlet; north, black and purple; and center, yellow and brown. The five are permutated in various ways to represent various ideas.

五間色 five compound colors are 緋 crimson, 紅, scarlet, 紫 purple, 綠 green, 磂黃 brown.

五根色: faith, white; zeal, red; memory yellow; meditation, blue; and wisdom, black. These are represented inter alia in the 五色線 (or 五色縷, or 五色綖, or 五色繩) the five-colored emblematic cord; this cord is also a brahman's sign worn on the shoulder and forbidden by the Buddha.


五苦 The five forms of suffering: I. (1) Birth, age, sickness, death; (2) parting with those loved; (3) meeting with the hated or disliked; (4) inability to obtain the desired; (5) the five skandha sufferings, mental and physical. II. Birth, age, sickness, death, and the shackles (for criminals). III. The sufferings of the hells, and as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, and human beings.

五菩提 The five bodhi, or stages of enlightenment: (1) 發心菩提 resolve on supreme bodhi; (2) 伏心菩提 mind control, i. e. of the passions and observance of the pāramitās: (3) 明心菩提 mental enlightenment, study, and increase in knowledge and in the prajñāpāramitā: (4) 出到菩提 mental expansion, freedom from the limitations of reincarnation and attainment of complete knowledge; (5) 無上菩提 attainment of a passionless condition and of supreme perfect enlightenment;.

五蓋 The five covers, i. e. mental and moral hindrances— desire, anger, drowsiness, excitability, doubt.

五葷 idem 五辛.

五蘊 The five skandhas, pañca-skandha: also 五陰; 五衆; 五塞犍陀 The five cumulations, substances, or aggregates, i. e. the components of an intelligent being, specially a human being: (1) 色 rūpa, form, matter, the physical form related to the five organs of sense; (2) 受 vedana, reception, sensation, feeling, the functioning of the mind or senses in connection with affairs and things; (3) 想 saṃjñā, conception, or discerning; the functioning of mind in distinguishing; (4) 行 saṃskāra, the functioning of mind in its processes regarding like and dislike, good and evil, etc.; (5) 識 vijñāna, mental faculty in regard to perception and cognition, discriminative of affairs and things. The first is said to be physical, the other four mental qualities; (2), (3), and (4) are associated with mental functioning, and therefore with 心所; (5) is associated with the faculty or nature of the mind 心王 manas. Eitel gives— form, perception, consciousness, action, knowledge. See also Keith's Buddhist Philosophy, 85-91.

五蘊世間 (or 五陰世間 or 五衆世間) The worlds in which the five skandhas exist.

五蘊宅 The abode of the five skandhas— the human body.

五蘊論 大乘五蘊論 A śāstra by Vasubandhu on the Mahāyāna interpretation of the five skandhas, tr. by Xuanzang; 1 chuan. Other works are the 五蘊皆空經 tr. by Yijing of the Tang dynasty. 五蘊譬喩經 tr. by 安世高 An Shih Kao of the Han dynasty: both are in the 雜阿含經 2 and 10 respectively; also 五蘊論釋 a commentary by Vinītaprabha.

五蘊魔 The Mara of the skandhas, v. 五種魔.

五處供養 The five to be constantly served — father, mother, teacher, religious director, the sick.

五處加持 Ceremonial touching of the five places on the body— brow, right and left shoulders, heart, and throat.

五處眞言 has similar reference to 五處加持. v. 五種灌頂.

五衆 idem 五蘊. Also, the five groups, i. e. monks, nuns, nun-candidates, and male and female novices.

五行 The five lines of conduct. I. According to the 起信論 Awakening of Faith they are almsgiving; keeping the commandments; patience under insult; zeal or progress; meditation. II. According to the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra they are saintly or bodhisattva deeds; arhat, or noble deeds; deva deeds; children's deeds (i. e. normal good deeds of men, devas, and Hinayanists); sickness conditions, e. g. illness, delusion, etc.; — into all these lines of conduct and conditions a Bodhisattva enters. III. The five elements, or tanmātra— wood, fire, earth, metal, and water; or earth, water, ire, air, and ether (or space) as taught by the later Mahāyāna philosophy; idem 五大.

五衍 The five Yanas or Vehicles, idem 五乘.

五衣 The five garments worn by a nun are the three worn by a monk: with two others.

五衰 The five signs of decay or approaching death, of which descriptions vary. e. g. uncontrolled discharges, flowers on the head wither. unpleasant odor, sweating armpits, uneasiness (or anxiety); Nirvana Sutra 19.

五見 The five wrong views: (1) 身見 satkāya-dṛṣṭi, i. e. 我見 and 我所見 the view that there is a real self, an ego, and a mine and thine: (2) 邊見 antar-grāha, extreme views. e. g. extinction or permanence; (3) 邪見 mithyā, perverse views, which, denying cause and effect, destroy the foundations of morality; (4) 見取見 dṛṣṭi-parāmarśa, stubborn perverted views, viewing inferior things as superior, or counting the worse as the better; (5) 戒禁取見 śīla-vrata-parāmarśa, rigid views in favour of rigorous ascetic prohibitions, e. g. covering oneself with ashes. Cf. 五利使.


五覺 The five bodhi, or states of enlightenment, as described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith; see also 五菩提 for a different group. (1) 本覺 Absolute eternal wisdom, or bodhi; (2) 始覺 bodhi in its initial stages, or in action, arising from right observances; (3) 相似覺 bodhisattva. attainment of bodhi in action, in the 十信; (4) 隨分覺 further bodhisattva-enlightenment according to capacity, i. e. the stages 十住, 十行, and 十廻向; (5) 究竟覺 final or complete enlightenment, i. e. the stage of 妙覺, which is one with the first, i. e. 本覺. The 本覺 is bodhi in the potential, 始覺 is bodhi in the active state, hence (2), (3), (4), and (5) are all the latter, but the fifth has reached the perfect quiescent stage of original bodhi.

五觀 The five meditations referred to in the Lotus Sutra 25: (1) 眞 on the true, idem 空觀, to meditate on the reality of the void or infinite, in order to be rid of illusion in views and thoughts; (2) 淸淨觀 on purity, to be rid of any remains of impurity connected with the temporal, idem 假觀; (3) 廣大智慧觀 on the wider and greater wisdom, idem 中觀, by study of the 'middle' way; (4) 悲觀 on pitifulness, or the pitiable condition of the living, and by the above three to meditate on their salvation; (5) 慈觀 on mercy and the extension of the first three meditations to the carrying of joy to all the living.

五解脫輪 The five wheels of liberation, or salvation, i. e. the five maṇḍalas in which are the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, see 五智如來; also called五大月輪 and五輪塔婆.

五說 idem 五種說人.

五論 It idem 五部大論.

五調子 idem 五音.

五諦 The five axioms: (1) 因諦 the cause, which is described as 集諦 of the Four Noble Truths; (2) 果諦 the effect as 苦諦; (3) 智諦 or 能知諦 diagnosis as 道諦; (4) 境諦 or 所知諦 the end or cure as 滅諦; to these add (5) 勝諦 or 至諦, the supreme axiom, i. e. the 眞如; v. 四諦.

五識 The five parijñānas, perceptions or cognitions; ordinarily those arising from the five senses, i. e. of form-and-color, sound, smell, taste, and touch. The 起信論 Awakening of Faith has a different set of five steps in the history of cognition; (1) 業識 initial functioning of mind under the influence of the original 無明 unenlightenment or state of ignorance; (2) 轉識 the act of turning towards the apparent object for its observation; (3) 現識 observation of the object as it appears; (4) 知識 the deductions derived from its appearance; (5) 相續識 the consequent feelings of like or dislike, pleasure or pain, from which arise the delusions and incarnations.

五趣 The five gati, i. e. destinations, destinies: the hells, hungry ghosts, animals, human beings, devas; cf. 五惡趣 and 五道.

五趣生死輪 A series of pictures to show the course of life and death, ascribed in the Sarvāstivāda Vinaya 34 to the Buddha.

五身 see 五種法身.

五輪 The five wheels, or things that turn: I. The 五體 or five members, i. e. the knees, the elbows, and the head; when all are placed on the ground it implies the utmost respect. II. The five foundations of the world. first and lowest the wheel or circle of space; above are those of wind; of water; the diamond, or earth; on these rest the nine concentric circles and eight seas. III. The esoteric sect uses the term for the 五大 five elements, earth, water, fire, wind, and space; also for the 五解脫輪 q. v. IV. The five fingers (of a Buddha).

五輪六大 The five are the 五大 five elements, to which the sixth 大 is added, i. e. the six elements, earth, water, fire, air and space, and 識 intelligence or mind.

五輪塔婆 (五輪率塔婆) A stūpa with five wheels at the top; chiefly used by the Shingon sect on graves as indicating the indwelling Vairocana.

五輪觀 五輪三摩地 A meditation of the esoteric school on the five elements, earth, water, fire, air, and space, with their germ-words, their forms (i. e. square, round, triangular, half-moon, and spherical), and their colors (i. e. yellow, white, red, black, and blue). The five wheels also represent the Five Dhyāni-Buddhas, v. 五智. The object is that 五輪成身 the individual may be united with the five Buddhas, or Vairocana.

五輪際 The fifth wheel limit, or world foundation, i. e. that of space.

五轉 The five evolutions, or developments; (1) resolve on Buddhahood; (2) observance of the rules; (3) attainment of enlightenment; (4) of nirvana; (5) of power to aid others according to need.

五轉成身 idem 五相成身.

五轉色 The above five developments are given the colors respectively of yellow, red, white, black, and blue (or green), each color being symbolic, e. g. yellow of Vairocana, red of Mañjuśrī, etc.


五辛 The five forbidden pungent roots, 五葷 garlic, three kinds of onions, and leeks; if eaten raw they are said to cause irritability of temper, and if eaten cooked, to act as an aphrodisiac; moreover, the breath of the eater, if reading the sutras, will drive away the good spirits.

五逆 pañcānantarya; 五無間業 The five rebellious acts or deadly sins, parricide, matricide, killing an arhat, shedding the blood of a Buddha, destroying the harmony of the sangha, or fraternity. The above definition is common both to Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna. The lightest of these sins is the first; the heaviest the last. II. Another group is: (1) sacrilege, such as destroying temples, burning sutras, stealing a Buddha's or a monk's things, inducing others to do so, or taking pleasure therein; (2) slander, or abuse of the teaching of śrāvaka s, pratyekabuddhas, or bodhisattvas; (3) ill-treatment or killing of a monk; (4) any one of the five deadly sins given above; (5) denial of the karma consequences of ill deeds, acting or teaching others accordingly, and unceasing evil life. III. There are also five deadly sins, each of which is equal to each of the first set of five: (1) violation of a mother, or a fully ordained nun; (2) killing a bodhisattva in a sangha; (5) destroying a Buddha's stūpa. IV. The five unpardonable sin of Devadatta who (1) destroyed the harmony of the community; (2) injured Śākyamuni with a stone, shedding his blood; (3) induced the king to let loose a rutting elephant to trample down Śākyamuni; (4) killed a nun; (5) put poison on his finger-nails and saluted Śākyamuni intending to destroy him thereby.

五通 v. 五神通.

五通仙 One who by non-Buddhistic methods has attained to the five supernatural powers 五通.

五通神 Spirits possessed of the five supernatural powers. They are also identified five bodhisattvas of the 雞頭摩: monastery in India, who, possessed of supernatural powers, went to the Western Paradise and begged the image of Maitreya, whence it is said to have been spread over India.

五道 idem 五趣.

五道六道 There is difference of statement whether there are five or six gati, i. e. ways or destinies; if six, then there is added the asura, a being having functions both good and evil, both deva and demon.

五道冥官 An officer in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades.

五道將軍 A general in the retinue of the ten kings of Hades, who keeps the book of life.

五道轉輪王 One of the ten kings of Hades who retries the sufferers on their third year of imprisonment.

五邉 The five alternatives, i. e. (things) exist; do not exist; both exist and non-exist; neither exist nor non-exist: neither non-exist nor are without non-existence.

五遍行 The five universal mental activities associated with every thought— the idea, mental contact, reception, conception, perception, 作意, 觸, 受, 想, 思; cf. 五蘊.

五那含天 idem 五淨居天.

五邪命 (五邪) The five improper ways of gain or livelihood for a monk, i. e. (1) changing his appearance, e. g. theatrically; (2) advertising his own powers and virtue; (3) fortuning by physiognomy, etc.; (4) hectoring and bullying; (5) praising the generosity of another to induce the hearer to bestow presents.

五部 The five classes, or groups I. The 四諦 four truths, which four are classified as 見道 or theory, and 修道 practice, e. g. the eightfold path. II. The five early Hīnayāna sects, see 一切有部 or Sarvastivadah. III. The five groups of the Vajradhātu maṇḍala.

五部合斷 To cut off the five classes of misleading things, i. e. four 見 and one 修, i. e. false theory in regard to the 四諦 four truths, and erroneous practice. Each of the two classes is extended into each of the three divisions of past, three of present, and three of future, making eighteen mental conditions.

五部大乘經 The five chief Mahāyāna sutras according to Tiantai are: 華嚴經; 大集經; 大品般若經; 法華經, and 涅槃經, i. e. Avataṃsaka, Mahāsanghāta, Mahāprajñāpāramitā, Lotus, and Nirvana sutras.

五部大論 Asaṅga, founder of the Yogācāra school, is said, by command of Maitreya, to have edited the five great śāstras, 瑜伽師地論, 分別瑜伽論, 大乘莊嚴經論, 辨中邉論頌論, and 金剛般若論.

五部尊法 五種壇法 (or 五部護摩 or 五部悉地). Ceremonials of the esoteric cult for ridding from calamity; for prosperity; subduing evil (spirits); seeking the love of Buddhas; calling the good to aid; cf. 五種修法.

五部座 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas, v. 五智如來.

五部律 The first five Hīnayāna sects— Dharmagupta, Sarvāstivāda, Mahīśāsaka, Kāśyapīya, and Vātsīputrīya; see 五師.

五部教主 The five Dhyāni-Buddhas v.五 智 如 來.

五部法 idem 五部尊法.

五部淨 (居 炎 摩 羅) Yama as protector in the retinue of the thousand-hand Guanyin.

五部秘藏 idem 五部尊法.


五重世界 The five graduated series of universes: (1) 三千大千世界 tri-sahasra-mahā-sahasra-loka-dhātu; a universe, or chiliocosm; (2) such chiliocosms, numerous as the sands of Ganges, form one Buddha-universe; (3) an aggregation of these forms a Buddha-universe ocean; (4) an aggregation of these latter forms a Buddha-realm seed; (5) an infinite aggregation of these seeds forms a great Buddha-universe, 智度論 50. Another division is (1) a world, or universe; (2) a Buddha-nature universe, with a different interpretation; and the remaining three areas above, the sea, the seed, and the whole Buddha-universe.

五重滯 The five heavy blockages, or serious hindrances; see 五鈍使 infra.

五重雲 The five banks of clouds or obstructions for a woman, see 五障.

五鈍使 pañca-kleśa 五重滯; 五惑 The five dull, unintelligent, or stupid vices or temptations: 貪 desire, 嗔 anger or resentment, 癡 stupidity or foolishness, 慢 arrogance, 疑 doubt. Overcoming these constitutes the pañca-śīla, five virtues, v. 尸羅. Of the ten 十使 or agents the other five are styled 五利 keen, acute, intelligent, as they deal with higher qualities.

五鈷金剛杵 (五股金剛杵, 五鈷金剛) The five-armed vajra, 五智金剛杵; 五峯金剛杵, 五峯光明; emblem of the powers of the 五智如來 q. v.

五門禪 idem 五停心觀; there is also a fivefold meditation on impermanence, suffering, the void, the non-ego, and nirvana.

五間色 The five compound colours, v. 五色.

五闡提羅 The five ṣaṇḍhilās, i. e. five bad monks who died, went to the hells, and were reborn as ṣaṇḍhilās or imperfect males; also 五扇提羅.

五阿含 (五阿含經) The five Agamas, 五阿笈魔, i. e. (1) 長阿含經 Dīrghāgama; (2) 中阿含經 Madhyamāgama; (3) 僧育多阿含經 Samyuktāgama; (4) 鴦掘多羅阿含經 Ekottarikāgama, and (5) 屈陀伽阿合經 Kṣudrakāgama.

五陰 五衆 see 五蘊. 陰 is the older term.

五陰世間 idem 五蘊世間.

五陰苦 (五陰盛苦) idem 五盛陰苦.

五陰魔 idem 五蘊魔.

五障 The five hindrances, or obstacles; also 五礙; 五雲. I. Of women, i. e. inability to become Brahma-kings, Indras, Māra-kings, Caikravarti-kings, or Buddhas. II. The hindrances to the five 五力 powers, i. e. (self-) deception a bar to faith, as sloth is to zeal, anger to remembrance, hatred to meditaton, and discontent to wisdom. III. The hindrances of (1) the passion-nature, e. g. original sin; (2) of karma caused in previous lives; (3) the affairs of life; (4) no friendly or competent preceptor; (5) partial knowledge.

五障三從 The five hindrances to woman, see above, and her three subordinations, i. e. to father, husband. and son.

五雲 v. 五障.

五音 The five musical tones, or pentatonic scale— do, re, mi, sol, la; also 五聲; 五調子.

五頂 pañcaśikha, the five locks on a boy's head; also used for 五佛頂尊 q. v.

五頂輪王 idem 五佛頂尊.

五頂山 idem Wu-Tai Shan 五臺.

五類天 The five kinds of devas: (1) 上界天 in the upper realms of form and non-form; (2) 虛空天 in the sky, i. e. four of the six devas of the desire-realm; (3) 地居天 on the earth, i. e. the other two of the six devas, on Sumeru; (4) 遊虛天空 wandering devas of the sky, e. g. sun, moon, starvas, (5) 地下天 under-world devas, e. g. nāgas, asuras, māras, etc. Of. 五大明王.

五類聲 The five groups of five each of the consonants in the syllabary called 悉曇 Siddha.

五類說法 The five preachers in the Huayan sutra: the Buddha; bodhisattvas; śrāvakas; the devas in their praise songs; and material things, e. g. the bodhi-tree; v. 五種說人.

五食 The five kinds of spiritual food by which roots of goodness are nourished: correct thoughts; delight in the Law; pleasure in meditation; firm resolve, or vows of self-control; and deliverance from the karma of illusion.

五香 The incense composed of five ingredients (sandalwood, aloes, cloves, saffron, and camphor) offered by the esoteric sects in building their altars and in performing their rituals. Cf. 五分香.

五體 and 五體投地 v. 五輪.


五髻 The five cūḍā, topknots or locks, emblems of the 五智 q. v.

五髻冠 A five-pointed crown with a meaning similar to 五髻.

五髻文殊 Mañjuśrī of the five locks.

Now, at present, the present.

今圓 A Tiantai term indicating the present 'perfect' teaching, i. e. that of the Lotus, as compared with the 昔圓 older 'perfect ' teaching which preceded it.

今家 The present school, i. e. my school or sect.

scales, mail: important; resolute, firm; an attendant; petty, small.

介爾 A transient thought, see kṣaṇa 刹.

Kindness, benevolence, virtue.

仁者 Kind sir!

仁尊 Benevolent and honored, or kindly honored one, i. e. Buddha.

仁王 The benevolent king, Buddha; the name Śākya is intp. as 能仁 able in generosity. Also an ancient king, probably imaginary, of the 'sixteen countries' of India, for whom the Buddha is said to have dictated the 仁王經, a sutra with two principal translations into Chinese, the first by Kumārajīva styled 仁王般若經 or 佛說仁王般若波羅蜜經 without magical formulae, the second by Amogha (不空) styled 仁王護國般若波羅蜜經, etc., into which the magical formulae were introduced; these were for royal ceremonials to protect the country from all kinds of calamities and induce prosperity.

仁王供 Service of the 仁王曾 (or 仁王講) the meeting of monks to chant the above incantations.

仁王咒 仁王陀羅尼 The incantations made in the 仁王供.

仁王尊 The two Vajrapāṇi 阿 and 吽 who act as door guardians of temples, variously known as 密跡菩薩, 密修力士, 執金剛神, and 那羅延金剛.

A file of ten; sundry, what.

什物 Things (in general), oddments.

什肇 The 什 is Kumārajīva and the 肇 his disciple 僧肇 Sengzhao.

什麽 idem 甚麽 What ? What.

Sincere, true; to assent.

允堪 Yun-k'an, a famous monk of the Sung dynasty.

允若 Yun-jo, a famous monk of the Yuan dynasty.

Beginning, first, original, head; dollar; Mongol (dynasty).

元吉樹 The tree of the origin of felicity, i. e. the bodhi-tree or ficus religiosa, also styled 佛樹; 道樹, and 菩提樹.

元品無明 Primal ignorance; the original state of avidya, unenlightenment, or ignorance; original innocence. Also 根本無明; 無始無明.

元因 原因 The original or fundamental cause which produces phenomena, e. g. karma, reincarnation, etc.; every cause has its fruit or consequences. The idea of cause and effect is a necessary condition of antecedent and consequence; it includes such relations as interaction, correlation, interdependence, co-ordination based on an intrinsic necessity.

元妙 The original or fundamental marvel or mystery, i. e. the conception of nirvana.

元始 Prabhū, 波羅赴; 鉢利部 beginning, in the beginning, primordial. Prabhū is a title of Viṣṇu as a personification of the sun.

元心 The original or primal mind behind all things, idem the 一心 of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith, the 森羅萬象之元 source of all phenomena, the mind which is in all things.

元明 本明 Original brightness or intelligence; the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā as the source of all light or enlightenment.

元曉 Yuan-hsiao, a famous Korean monk who traveled, and studied and wrote in China during the Tang dynasty, then returned to Korea; known as 海東師 Hai-tung Shih.

元照 Name of 湛然 Chan-jan, the seventh head of the Tiantai School; he died 1116.

元祖 The original patriarch, or founder of a sect or school; sometimes applied to the Buddha as the founder of virtue.

元藏 The Yuan tripiṭaka, compiled by order of Shih Tsu (Kublai), founder of the Yuan dynasty, and printed from blocks; begun in 1277, the work was finished in 1290, in 1, 422 部 works, 6, 017 卷 sections, 558 凾 cases or covers. It contained 528 Mahayanist and 242 Hinayanist sutras; 25 Mahāyāna and 54 Hīnayāna vinaya; 97 Mahāyāna and 36 Hīnayāna śāstras; 108 biographies; and 332 supplementary or general works. In size, and generally, it was similar to the Sung edition. The 元藏目錄 or Catalogue of the Yuan tripiṭaka is also known as 大普寧寺大藏經目錄.

元辰星 元神星 A star that controls the attainment of honors, and the riddance of sickness and distresses. The star varies according to the year star of the suppliant which is one of the seven stars in Ursa Major.

Within, inner.

内乞 The bhikṣu monk who seeks control from within himself, i. e. by mental processes, as compared with the 外乞 the one who aims at control by physical discipline. e. g. fasting, etc.

内供奉 (内供) A title for the monk who served at the alter in the imperial palace, instituted in A. D. 756; also called 供奉.

内典 Buddhist scriptures; of. 外典 non-Buddhist scriptures. There are also divisions of internal and external in Buddhist scriptures.


內凡 The inner or higher ranks of ordinary disciples as contrasted with the 外凡 lower grades; those who are on the road to liberation; Hīnayāna begins the stage at the 四善根位 also styled 內凡位; Mahāyāna with the 三賢位 from the 十住 upwards. Tiantai from the 相似卽 of its 六卽 q. v.

內塵 The inner, or sixth 塵 guṇa associated with mind, in contrast with the other five guṇas, qualities or attributes of the visible, audible, etc.

內史 The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also 內記.

內外 Internal and external: subjective and objective.

內外兼明 Inner and outer both 'ming '; the first four of the 五明 q. v. are 'outer' and the fifth 'inner'.

內外空 Internal organ and external object are both unreal, or not material.

內外道 Within and without the religion; Buddhists and non-Buddhists; also, heretics within the religion.

內學 The inner learning, i. e. Buddhism.

內宿 Food that has been kept overnight in a monastic bedroom and is therefore one of the 'unclean' foods; v. 內煮.

內寺 The Buddhist shrines or temples in the palace, v. 內道塲.

內心 The mind or heart within; the red lotus is used in the 大日經 as its emblem.

內心曼荼羅 (or 祕密曼荼羅) The 'central heart ' maṇḍala of the 大日經 or the central throne in the diamond realm lotus to which it refers.

內我 The antarātman or ego within, one's own soul or self, in contrast with bahirātman 外我 an external soul, or personal, divine ruler.

內教 Buddhism, in contrast with 外教 other cults.

內明 adhyatmāvidyā, a treatise on the inner meaning (of Buddhism), one of the 五明 q. v.

內法 Buddhism, as contrasted with other religions.

內無爲 Inner quiescence, cf. the six 妙門.

內煮 Cooked food in a monastic bedroom, becoming thereby one of the 'unclean' foods; v. 內宿食.

內界 The realm of mind as contrasted with 外界 that of the body; also the realm of cognition as contrasted with externals, e. g. the 五界 five elements.

內祕 The inner mystic mind of the bodhisattva, though externally he may appear to be a śrāvaka.

內種 The seed contained in the 八識, i. e. ālayavijñāna, the basis of all phenomena.

內空 Empty within, i. e. no soul or self within.

內緣 The condition of perception arising from the five senses; also immediate, conditional, or environmental causes, in contrast with the more remote.

內薰 Inner censing; primal ignorance, or unenlightenment; perfuming, censing, or acting upon original intelligence causes the common uncontrolled mind to resent the miseries of mortality and to seek nirvana; v. 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

內胎 The inner garbhadhātu, i. e. the eight objects in the eight leaves in the central group of the maṇḍala.

內衆 The inner company, i. e. the monks, in contrast with 外俗 the laity.

內衣 antaravāsaka, one of the three regulation garments of a monk, the inner garment.

內記 The clerk, or writer of petitions, or prayers, in a monastery; also 內史.

內證 The witness or realization within: one's own assurance of the truth.

內識 Internal perception, idem 心識.


內道塲 A place for Buddhist worship in the palace, v. 内齋 and 内寺.

內門轉 The psychological elements in the 八識, viz. the seventh and eighth categories.

內陣 The inner ranks, i. e. the part of a temple near the altar, where the monks sit.

內院 The inner court— of the Tusita heaven, where Maitreya dwells and preaches; also 善法堂.

內障 Internal, or mental hindrances, or obstacles.

內齋 Buddhist ceremonies in the palace on the emperor's birthday, v. 內道塲.

Public, general, official; a duke, grandparent, gentleman; just, fair.

公案 J. kōan; 因緣 A dossier, or case-record; a cause; public laws, regulations; case-law. Problems set by Zen masters, upon which thought is concentrated as a means to attain inner unity and illumination.

公界 A public place; in public.

ṣaṭ, ṣaḍ. Six.

六事成就 The six things which enable a bodhisattva to keep perfectly the six pāramitās — worshipful offerings, study of the moral duties, pity, zeal in goodness, isolation, delight in the law; these are described as corresponding to the pāramitās seriatim; v. 莊嚴經 12.

六住 The sixth of the 十住 q. v.

六作 idem 六受.

六位 The six stages of Bodhisattva development, i. e. 十信位; 十住位; 十廻向位; 十地位; 等覺位; 佛地位; these are from the order Huayan jing.

六供具 The six articles for worship— flowers, a censer, candles, hot liquid, fruits, tea.

六依 The six senses on which one relies, or from which knowledge is received; v. 六情.

六入 ṣaḍāyatana; 六阿耶怛那 (or 六阿也怛那) the six entrances, or locations, both the organ and the sensation — eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind; sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and perception. The six form one of the twelve nidanas, see 十二因緣. The 六根 are the six organs, the 六境 the six objects, and the 六塵 or guṇas, the six inherent qualities. The later term is 六處 q. v.

六八弘誓 The forty-eight great or surpassing vows of Amitābha, also 六八超世本願.

六决定 v. 六種决定; also 七深信.

六凡 The six stages of rebirth for ordinary people, as contrasted with the saints 聖者: in the hells, and as hungry: ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas.

六到彼岸 The six things that ferry one to the other shore, i. e. the six pāramitās, v. 六度.

六劍 六箭 The six swords (or arrows), i. e. the six senses, v. 六塵, which are defined as the qualities of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and mind.

六十 ṣaṣṭi, sixty.

六十二見 The sixty-two 見 or views, of which three groups are given: The 大品般若經 in the 佛母品 takes each of the five skandhas under four considerations of 常 time, considered as time past, whether each of the five has had permanence, impermanence, both, neither, 5 x 4 = 20; again as to their space, or extension, considered as present time, whether each is finite, infinite, both, neither =20; again as to their destination, i. e. future, as to whether each goes on, or does not, both, neither (e. g. continued personality) = 20, or in all 60; add the two ideas whether body and mind 神 are a unity or different = 62. The Tiantai School takes 我見, or personality, as its basis and considers each of the five skandhas under four aspects, e. g (1) rūpa, the organized body, as the ego; (2) the ego as apart from the rūpa; (3) rūpa as the greater, the ego the smaller or inferior, and the ego as dwelling in the rūpa; (4) the ego as the greater, rupa the inferior, and the rupa in the ego. Consider these twenty in the past, present, and future = 60, and add 斷 and 常 impermanence and permanence as fundamentals = 62. There is also a third group.

六十卷 The 60 rolls: the Tiantai 三大部, or three collections of fundamental texts of that school.

六十四書 The sixty-four classes of Indian writing or literature, Brahmi, Kharosthi, etc.

六十四梵音 The sixty-four Aryan or noble characteristics of a Buddha's tones or voice, e. g. snigdha 流澤聲 smooth; mṛdukā 柔軟聲 gentle, etc.

六十四眼 Eighteen lictors in the avīci hell each with sixty-four eyes.

六十心 The sixty different mental positions that may occur to the practitioner of Yoga, see 大日經, 住心品; examples of them are desire, non-desire, ire, kindness, foolishness, wisdom, decision, doubt, depression, brightness, contention, dispute, non-contention, the spirit of devas, of asuras, of nāgas, of humanity, woman (i. e. lust), mastery, commercial, and so on.


六卽 The six stages of Bodhisattva developments as defined in the Tiant 'ai 圓教, i. e. Perfect, or Final Teaching, in contrast with the previous, or ordinary six developments of 十信, 十住, 十行, etc., as found in the 別教 Differentiated or Separate school. The Tiantai six are: (1) 理卽 realization that all beings are of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字卽 the apprehension of terms, that those who only hear and believe are in the Buddha. law and potentially Buddha; (3) 觀行卽 advance beyond terminology to meditation, or study and accordant action; it is known as 五品觀行 or 五品弟子位; (4) 相似卽 semblance stage, or approximation to perfection in purity, the 六根淸淨位, i. e. the 十信位; (5) 分證卽 discrimination of truth and its progressive experiential proof, i. e. the 十住, 十行, 十廻向, 十地, and 等覺位 of the 別教 known also as the 聖因 cause or root of holiness. (6) 究竟卽 perfect enlightenment, i. e. the 妙覺位 or 聖果 fruition of holiness. (1) and (2) are known as 外凡 external for, or common to, all. (1) is theoretical; (2) is the first step in practical advance, followed by (3) and (4) styled 内凡 internal for all, and (3), (4), (5), and (6) are known as the 八位 the eight grades.

六卽佛 Buddha in six forms; (1) 理佛 as the principle in and through all things, as pan-Buddha— all things being of Buddha-nature; (2) 名字佛 Buddha as a name or person. The other four are the last four forms above.

六受 The six vedanas, i. e. receptions, or sensations from the 六根 six organs. Also 六作.

六合釋 v. 六離釋.

六和敬 (六和) The six points of reverent harmony or unity in a monastery or convent: 身 bodily unity in form of worship, 口 oral unity in chanting, 意 mental unity in faith, 戒 moral unity in observing the commandments, 見 doctrinal unity in views and explanations, and 利, 行, 學, or 施 economic unity in community of goods, deeds, studies, or charity.

六和合 The six unions of the six sense organs with the six objects of the senses, the eye with the object seen, etc.

六味 The six tastes, or flavors — bitter, sour, sweet, acrid, salt, and insipid.

六喩 The six illustrations of unreality Diamond Sutra: a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning. Also 六如.

六因 The six causations of the 六位 six stages of Bodhisattva development, q. v. Also, the sixfold division of causes of the Vaibhāṣikas (cf. Keith, 177-8); every phenomenon depends upon the union of 因 primary cause and 緣 conditional or environmental cause; and of the 因 there are six kinds: (1) 能作因 karaṇahetu, effective causes of two kinds: 與力因 empowering cause, as the earth empowers plant growth, and 不障因 non-resistant cause, as space does not resist, i. e. active and passive causes; (2) 倶有因 sahabhūhetu, co-operative causes, as the four elements 四大 in nature, not one of which can be omitted; (3) 同類因 sabhāgahetu, causes of the same kind as the effect, good producing good, etc.; (4) 相應因 saṃprayuktahetu, mutual responsive or associated causes, e. g. mind and mental conditions, subject with object; Keith gives 'faith and intelligence'; similar to (2); (5) 遍行因 sarvatragahetu, universal or omnipresent cause, i. e. of illusion, as of false views affecting every act; it resembles (3) but is confined to delusion; (6) 異熟因 vipākahetu, differental fruition, i. e. the effect different from the cause, as the hells are from evil deeds.

六地 Six bodhisattvas in the Dizang group of the garbhadhātu, each controlling one of the 六道 or ways of sentient existence. They deal with rebirth in the hells, as hungry ghosts, animals, asuras, men, and devas.

六垢 (六垢法) Six things that defile: 誑 exaggeration, 謟 flattery, 憍 arrogance, 惱 vexation, 恨 hatred, 害 malice.

六城部 Ṣaṇṇagarikāḥ, 山拖那伽梨柯部; or 密林山部. One of the twenty Hīnayāna sects, connected with the Vātsīputtrīyāḥ 犢子部.

六境 The six fields of the senses, i. e. the objective fields of sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea (or thought); rūpa, form and color, is the field of vision; sound, of hearing; scent, of smelling; the five flavors, of tasting; physical feeling, of touch; and mental presentation, of discernment; cf. 六入; 六處 and next.


六塵 The six guṇas, qualities produced by the objects and organs of sense, i. e. sight, sound, smell, taste, touch, and idea; the organs are the 六根, 六入, 六處, and the perceptions or discernments the 六識; cf. 六境. Dust 塵 is dirt, and these six qualities are therefore the cause of all impurity. Yet 六塵說法 the Buddha made use of them to preach his law.

六大 The six great or fundamental things, or elements — earth; water; fire; wind (or air); space (or ether); and 識 mind, or perception. These are universal and creative of all things, but the inanimate 非情 are made only of the first five, while the animate 有情 are of all six. The esoteric cult represents the six elements, somewhat differently interpreted in the garbhadhātu and vajradhātu. Also 六大界.

六大法性 The unity in variety of the six elements and their products; ordinary eyes see only the differentiated forms or appearances, the sage or philosopher sees the unity.

六大無礙 The six elements unimpeded, or interactive; or 六大體大 the six elements in their greater substance, or whole. The doctrine of the esoteric cult of tran-substantiation, or the free interchangeability of the six Buddha elements with the human, like with like, whereby yoga becomes possible, i. e. the Buddha elements entering into and possessing the human elements, for both are of the same elemental nature.

六大煩惱 The six great kleśa, passions, or distressers: desire, resentment, stupidity, pride, doubt, and false views.

六大神 The spirits of the six elements.

六大觀 Meditation on the six elements; in the exoteric cult, that they are unreal and unclean; in the esoteric cult, that the Buddha and human elements are of the same substance and interchangeable, see above.

六大賊 v. 六賊.

六天 The six devalokas, i. e. the heavens with sense organs above Sumeru, between the brahmalokas and the earth, i. e. 四王天; 忉利天; 夜摩天; 兜率天; 樂變化天; and 他化自在天. The sixth is the heaven of Mara, v. 六欲天.

六夷 The six pārājikas, v. 波羅夷.

六如 The six 'likes' or comparisons, like a dream, a phantasm, a bubble, a shadow, dew, and lightning, v. 六喩.

六妄 The six misleaders, i. e. the six senses.

六妙行 idem 六行觀.

六字 The six words or syllables, 南無阿彌陀佛 Namo Amitābha.

六字名號 a name for Mañjuśrī. See 六字文殊.

六字文殊 The six-word dhāraṇī of Mañjuśrī 闇婆髻駄那麽 (or 闇婆計陀那麽) or 唵縛鷄淡納莫. There are also the esoteric (Shingon) six words connected with the six forms of Guanyin and the 六字法, 六字供, 六字河臨法, and六字護摩 ceremonials, some connected with Mañjuśrī, and all with Guanyin. There are several 六字 dhāraṇīs, e. g. the Ṣaḍakṣara-vidyāmantra. The six words generally associated with Guanyin are 安荼詈般茶詈 (or 安荼隸般茶詈). There is also the six word Lamaistic charm oṃ maṇi padme hūṃ 唵?呢叭 M061971 吽.

六宗 The six schools, i. e. 三論宗; 法相宗; 華嚴宗; 律宗; 成實宗, and 倶舍宗 q. v.; the last two are styled Hīnayāna schools. Mahāyāna in Japan puts in place of them 天台宗 and 眞言宗 Tendai and Shingon.

六師 The six tīrthikas or heterodox teachers— Pūraṇa-Kāśyapa, Maskarin, Sañjayin, Ajita-keśakambala, Kakuda-Kātyāyana, and Nirgrantha; see 外道.

六師迦王 Name of the king who, thirteen years after the destruction of the Jetavana vihāra. which had been rebuilt 'five centuries ' after the nirvana, again restored it.

六年苦行 The six years of Śākyamuni's austerities before his enlightenment.

六度 The six things that ferry one beyond the sea of mortality to nirvana, i. e. the six pāramitās 波羅蜜 (波羅蜜多): (1) 布施 dāna, charity, or giving, including the bestowing of the truth on others; (2) 持戒 śīla, keeping the command rents; (3) 忍辱 kṣānti, patience under insult; (4) 精進 vīrya, zeal and progress; (5) 闡定 dhyāna, meditation or contemplation; (6) 智慧 prajñā; wisdom, the power to discern reality or truth. It is the last that carries across the saṃsāra (sea of incarnate life) to the shores of nirvana. The opposites of these virtues are meanness, wickedness, anger, sloth, a distracted mind, and ignorance. The 唯識論 adds four other pāramitās: (7) 方便 upāya, the use of appropriate means; (8) 願 praṇidhāna, pious vows; (9) 力 bala, power of fulfillment; (10) 智 jñāna knowledge.


六度果報 The reward s stimulated by the six pāramitās are 富 enrichment; 具色 all things, or perfection; 力 power; 壽 long life; 安 peace (or calmness); 辯 discrimination, or powers of exposition of the truth.

六度無極 The six infinite means of crossing the sea of mortality, i. e. the six pāramitās 六度.

六德 The six characteristics of a bhagavat, which is one of a Buddha's titles: sovereign, glorious, majestic, famous, propitious, honored.

六念 (六念法) The six thoughts to dwell upon: Buddha, the Law, the Order, the commands, almsgiving, and heaven with its prospective joys.

六念處 The six stages of the six kinds of mindfulness 六念.

六情 The emotions arising from the six organs of sense 六根 for which term 六情 is the older interpretation; v. 六依.

六慧 The six kinds of wisdom. Each is allotted seriatim to one of the six positions 六位 q. v. (1) 聞慧 the wisdom of hearing and apprehending the truth of the middle way is associated with the 十住; (2) 思慧 of thought with the 十行; (3) 修慧 of observance with the 十廻向; (4) 無相慧 of either extreme, or the mean, with the 十地; (5) 照寂慧 of understanding of nirvana with 等覺慧; (6) 寂照慧 of making nirvana illuminate all beings associated with 佛果 Buddha-fruition. They are a 別教 Differentiated School series and all are associated with 中道 the school of the 中 or middle way.

六成就 Six perfections (some say five, some seven) found in the opening phrase of each sutra: (1) 'Thus' implies perfect faith; (2) ' have I heard, ' perfect hearing; (3) 'once, 'the perfect time; (4) 'the Buddha, ' the perfect lord or master; (5) 'on Mt. Gṛdhrakūṭa, ' the perfect place; (6) 'with the great assembly of bhikṣus, ' the perfect assembly.

六方 The six directions— E. W. N. S. above and below.

六方禮 The brahman morning act of bathing and paying homage in the six directions; observing the 'well-born' do this; the Buddha is said to have given the discourse in the 善生經.

六方護念, 六方證明 (or 六方證誠) The praises of Amitābha proclaimed by the Buddhas of the six directions.

六時 The six 'hours' or periods in a day, three for night and three for day, i. e. morning noon, evening; night, midnight, and dawn. Also, the six divisions of the year, two each of spring, summer, and winter.

六時懺 six daily periods of worship.

六時三昧 six daily periods of meditation.

六時不斷 six daily periods of unintermitting devotions.

六時禮讚 six daily periods of worship of ceremonial.

六染心 The six mental 'taints' of the Awakening of Faith 起心論. Though mind-essence is by nature pure and without stain, the condition of 無明 ignorance, or innocence, permits of taint or defilement corresponding to the following six phases: (1) 執相應染 the taint interrelated to attachment, or holding the seeming for the real; it is the state of 執取相 and 名字相 which is cut off in the final pratyeka and śrāvaka stage and the bodhisattva 十住 of faith; (2) 不斷相應染 the taint interrelated to the persisting attraction of the causes of pain and pleasure; it is the 相續相 finally eradicated in the bodhisattva 初地 stage of purity; (3) 分別智相應染 the taint interrelated to the 'particularizing intelligence' which discerns things within and without this world; it is the first 智相, cut off in the bodhisattva 七地 stage of spirituality; (4) 現色不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint, i. e. of the 'ignorant' mind as yet hardly discerning subject from object, of accepting an external world; the third 現相 cut of in the bodhisattva 八地 stage of emancipation from the material; (5) 能見心不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint of accepting a perceptive mind, the second 轉相, cut of in the bodhisattva 九地 of intuition, or emancipation from mental effort; (6) 根本業不相應染 the non-interrelated or primary taint of accepting the idea of primal action or activity in the absolute; it is the first 業相, and cut of in the 十地 highest bodhisattva stage, entering on Buddhahood. See Suzuki's translation, 80-1.

六相 The six characteristics found in everything— hole and parts, unity and diversity, entirety and (its) fractions.

六根 The six indriyas or sense-organs: eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind. See also 六入, 六境, 六塵, and 六處.

六根五用 Substitution of one organ for another, or use of one organ to do the work of all the others, which is a Buddha's power.

六根功德 The powers of the six senses, i. e. the achievement by purification of their interchange of function.

六根懺悔 A penitential service over the sins of the six senses.

六根淸淨 The six organs and their purification in order to develop their unlimited power and interchange, as in the case of a Buddha. This full development enables e. g. the eye to see everything in a great chiliocosm from its highest heaven down to its lowest hells and all the beings past, present, and future, with all the karma of each.


六根淸淨位 The state of the organs thus purified is defined by Tiantai as the 十信位 of the 別教, or the 相似卽 of the 圓教, v. 六卽.

六欲 The six sexual attractions arising from color; form; carriage; voice (or speech); softness (or smoothness); and features.

六欲天 The devalokas, i. e. the heavens of desire, i. e. with sense-organs; the first is described as half-way up Mt. Sumeru, the second at its summit, and the rest between it and the Brahmalokas; for list v. 六天. Descriptions are given in the 智度論 9 and the 倶舍論 8. They are also spoken of as 六欲天婬相, i. e. as still in the region of sexual desire.

六欲四禪 the six heavens where sexual desire continues, and the four dhyāna heavens of purity above them free from such desire.

六法戒 The six prohibition rules for a female devotee: indelicacy of contact with a male; purloining four cash; killing animals; untruthfulness; food after the midday meal; and wine-drinking. Abbreviated as 六法.

六法 is also a term for 六法念.

六波 The six pāramitās, v. 波羅密.

六無常六譬 v. 六喩.

六煩惱 v. 六大煩惱.

六物 The six things personal to a monk— saṅghāṭī, the patch robe; uttarā saṅghāṭī, the stole of seven pieces; antara-vaasaka, the skirt or inner garment of five pieces; the above are the 三衣 three garments: paatra, begging bowl; ni.siidana, a stool: and a water-strainer: the six are also called the 三衣六物.

六瑞 The six auspicious indications attributed to the Buddha as a preliminary to his delivery of the Lotus Sutra, see 法華經, 序品: (1) his opening address on the infinite; (2) his samādhi; (3) the rain of flowers; (4) the earthquake; (5) the delight of the beholders; (6) the Buddha-ray.

六界 The six elements: earth, water, fire, air (or wind), space, and mind; idem 六大.

六界聚 The (human) body, which is composed of the six elements 六界.

六畜 The six animals likened to the six organs 六根, v. 六衆生.

六神通 The six transcendental, or magical, powers, v. 六通.

六祖 The six patriarchs of the Ch'an (Zen) school 禪宗, who passed down robe and begging bowl in succession i. e. Bodhidharma, Huike, Sengcan, Daoxin, Hongren, and Huineng 達摩, 慧可, 僧璨, 道信, 弘忍, and 慧能.

六種住 The six Bodhisattva-stages in the Bodhisattva-bhumi sutra 菩薩地持經 are: (1) 種性住 the attainment of the Buddha-seed nature in the 十住; (2) 解行住 of discernment and practice in the 十行 and 十廻向; (3) 淨心住 of purity by attaining reality in the 初地見道; (4) 行道迹住 of progress in riddance of incorrect thinking, in the 二地 to the 七地; (5) 決定住 of powers of correct decision and judgment in the eighth and ninth 地; (6) 究竟住 of the perfect Bodhisattva stage in the tenth 地 and the 等覺位, but not including the 妙覺位 which is the Buddha-stage.

六種倶生惑 The six deceivers common to all the living— greed, anger, torpor, ignorance, doubt, and incorrect views.

六種決定 The six kinds of certainty resulting from observance of the six pāramitās: 財成決定 the certainty of wealth; 生勝決定 of rebirth in honorable families; 不退決定 of no retrogression (to lower conditions); 修習決定 of progress in practice; 定業決定 of unfailingly good karma; 無功用決定 of effortless abode in truth and wisdom. 大乘莊嚴論 12.

六種印 The six seals, or proofs, i. e. the six pāramitās, 六度.

六種因 v. 六因.

六種外道 The six kinds of ascetics; also 六種苦行外道; 六術; v. 六行.

六種巧方便 The six able devices of Bodhisattvas: (1) preaching deep truths in simple form to lead on people gladly to believe; (2) promising them every good way of realizing their desires, of wealth, etc.; (3) showing a threatening aspect to the disobedient to induce reform; (4) rebuking and punishing them with a like object; (5) granting wealth to induce grateful offerings and almsgiving; (6) descending from heaven, leaving home, attaining bodhi, and leading all to joy and purity. 菩薩地持經 8.


六種性 For the first five see 五種道; the sixth is the Buddha stage of 妙覺性. Cf. 六種位.

六種觀 The meditation on the six natures 六種性.

六種正行 The fifth of the 五種正行 q. v. is expanded into six kinds of proper practice: reading and intoning, studying, worshipping, invoking, praising, and making offerings.

六種釋 idem 六離合釋.

六種震動 The six earthquakes, or earth-shakings, also 六種動相, of which there are three different categories. I, Those at the Buddha's conception, birth, enlightenment, first preaching, when Māra besought him to live, and at his nirvana; some omit the fifth and after 'birth' add 'leaving home '. II. The six different kinds of shaking of the chiliocosm, or universe, when the Buddha entered into the samādhi of joyful wandering, see 大品般若經 1, i. e. east rose and west sank, and so on with w. e., n. s., s. n., middle and borders, borders and middle. III. Another group is shaking, rising, waving, reverberating, roaring, arousing, the first three referring to motion, the last three to sounds; see the above 般若經; which in later translations gives shaking, rising, reverberating, beating, roaring, crackling.

六窗一猿 Six windows and one monkey (climbing in and out), i. e. the six organs of sense and the active mind.

六箭 The six arrows, i. e. the six senses; v. 六塵.

六結 A cloth or cord tied in six consecutive double loops and knots. The cloth represents the fundamental unity, the knots the apparent diversity. v. 楞伽經 5.

六罪人 The six kinds of offender, i. e. one who commits any of the 四重 four grave sins, or destroys harmony in the order, or sheds a Buddha's blood.

六羅漢 The six arhats i. e. Śākyamuni and his first five disciples, cf. 五羅漢.

六群比丘 The six common-herd bhikṣus, to whose improper or evil conduct is attributed the laying down of many of the laws by Śākyamuni; also 六衆; different lists of names are given, the generally accepted list indicating Nanda, Upananda, Aśvaka, Punarvasu, Chanda, and Udāyin. Udāyin is probably Kalodayin, a name given in other lists.

六自在王 The six sovereign rulers, i. e. the six senses, see 六根.

六舟 The six boats, i. e. the six pāramitās 六度 for ferrying to the bank beyond mortality.

六般神足 The six supernatural signs; idem 六瑞.

六苦行 The heretics of the six austerities are referred to as 六苦行外道; v. 六行.

六萬藏 The sixty thousand verses of the Buddha-law which Devadatta could recite, an ability which did not save him from the avīci hell.

六著心 (六著) The six bonds, or the mind of the six bonds: greed, love, hate, doubt, lust, pride.

六蔽 The six sins that smother the six pāramitās: grudging, commandment-breaking, anger, family attachment, confused thoughts, and stupid ignorance.

六處 ṣaḍāyatana. The six places, or abodes of perception or sensation, one of the nidānas, see 十二因緣; they are the 六根 or six organs of sense, but the term is also used for the 六入 and 六境 q. v.; also 六塵.

六衆 idem 六羣比丘.

六衆生 The six senses 六根 are likened to six wild creatures in confinement always struggling to escape. Only when they are domesticated will they be happy. So is it with the six senses and the taming power of Buddha truth. The six creatures are a dog, a bird, a snake, a hyena, a crocodile (śiśumāra), and a monkey.

六行 Among Buddhists the term means the practice of the 六度 six pāramitās; it is referred, among outsiders, to the six austerities of the six kinds of heretics: (1) 自餓 starvation; (2) 投淵 naked cave-dwelling (or, throwing oneself down precipices); (3) 赴火 self-immolation, or self-torturing by fire; (4) 自坐 sitting naked in public; (5) 寂默 dwelling in silence among graves; (6) 牛狗 living as animals.


六行觀 The six meditations, also called 厭欣觀; 六妙行 comparing the 下地 lower realms with the 上地 higher, the six following characters being the subject of meditation: the three lower represent 麤 coarseness, 苦 suffering, and 障 resistance; these in meditation are seen as distasteful: while the higher are the 靜 calm, 妙 mystic, 離 free, which are matters for delight. By this meditation on the distasteful and the delectable the delusions of the lower realms may be overcome.

六術 idem 六種外道; see 六行.

六衰 The six ruiners, i. e. the attractions of the six senses, idem 六塵, 六賊 q. v.

六裁 The six decisions, i. e. the concepts formed through the mental contact of the six senses; later called 六觸.

六親 The six immediate relations— father and mother, wife and child, elder and younger brothers.

六觀法 (六觀) cf. 六種性 and 六位.

六觀音 The six kinds of Guanyin. There are two groups— I. That of Tiantai: 大悲 most pitiful; 大慈 most merciful; 師子無畏 of lion-courage; 大光普照 of universal light; 天人丈夫 leader amongst gods and men; 大梵深遠 the great omnipresent Brahma. Each of this bodhisattva's six qualities of pity, etc., breaks the hindrances 三障 respectively of the hells, pretas, animals, asuras, men, and devas. II. As thousand-handed; the holy one; horseheaded; eleven-faced; Cundī (or Marīci); with the wheel of sovereign power.

六解一亡 'When the six knots are untied the unity disappears. ' The six knots represent the six organs 六根 causing mortality, the cloth or cord tied in a series of knots represents nirvana. This illustrates the interdependence of nirvana and mortality. Cf. 六結; v. 梯伽經 5.

六觸 idem 六裁.

六論 The six 外道論 vedāṇgas, works which are 'regarded as auxiliary to and even in some sense as part of the Veda, their object being to secure the proper pronunciation and correctness of the text and the right employment of the Mantras of sacrifice as taught in the Brāhmaṇas '. M. W. They are spoken of together as the 四皮陀六論 four Vedas and six śāstras, and the six are Sikṣā, Chandas, Vyākarana, Nirukta, Jyotiṣa, and Kalpa.

六譬 The six metaphors, v. 六衆生.

六諦 The six logical categories of the Vaiśeṣika philosophy: dravya, substance; guṇa, quality; karman, motion or activity; sāmānya, generality; viśeṣa, particularity; samavāya, inherence: Keith, Logic, 179. Eitel has 'substance, quality, action, existence, the unum et diversum, and the aggregate'.

六賊 The six cauras, or robbers, i. e. the six senses; the 六根 sense organs are the 媒 'matchmakers', or medial agents, of the six robbers. The 六賊 are also likened to the six pleasures of the six sense organs. Prevention is by not acting with them, i. e. the eye avoiding beauty, the ear sound, nose scent, tongue flavors, body seductions, and mind uncontrolled thoughts.

六趣 The six directions of reincarnation, also 六道: (1) 地獄趣 naraka-gati, or that of the hells; (2) 餓鬼趣 preta-gati, of hungry ghosts; (3) 畜生趣 tiryagyoni-gati, of animals; (4) 阿修羅趣 asura-gati, of malevolent nature spirits; (5 ) 人趣 manuṣya-gati, of human existence; (6) 天趣 deva-gati, of deva existence. The 六趣輪廻經 is attributed to Aśvaghoṣa.

六足尊 The six-legged Honored One, one of the five 明王 fierce guardians of Amitābha, i. e. 大威德, who has six heads, faces, arms, and legs; rides on an ox; and is an incarnation of Mañjuśrī. The 六足阿毘曇摩 Jñāna-prasthāna-saṭpādābhidharma is a philosophical work in the Canon.

六輪 The six kinds of cakravartī, or wheel-kings, each allotted to one of the 六位; the iron-wheel king to the 十信位, copper 十住, silver 十行, gold 十廻向, crystal 十地, and pearl 等覺.

六通 abhijñā, or ṣaḍ abhijñā. The six supernatural or universal powers acquired by a Buddha, also by an arhat through the fourth degree of dhyāna. The 'southern' Buddhists only have the first five, which are also known in China; v. 五神通; the sixth is 漏盡通 (漏盡智證通) āsravakṣaya-jñāna, supernatural consciousness of the waning of vicious propensities.


六道 The six ways or conditions of sentient existence; v. 六趣; the three higher are the 上三途, the three lower 下三途.

六道佛菩薩 The Buddhas and bodhisattvas of the six gati, i. e. the six dizang 六地藏 q. v.; also the 六觀音 q. v.; the six dizang are also styled 六道能化菩薩 Bodhisattvas who can change the lot of those in the six gati.

六道四生 The four modes of the six rebirths — womb, egg, moisture, or transformation.

六道四聖 The six ways of rebirth, see above, and the four holy ways of rebirth, the latter being respectively into the realms of śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and Buddhas; the ten are known as the 十界.

六道集經 A sutra dealing with the six ways of rebirth.

六道伽陀經 A sutra dealing with the six ways of rebirth.

六部大乘經 The six works chosen by Cien 慈恩 as authoritative in the 法相宗 Dharmalakṣana school, i. e. 大方廣佛華嚴經 of which there are three translations; 解深密經4 tr.; 如來出現功德莊嚴經 untranslated; 阿毘達磨經 untranslated; 楞伽經 3 tr.; 厚嚴經 (also called 大乘密嚴經).

六離合釋 Ṣaṭ-samāsa; also 六種釋 (or 六合釋) the six interpretations of compound terms, considered in their component parts or together. (1) 持業釋 or 同依釋 karmadhāraya, referring to the equality of dependence of both terms, e. g. 大乘 Mahāyāna, 'great' and 'vehicle'), both equally essential to 'Mahāyāna' with its specific meaning; (2) 依主釋 (or 六士釋) tatpuruṣa, containing a principal term, e. g. 眼識 eye-perception, where the eye is the qualifying term; (3) 有財釋 (or 多財釋) bahuvrīhi, the sign of possession, e. g. 覺者 he who has enlightenment; (4) 相違釋 dvandva, a term indicating two separate ideas, e. g. 教觀 teaching and meditation; (5) 鄰近釋 avyayībhava, an adverbial compound, or a term resulting from 'neighboring' association, e. g. 念處 thought or remembering place, i. e. memory; (6) 帶數釋 dvigu, a numerative term, e. g. 五蘊 pañcaskandha, the five skandhas. M. W. gives the order as 4, 3, 1, 2, 6, and 5.

六難 The six difficult things— to be born in a Buddha-age, to hear the true Buddha-law, to beget a good heart, to be born in the central kingdom (India), to be born in human form, and to be perfect; see, Nirvana Sutra 23.

六震 idem 六種震.

六面尊 idem 六足尊.

六麤 The six 'coarser' stages arising from the 三細 or three finer stages which in turn are produced by original 無明, the unenlightened condition of ignorance; v. Awakening of Faith 起信論. They are the states of (1) 智相 knowledge or consciousness of like and dislike arising from mental conditions; (2) 相續相 consciousness of pain and pleasure resulting from the first, causing continuous responsive memory; (3) 執取相 attachment or clinging, arising from the last; (4) 計名字相 assigning names according to the seeming and unreal with fixation of ideas); (5) 起業 the consequent activity with all the variety of deeds; (6) 業繋苦相 the suffering resulting from being tied to deeds and their karma consequences.

六齋 The six monthly poṣadha, or fast days: the 8th, 14th, 15th, 23rd, 29th, and 30th. They are the days on which the Four Mahārājas 四天王 take note of human conduct and when evil demons are busy, so that great care is required and consequently nothing should be eaten after noon, hence the 'fast', v. 梵王經 30th command. The 智度論 13 describes them as 惡日 evil or dangerous days, and says they arose from an ancient custom of cutting of the flesh and casting it into the fire.

To cut, carve; a whole; urgent; the 反切 system of spelling, i. e. the combination of the initial sound of one Chinese word with the final sound of another to indicate the sound of a third, a system introduced by translators of Buddhist works; v. 反.

切勝 A title of Aśvaghoṣa.

To divide. separate; a fractional part: a share: a duty.

分位 avasthaa; defined as 時分 time and 地位 position; i. e. a state, e. g. the state of water disturbed into waves, waves being also a state of water; a dependent state.

分別 vibhajya, or vibhaaga; parikalpana; vikalpa; divide, discriminate, discern, reason; to leave. See also 三分別.

三分別 three forms of discrimination (1) 自性分別 natural discrimination, e. g. of present objects; (2) 計度分別 calculating discrimination (as to future action); (3) 隨念分別 discriminating by remembrance of affairs that are past.

分別事識 The third of the three kinds of perception 識, i. e. real (or abstract), manifest, and reasoned (or inferred); it includes all the eight 識 except the ālayavijñāna.

分別智 viveka. Differentiating knowledge, discrimination of phenomena, as contrasted with 無分別智 the knowledge of the fundamental identity of all things.


分別智相應染 The taint on mind following upon the action of discriminating, i. e. one of the six 染心; v. Awakening of Faith 起信論.

分別經 There are several sutras and śāstras with various 分別 titles.

分別說三 The One Vehicle discriminated as 'three' for the sake of the ignorant.

分別說部 The Vibhajyavādins. A school the origin of which is obscure. The meaning of the term, not necessarily limited to this school, is the method of particularization in dealing with questions in debate. It is suggested that this school was established to harmonize the differences between the Sthavirās and Mahāsāṅghikas. The Abhidharma Pitaka 'as we have it in the Pali Canon, is the definite work of this school ', Keith, 153.

分別識 The discriminating perception, i. e. of 意 mind, the sixth 根 organ.

分別起 Delusions arising from reasoning and teaching, in contrast with 倶生起 errors that arise naturally among people.

分喩 A metaphor only correct in part, e. g. a face like the moon.

分散 visarj. To dismiss, scatter, separate, as an assembly.

分析 To divide, separate, leave the world, v. 析.

分歲 New Year's eve, the dividing night of the year, also styled 歲夜.

分段 bhāgya. Lot, dispensation, allotment, fate.

分段生死, 分段死, 分段身, 分段三道 all refer to the mortal lot, or dispensation in regard to the various forms of reincarnation.

分段同居 Those of the same lot, or incarnation, dwelling together, e. g. saints and sinners in this world.

分段輪廻 The wheel of fate, or reincarnation.

分段變易 Includes (1) 分段生死, the condition and station resulting from good or bad karma in the three realms (desire, form, and formlessness) and in the six paths; (2) 變易生死 the condition and station resulting from good karma in the realms beyond transmigration, including arhats and higher saints.

分相門 The doctrine which differentiates the three vehicles from the one vehicle; as 該攝門 is that which maintains the three vehicles to be the one.

分眞卽 idem 分證卽.

分衛 piṇḍapāta, 賓荼波多; 儐荼夜 food given as alms; piṇḍapātika means one who lives on alms; it is also interpreted as 團墮 lumps (of food) falling (into the begging bowl); the reference is to the Indian method of rolling the cooked food into a bolus for eating, or such a bolus given to the monks.

分證卽 One of the Tiantai 六卽 q. v. Also 分眞卽.

分身 Parturition: in Buddhism it means a Buddha's power to reproduce himself ad infinitum and anywhere.

分那柯 pūrṇaka, i. e. 滿 full; name of a yakṣa, or demon.

分陀利迦 (also see 分陀利) puṇḍarīka, 芬陀; 分荼利迦, 分荼利華, 奔荼利迦, 奔荼利華; 本拏哩迦; the 白蓮花 white lotus (in full bloom). It is also termed 百葉華 (or 八葉華) hundred (or eight) leaf flower. For Saddharma-puṇḍarīka, the Lotus Sutra, v. 妙法蓮華經. The eighth and coldest hell is called after this flower, because the cold lays bare the bones of the wicked, so that they resemble the whiteness of this lotus. It is also called 隨色花; when a bud, it is known as 屈摩羅; and when fading, as 迦摩羅.

屈摩羅 the budding phase of the white lotus (puṇḍarīka).

迦摩羅 the fading phase of the white lotus (puṇḍarīka) .

Not; do not; translit. m and v.

勿伽 mudga; 'phaseolus mungo (both the plant and its beans),' M. W.; intp. as 胡豆 and 綠豆 kidney beans by the Fanyi mingyi.

勿伽羅子 Maudgalyāyana or Maudgalaputra, idem Mahāmaudgalyāyana 目蓮.

勿力伽難提 Mṛgānandi, or 蜜利伽羅 Mṛgala; rejoicing deer; a śramaṇa called 鹿杖 Lu-chang, who was satisfied with the leavings of other monks; also a previous incarnation of Śākyamuni, and of Devadatta, who are both represented as having been deer.

勿哩訶婆跋底 B.rhaspati, Jupiter-lord, 木星 Jupiter.

A hook to entangle, inveigle, arrest; a tick, mark.

勾當 An employee in a monastery, especially of the Shingon sect. In Japan, the second rank of official blind men.

To transform, metamorphose: (1) conversion by instruction, salvation into Buddhism; (2) magic powers 通力 of transformation, of which there are said to be fourteen mental and eight formal kinds. It also has the meaning of immediate appearance out of the void, or creation 無而忽起; and of giving alms, spending, digesting, melting, etc.


化主 The lord of transformation, or conversion, i. e. a Buddha; also one who exhorts believers to give alms for worship: also an almsgiver.

化人 A deva or Buddha transformed into human shape.

化女 is 化人 in female form.

化他 To save others.

化他壽 A Buddha's long or 'eternal' life spent in saving others; implying his powers of unlimited salvation.

化佛 nirmāṇabuddha, an incarnate, or metamorphosed Buddha: Buddhas and bodhisattvas have universal and unlimited powers of appearance, v. 神通力.

化作 To transform (into), create, make.

化俗結緣 For the sake of converting the people.

化儀 The rules or methods laid down by the Buddha for salvation: Tiantai speaks of 化儀 as transforming method, and 化法 q. v. as transforming truth; its 化儀四教 are four modes of conversion or enlightenment: 頓 direct or sudden, 漸 gradual, 祕密 esoteric, and 不定 variable.

化制二教 The twofold division of the Buddha's teaching into converting or enlightening and discipline, as made by the Vihaya School, v. 化行.

化前 In the Amitābha cult the term means before its first sutra, the 觀無量壽經, just as 爾前 in the Lotus School means 'before the Lotus.'

化前序 the preface to the 觀經疏 by 善導 Shandao of the Tang dynasty.

化前方便 All the expedient, or partial, teaching suited to the conditions before the Wuliangshou jing 無量壽經.

化功歸己 The merit of converting others becomes one's own in increased insight and liberation); it is the third stage of merit of the Tiantai five stages of meditation and action 觀行五品位.

化土 one of the 三土 three kinds of lands, or realms; it is any land or realm whose inhabitants are subject to reincarnation; any land which a Buddha is converting, or one in which is the transformed body of a Buddha. These lands are of two kinds, pure like the Tusita heaven, and vile or unclean like this world. Tiantai defines the huatu or the transformation realm of Amitābha as the Pure-land of the West, but other schools speak of huatu as the realm on which depends the nirmāṇakāya, with varying definitions.

化地部 Mahīśāsakah, 磨醯奢婆迦部; 彌喜捨婆阿; 彌婆塞部, 正地部 an offshoot from the 說一切有部 or Sarvāstivāda school, supposed to have been founded 300 years after the nirvana. The name Mahisasakah is said to be that of a ruler who 'converted his land' or people; or 正地 'rectified his land'. The doctrines of the school are said to be similar to those of the 大衆部 Mahāsāṅghika; and to have maintained, inter alia, the reality of the present, but not of the past and future; also the doctrine of the void and the non-ego; the production of taint 染 by the five 識 perceptions; the theory of nine kinds of non-activity, and so on. It was also called 法無去來宗 the school which denied reality to past and future.

化城 The magic, or illusion city, in the Lotus Sutra; it typifies temporary or incomplete nirvana, i. e. the imperfect nirvana of Hīnayāna.

化境 The region, condition, or environment of Buddha instruction or conversion: similar to 化土.

化壇 The altar of transformation, i. e. a crematorium.

化宮殿 The magical palace, or, palace of joy, held in the fortieth left hand of: Guanyin of the thousand hands; the hand is styled 化宮殿手 or 寶殿手.

化導 To instruct and guide.

三輪化導 three sovereign powers for converting others are those of 神變 supernatural transformation (i. e. physical 身); 記心 memory or knowledge of all the thoughts of all beings (i. e. mental 意 ); and 教誠 teaching and warning (i. e. oral 口).

化導力 Power to instruct and guide, one of the 三力.

化尼 The power of a Buddha, or bodhisattva, to be transformed into a nun.

化屬 The converted followers— of a Buddha, or bodhisattva.

化度 To convert and transport, or save.


化心 The mind in the transformation body of a Buddha or bodhisattva, which apprehends things in their reality.

化教 see 化行二教.

化樂天 Nirmāṇarati, 樂變化天 the fifth of the six desire-heavens, 640, 000 yojanas above Meru; it is next above the Tuṣita, or fourth deva. loka; a day is equal to 800 human years; life lasts for 8, 000 years; its inhabitants are eight yojanas in height, and light-emitting; mutual smiling produces impregnation and children are born on the knees by metamorphosis, at birth equal in development to human children of twelve— hence the 'joy-born heaven'.

化法 Instruction in the Buddhist principles, as 化儀 is in practice, Tiantai in its 化法四教 divides the Buddha's teaching during his lifetime into the four periods of 藏, 通, 別, and 圓 Pitaka, Interrelated, Differentiated, and Complete, or All-embracing.

化源 The fount of conversion, or salvation, the beginning of the Buddha's teaching.

化現 Metamorphosis and manifestation; the appearance or forms of a Buddha or bodhisattva for saving creatures may take any form required for that end.

化理 The law of phenomenal change— which never rests.

化生 aupapādaka, or aupapāduka. Direct metamorphosis, or birth by transformation, one of the 四生, by which existence in any required form is attained in an instant in full maturity. By this birth bodhisattvas residing in Tuṣita appear on earth. Dhyāni Buddhas and Avalokiteśvara are likewise called 化生. It also means unconditional creation at the beginning of a kalpa. Bhuta 部多 is also used with similar meaning. There are various kinds of 化生, e. g. 佛菩薩化生 the transformation of a Buddha or bodhisattva, in any form at will, without gestation, or intermediary conditions: 極樂化生, birth in the happy land of Amitābha by transformation through the Lotus; 法身化生 the dharmakāya, or spiritual body, born or formed on a disciple's conversion.

化疏 A subscription list, or book; an offering burnt for ease of transmission to the spirit-realm.

化相 The transformation form or body (in which the Buddha converts the living).

化相三寶 The nirmāṇakāya Buddha in the triratna forms; in Hīnayāna these are the human 16-foot Buddha, his dharma as revealed in the four axioms and twelve nidānas, and his sangha, or disciples, i. e. arhats and pratyekabuddhas.

化米 Rice obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction, similarly化炭 charcoal and化茶 tea; sometimes used with larger connotation.

化炭 charcoal obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction.

化茶 tea obtained by monastic begging and the offering of exhortation or instruction.

化緣 The cause of a Buddha's or bodhisattva's coming to the world, i. e. the transformation of the living; also, a contribution to the needs of the community.

化色 A Buddha's or bodhisattva's metamorphoses of body, or incarnations at will.

化菩薩 A Buddha or bodhisattva transformed: into a (human) bodhisattva; or a bodhisattva in various metamorphoses.

化行 (化行二教) The two lines of teaching: i. e. in the elements, for conversion and admission, and 行教 or 制教 in the practices and moral duties especially for the Order, as represented in the Vinaya; cf. 化制.

化誘 To convert and entice (into the way of truth).

化身 nirmāṇakāya, 應身, 應化身; 變化身 The third characteristic or power of the trikāya 三身, a Buddha's metamorphosic body, which has power to assume any shape to propagate the Truth. Some interpret the term as connoting pan-Buddha, that all nature in its infinite variety is the phenomenal 佛身 Buddha-body. A narrower interpretation is his appearance in human form expressed by 應身, while 化身 is used for his manifold other forms of appearances.

化生 q. v. means direct 'birth' by metamorphosis. It also means the incarnate avaatara of a deity.

化生八相 The eight forms of a Buddha from birth to nirvana, v. 八相.

化轉 To transform, convert (from evil to good, delusion to deliverance).

化迹 The traces or evidences of the Buddha's transforming teaching; also 教迹.


化道 The way of conversion, transformation, or development; also 教道.


午供 The noon offering (of incense).

To turn over, turn or send back; contrary; to rebel.

反出生死 One of the seven kinds of mortality, i. e. escape from it into nirvana.

反切 The system of indicating the initial and final sounds of a character by two others, ascribed to Sun Yen 孫炎 in the third century A D., arising out of the translit. of Sanskrit terms in Buddhist translation.

反叉合掌 One of the twelve forms of folded hands, i. e. with interlocking fingers.

very, great.

太子 Kumaararāja. Crownprince. An epithet of Buddhas, and of Mañjuśrī.

太子和休經 太子刷護經 There are several 太子, etc. 經. One named the Subaahu-parip.rcchaa was translated under the first title between 265-316 A. D., four leaves; under the second title by Dharmarakṣa during the same period.

太孤危生 Life perilous as the (unscaleable) top of the loneliest peak.

太虛空 Space, where nothing exists; also 頑空; 偏空.

太麤生 A ruffian, a rough fellow.

A man; a sage, officer, hero; a husband, mate; a fellow; a particle, i. e. for, so, etc.

夫人 A wife; the wife of a king, i. e. a queen, devi.

凡夫 The common people, the unenlightened, hoi polloi, a common fellow.

Heaven; the sky; a day; cf. dyo, dyaus also as 提婆 a deva, or divine being, deity; and as 素羅 sura, shining, bright.

三種天 The three classes of devas: (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyeka-buddhas. 智度論 7.

四種天 The four classes of devas include (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyekabuddhas, and (4) 義天 all bodhisattvas above the ten stages 十住. The Buddhas are not included; 智度論 22.

五種天 (1) 名天 famous rulers on earth styled 天王, 天子; (2) 生天 the highest incarnations of the six paths; (3) 淨天 the pure, or the saints, from śrāvakas to pratyekabuddhas, and (4) 義天 all bodhisattvas above the ten stages 十住, and (5) 第一義天 a supreme heaven with bodhisattvas and Buddhas in eternal immutability; 涅槃經 23. Cf. 天宮.

天上 The heavens above, i. e. the six devalokas 六欲天 of the region of desire and the rupalokas andarupalokas, i. e. 色 and 無色界.

天上天下唯我獨尊 The first words attributed to Śākyamuni after his first seven steps when born from his mother's right side: 'In the heavens above and (earth) beneath I alone am the honoured one. 'This announcement is ascribed to every Buddha, as are also the same special characteristics attributed to every Buddha, hence he is the 如來 come in the manner of all Buddhas. In Mahayanism he is the type of countless other Buddhas in countless realms and periods.

天中天 devaatideva: deva of devas. The name given to Siddhartha (i. e. Śākyamuni) when, on his presentation in the temple of 天王 Maheśvara (Siva), the statues of all the gods prostrated themselves before him.

天主 Devapati. The Lord of devas, a title of Indra.

天主教法 Devendra-samaya. Doctrinal method of the lord of devas. A work on royalty in the possession of a son of Raajabalendraketu.

天乘 devayāna. The deva vehicle— one of the 五乘 five vehicles; it transports observers of the ten good qualities 十喜 to one of the six deva realms of desire, and those who observe dhyāna meditation to the higher heavens of form and non-form.

天人 devas and men; also a name for devas.

天人師 `saastaa devamam.syaanaam 舍多提婆摩菟舍喃, teacher of devas and men, one of the ten epithets of a Buddha, because he reveals goodness and morality, and is able to save.

天人散花身上 The story of the man who saw a disembodied ghost beating a corpse which he said was his body that had led him into all sin, and further on an angel stroking and scattering: lowers on a corpse, which he said was the body he had just left, always his friend.

天人道師 idem 天人師.

天仙 deva-ṛṣi, or devas and rsis, or immortals. Nāgārjuna gives ten classes of ṛṣis whose lifetime is 100, 000 years, then they are reincarnated. Another category is fivefold: 天仙 deva-ṛṣis in the mountains round Sumeru: 神仙 spirit-ṛṣis who roam the air: 人仙 humans who have attained the powers of immortals; 地仙 earth ṛṣis, subterranean; 鬼仙 pretas, or malevolent ṛṣis.

天使 Divine messengers, especially those of Yama; also his 三天使 three messengers, or lictors— old age, sickness, death; and his 五天使 or 五大使, i. e. the last three together with rebirth and prisons or punishments on earth.

天界力士 (天力士) idem 那羅延 Narayana.


天冠 A deva-crown, surpassing human thought.

天口 The mouth of Brahma, or the gods, a synonym for fire, as that element devours the offerings; to this the 護摩 homa, or fire altar cult is attributed, fire becoming the object of worship for good fortune. Fire is also said to speak for or tell the will of the gods.

天台山 The Tiantai or Heavenly Terrace mountain, the location of the Tiantai sect; its name is attributed to the 三台 six stars at the foot of Ursa Major, under which it is supposed to be, but more likely because of its height and appearance. It gives its name to a xian 縣 in the Zhejiang taizhou 浙江台州 prefecture, south-west of Ningbo. The monastery, or group of monasteries, was founded there by 智顗 Zhiyi, who is known as 天台大師.

天台三教 The three modes of Śākyamuni's teaching as explained by the Tiantai sect: (1) the sudden, or immediate teaching, by which the learner is taught the whole truth at once 頓教; (2) the gradual teaching 漸教; (3) the undetermined or variable method-whereby he is taught what he is capable of receiving 不定. Another category is 漸 gradual, 頓 direct, and 圓 perfect, the last being found in the final or complete doctrine of the 法華經 Lotus Sutra. Another is: (1) 三藏教 the Tripiṭaka doctrine, i. e. the orthodox Hīnayāna; (2) 通教 intermediate, or interrelated doctrine, i. e. Hīnayāna-cum-Mahāyāna; (3) 別教 differentiated or separated doctrine, i. e. the early Mahāyāna as a cult or development, as distinct from Hīnayāna.

天台九神 The nine patriarchs of the Tiantai sect: 龍樹 Nāgārjuna; 慧文 Hui-wen of the 北齊 Northern Qi dynasty; 慧思 Huici of 南嶽 Nanyue; 智者 (or 智顗) Zhizhe, or Zhiyi; 灌頂 Guanding of 章安 Changan; 法華 Fahua; 天宮 Tiangung; 左溪 Zuoxi; and 湛然 Zhanran of 荊溪. The ten patriarchs 十祖 are the above nine with 道邃 Daosui considered a patriarch in Japan, because he was the teacher of Dengyo Daishi who brought the Tendai system to that country in the ninth century. Some name Huiwen and Huici as the first and second patriarchs of the school of thought developed by Zhiyi at Tiantai; v. 天台宗.

天台八教 八教 The 化法四教 or four periods of teaching, i. e. 藏, 通, 別, and 圓 Hīnayāna, Interrelated, Differentiated, and Complete or Final; the 化儀四教 q, v. are the four modes of teaching, direct, gradual, esoteric, and indefinite.

天台四教 The four types each of method and doctrine, as defined by Tiantai; see 天台八教.

天台大師 The actual founder of the Tiantai 'school' 智顗 Zhiyi; his 字 was 德安 De-an, and his surname 陳 Chen, A. D. 538-597. Studying under 慧思 Huici of Hunan, he was greatly influenced by his teaching; and found in the Lotus Sutra the real interpretation of Mahayanism. In 575 he first came to Tiantai and established his school, which in turn was the foundation of important Buddhist schools in Korea and Japan.

天台宗 The Tiantai, or Tendai, sect founded by 智顗 Zhiyi. It bases its tenets on the Lotus Sutra 法華經 with the 智度論, 涅盤經, and 大品經; it maintains the identity of the Absolute and the world of phenomena, and attempts to unlock the secrets of all phenomena by means of meditation. It flourished during the Tang dynasty. Under the Sung, when the school was decadent, arose 四明 Ciming, under whom there came the division of 山家 Hill or Tiantai School and 山外 the School outside, the latter following 悟恩 Wuen and in time dying out; the former, a more profound school, adhered to Ciming; it was from this school that the Tiantai doctrine spread to Japan. The three principal works of the Tiantai founder are called 天台三部, i. e. 玄義 exposition of the deeper meaning of the Lotus; 文句 exposition of its text; and 止觀 meditation; the last was directive and practical; it was in the line of Bodhidharma, stressing the 'inner light'.

天台律 The laws of the Tiantai sect as given in the Lotus, and the ten primary commandments and forty-eight secondary commandments of 梵網經 the Sutra of Brahma's Net 梵網經 (Brahmajāla); they are ascribed as the 大乘圓頓戒 the Mahāyāna perfect and immediate moral precepts, immediate in the sense of the possibility of all instantly becoming Buddha.

天台韶國師 Tiantai Shao guoshi, a Chekiang priest who revived the Tiantai sect by journeying to Korea, where the only copy of Zhiyi's works existed, copied them, and returned to revive the Tiantai school. 錢俶 Qianshu (A. D. 960 -997), ruler of 吳越 Wuyue, whose capital was at Hangchow, entitled him Imperial Teacher.

天后 Queen of Heaven, v. 摩利支.

天地鏡 The mirror of heaven and earth, i. e. the Prajñāpāramitā-sūtra, see 般若經.

天堂 The mansions of the devas, located between the earth and the Brahmalokas; the heavenly halls; heaven. The Ganges is spoken of as 天堂來者 coming from the heavenly mansions.

天堂地獄 The heavens and the hells, places of reward or punishment for moral conduct.

天女 devakanyā; apsaras; goddesses in general; attendants on the regents of the sun and moon; wives of Gandharvas, the division of the sexes is maintained throughout the devalokas 六 天.


天子 A son of Heaven. The Emperor-Princes, i. e. those who in previous incarnations have kept the middle and lower grades of the ten good qualities 十善 and, in consequence, are born here as princes. It is the title of one of the four mara, who is 天主 or lord of the sixth heaven of desire; he is also known as 天子魔 (天子業魔) and with his following opposes the Buddha-truth.

天宮 devapura; devaloka; the palace of devas, the abode of the gods, i. e. the six celestial worlds situated above the Meru, between the earth and the Brahmalokas. v. 六天.

天宮寳藏 A library of the sutras. The treasury of all the sutras in the Tuṣita Heaven in Maitreya's palace. Another collection is said to be in the 龍宮 or Dragon's palace, but is associated with Nāgārjuna.

天尊 The most honoured among devas, a title of a Buddha, i. e. the highest of divine beings; also used for certain maharāja protectors of Buddhism and others in the sense of honoured devas. Title applied by the Daoists to their divinities as a counterpart to the Buddhist 世尊.

天師 Preceptor of the emperor, a title of the monk 一行 Yixsing, and of the so-called Daoist Pope.

天帝 King, or emperor of Heaven, i. e. 因陀羅 Indra, i. e. 釋 (釋迦); 釋迦婆; 帝 (帝釋); Śakra, king of the devaloka 忉利天, one of the ancient gods of India, the god of the sky who fights the demons with his vajra, or thunderbolt. He is inferior to the trimūrti, Brahma, Viṣṇu, and Śiva, having taken the place of Varuṇa, or sky. Buddhism adopted him as its defender, though, like all the gods, he is considered inferior to a Buddha or any who have attained bodhi. His wife is Indrāṇī.

天帝生驢胎 Lord of devas, born in the womb of an ass, a Buddhist fable, that Indra knowing he was to be reborn from the womb of an ass, in sorrow sought to escape his fate, and was told that trust in Buddha was the only way. Before he reached Buddha his life came to an end and he found himself in the ass. His resolve, however, had proved effective, for the master of the ass beat her so hard that she dropped her foal dead. Thus Indra returned to his former existence and began his ascent to Buddha.

天帝釋城 The city of Śakra, the Lord of devas, called 善見城 Sudarśana city good to behold, or 喜見城 city a joy to behold.

天弓 The deva-bow, the rainbow.

天德甁 The vase of deva virtue, i. e. the bodhi heart, because all that one desires comes from it, e. g. the 如意珠 the talismanic pearl. Cf. 天意樹.

天愛 devānāṃpriya. 'Beloved of the gods, 'i. e. natural fools, simpletons, or the ignorant.

天意樹 The tree in each devaloka which produces whatever the devas desire.

天授 Heaven-bestowed, a name of Devadatta, v. 提.

天有 Existence and joy as a deva, derived from previous devotion, the fourth of the seven forms of existence.

天根 The phallic emblem of Śiva, which Xuanzang found in the temples of India; he says the Hindus 'worship it without being ashamed'.

天梯山 The ladder-to-heaven hill or monastery, i. e. 天台 Tiantai mountain in Chekiang.

天樂 Heavenly music, the music of the inhabitants of the heavens. Also one of the three 'joys'— that of those in the heavens.

天機 Natural capacity; the nature bestowed by Heaven.

天樹王 The pārijāta tree 波利質多 which grows in front of Indra's palace— the king among the heavenly trees.

天狗 ulkā, 憂流迦the 'heavenly dog' i. e. a meteor. Also 'a star in Argo' according to Williams.

天獄 The heavens and hells; devalokas and purgatories.

天王 Maharāja-devas; 四天王 Caturmahārāja. The four deva kings in the first or lowest devaloka, on its four sides. E. 持國天王 Dhṛtarāṣṭra. S. 增長天王 Virūḍhaka. W. 廣目天王 Virūpākṣa. N. 多聞天王 Dhanada, or Vaiśravaṇa. The four are said to have appeared to 不空 Amogha in a temple in Xianfu, some time between 742-6, and in consequence he introduced their worship to China as guardians of the monasteries, where their images are seen in the hall at the entrance, which is sometimes called the 天王堂 hall of the deva-kings. 天王 is also a designation of Siva the 大白在, i. e. Maheśvara 摩醯首羅, the great sovereign ruler.


天王如來 Devarāja-tathāgata, the name by which Devadatta, the enemy of Śākyamuni, will be known on his future appearance as a Buddha in the universe called 天道 Devasopāna; his present residence in hell being temporary for his karmaic expurgation.

天界 idem天道.

天畫 deva lines or pictures.

天皇 Deva-king; the Tang monk 道悟 Daowu of the 天皇 Tianhuang monastery at 荊州 Jingzhou.

天眞 bhūtatathatā, permanent reality underlying all phenomena, pure and unchanging e. g. the sea in contrast with the waves; nature, the natural, 天然之眞理, 非人之造作者 natural reality, not of human creation.

天眞佛 The real or ultimate Buddha; the bhūtatathatā; another name for the Dharmakāya, the source of all life.

天眞獨朗 The fundamental reality or bhūtatathatā, is the only illumination. It is a dictum of 道邃 Daosui of the Tang to the famous Japanese monk 傳教 Dengyō. The apprehension of this fundamental reality makes all things clear, including the universality of Buddha- hood. It also interprets the phrase 一心三觀 that 空中假 the void, the 'mean ', the seeming, are all aspects of the one mind.

天眼 divyacakṣṣus. The deva-eye; the first abhijñā, v. 六通; one of the five classes of eyes; divine sight, unlimited vision; all things are open to it, large and small, near and distant, the destiny of all beings in future rebirths. It may be obtained among men by their human eyes through the practice of meditation 修得: and as a reward or natural possession by those born in the deva heavens 報得. Cf 天耳, etc.

天眼力 The power of the celestial or deva eye, one of the ten powers of a Buddha.

天眼明 One of the three enlightenments 三明, or clear visions of the saint, which enables him to know the future rebirths of himself and all beings.

天眼智 The wisdom obtained by the deva eye.

天眼智證通 (天眼智通) The complete universal knowledge and assurance of the deva eye.

天眼智通願 The sixth of Amitābha's forty-eight vows, that he would not enter the final stage until all beings had obtained this divine vision.

天眼通 idem 天眼; also a term used by those who practise hypnotism.

天督 Tiandu, an erroneous form of 天竺, or 印度 Yindu, India.

天祠 devālaya, devatāgāra, or devatāgṛha. Brahminical temples.

天神 deva 提婆 or devatā 泥縛多. (1) Brahma and the gods in general, including the inhabitants of the devalokas, all subject to metem-psychosis. (2) The fifteenth patriarch, a native of South India, or Ceylon and disciple of Nāgārjuna; he is also styled Devabodhisattva 提婆菩薩, Āryadeva 聖天, and Nilanetra 靑目 blue-eyed, or 分別明 clear discriminator. He was the author of nine works and a famous antagonist of Brahmanism.

天神地祇 The spirits 天神 are Indra and his retinue; devas in general; the 地祇 are the earth spirits, nāgas, demons, ghosts, etc.

天童 Divine youths, i. e. deva guardians of the Buddha-law who appear as Mercuries, or youthful messengers of the Buddhas and bodhisattvas.

天童山 天潼山 A famous group of monasteries in the mountains near Ningpo, also called 太白山 Venus planet mountain; this is one of the five famous mountains of China.

天竺 (天竺國) India; 竹 zhu is said to have the same sound as 篤 tu, suggesting a connection with the 度 tu in 印度 Indu; other forms are 身毒 Sindhu, Scinde; 賢豆 Hindu; and 印持伽羅. The term is explained by 月 moon, which is the meaning of Indu, but it is said to be so called because the sages of India illumine the rest of the world: or because of the half-moon shape of the land, which was supposed to be 90, 000 li in circumference, and placed among other kingdoms like the moon among the stars. Another name is 因陀羅婆他那 ? Indravadana, or Indrabhavana, the region where Indra dwells. A hill and monastery near Hangchow.

天竺三時 (or 天竺三際). The three seasons of an Indian year: Grīṣma, the hot season, from first month, sixteenth day, to fifth month, fifteenth; Varṣākāla, the rainy season, fifth month, sixteenth, the to ninth month, fifteenth; Hemanta, the cold season, ninth month, sixteenth, to first month, fifteenth. These three are each divided into two, making six seasons, or six periods: Vasanta and grīṣma, varṣākāla and śarad, hemanta and śiśira. The twelve months are Caitra, Vaiśākha, Jyaiṣṭha, Āṣāḍha, Śrāvaṇa, Bhādrapada, Āśvavuja, Kārttika, Mārgaśīrṣa, Pauṣa, Māgha, and Phālguna.


天竺九儀 The nine forms of etiquette of India: speaking softly, bowing the head, raising the hands high, placing hands together, bending knees, kneeling long, hands and knees touching the ground, bowing the head, lowering arms and bending knees, bringing head, arms, and knees to the ground.

天竺五山 The five mountains of India on which the Buddha assembled his disciples: Vaibhara, Saptaparnaguha, Indrasailaguha, Sarpiskundika-pragbhara, Grdhrakuta.

天羅國 The kingdom of the king with kalmā-ṣapāda, i. e. spotted, or striped feet 斑定王; cf. 仁王經.

天耳 (天耳通) divyaśrotra, deva-ear, celestial ear.

天耳智 (天耳智通); 天耳智證通 The second of the six abhijñās 六通 by which devas in the form-world, certain arhats through the fourth dhyāna, and others can hear all sounds and understand all languages in the realms of form, with resulting wisdom. For its equivalent interpretation and its 修得 and 報得 v. 天眼.

天耳智通願 The seventh of the forty-eight vows of Amitābha, not to become Buddha until all obtain the divine ear.

天臂城 Devadarśita or Devadiṣṭa, Deva-arm city, but the Sanskrit means deva (or divinely) indicated. The residence of Suprabuddha, 善覺長者 father of Māyā, mother of the Buddha.

天華 Deva, or divine, flowers, stated in the Lotus Sutra as of four kinds, mandāras, mahāmandāras, mañjūṣakas, and mahāmañjūṣakas, the first two white, the last two red.

天蓋 A Buddha's canopy, or umbrella; a nimbus of rays of light, a halo.

天衆 The host of heaven, Brahma, Indra, and all their host.

天衆五相 The five signs of approaching demise among the devas, cf. 五衰.

天行 A bodhisattva's natural or spontaneous correspondence with fundamental law: one of the 五行 of the 涅槃經 Nirvana Sutra.

天衣 Deva garments, of extreme lightness.

天衣拂千歲 An illustration of the length of a small kalpa: if a great rock, let it be one, two, or even 40 li square, be dusted with a deva-garment once in a hundred years till the rock be worn away, the kalpa would still be unfinished.

天親 Vasubandhu, 伐蘇畔度; 婆藪槃豆 (or 婆修槃豆) (or 婆修槃陀) 'akin to the gods ', or 世親 'akin to the world'. Vasubandhu is described as a native of Puruṣapura, or Peshawar, by Eitel as of Rājagriha, born '900 years after the nirvana', or about A. D. 400; Takakusu suggests 420-500, Peri puts his death not later than 350. In Eitel's day the date of his death was put definitely at A. D. 117. Vasubandhu's great work, the Abhidharmakośa, is only one of his thirty-six works. He is said to be the younger brother of Asaṅga of the Yogācāra school, by whom he was converted from the Sarvāstivāda school of thought to that of Mahāyāna and of Nāgārjuna. On his conversion he would have 'cut out his tongue' for its past heresy, but was dissuaded by his brother, who bade him use the same tongue to correct his errors, whereupon he wrote the 唯識論 and other Mahayanist works. He is called the twenty-first patriarch and died in Ayodhya.

天語 The deva language, i. e. that of the Brahman, Sanskrit.

天識 Natural perception, or wisdom; the primal endowment in man: the 眞如 or bhūtatathatā.

天趣 idem 天道.

天迦 devanāgarī, 神字 the usual form of Sanskrit writing, introduced into Tibet, v. 梵字.

天道 deva-gati, or devasopāna, 天趣. (1) The highest of the six paths 六道, the realm of devas, i. e. the eighteen heavens of form and four of formlessness. A place of enjoyment, where the meritorious enjoy the fruits of good karma, but not a place of progress toward bodhisattva perfection. (2) The Dao of Heaven, natural law, cosmic energy; according to the Daoists, the origin and law of all things.

天部 The classes of devas; the host of devas; the host of heaven.

天部善神 Brahma, Indra, the four devaloka-rājas, and the other spirit guardians of Buddhism.

天須菩提 Deva Subhūti, one of three Subhūtis, disciples of the Buddha; said to have been so called because of his love of fine clothing and purity of life.


天食 sudhā, food of the gods sweet dew, ambrosia, nectar; blue, yellow, red, and white in colour, white for the higher ranks, the other colours for the lower.

天香 Deva incense, divine or excellent incense.

天鬼 Gods and demons; gati, or reincarnation, among devas and demons.

天魔 deva-māra, 魔羅 one of the four Māras, who dwells in the sixth heaven. Paranirmita-vaśa-vartin, at the top of the Kāmadhātu, with his innumerable host, whence he constantly obstructs the Buddha-truth and its followers. He is also styled 殺者 the slayer; also 波旬 explained by 惡愛 sinful love or desire, as he sends his daughters to seduce the saints; also 波卑 (波卑夜) Papiyan, the evil one. He is the special Māra of the Śākyamuni period; other Buddhas suffer from other Māras; v. 魔.

天魔外道 Māras and heretics— both enemies of Buddha-truth.

天鼓 The deva drum— in the 善法 Good Law Hall of the Trayas-triṃśas heavens, which sounds of itself, warning the inhabitants of the thirty-three heavens that even their life is impermanent and subject to karma: at the sound of the drum Indra preaches against excess. Hence it is a title of Buddha as the great law-drum, who warns, exhorts, and encourages the good and frightens the evil and the demons.

天鼓雷音佛 鼓音如來 Divyadundubhimeghanirghosa. One of the five Buddhas in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala, on the north of the central group; said to be one of the dharmakāya of Sakyamuai, his 等流身 or universal emanation body; and is known as 不動尊 corresponding with Akṣobhya, cf. 五智如來 and 大日經疏 4.

天鼓音 雲自在燈王 Dundubhisvara-rāja. Lord of the sound of celestial drums, i. e. the thunder. Name of each of 2, 000 kotis of Buddhas who attained Buddhahood.

天龍 Devas, including Brahma, Indra, and the devas, together with the nāgas.

天龍八部 devas, nāgas, and others of the eight classes: devas, nāgas, yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, kinnaras, mahoragas. 天; 龍; 夜叉; 乾闥婆; 阿修羅; 迦樓羅; 堅那羅; 摩睺羅迦.

天龍夜叉 devas, nāgas, yakṣas.

A hole: surname of Confucius; great, very; a peacock.

孔雀 mayūra, 摩裕羅 a peacock; the latter form is also given by Eitel for Mauriya as 'an ancient city on the north-east frontier of Matipura, the residence of the ancient Maurya (Morya) princes. The present Amrouah near Hurdwar'.

孔雀城 Mathurā, or Kṛṣṇapura; modern Muttra; 摩度羅 (or 摩偸羅, 摩突羅, or 摩頭羅); 秣兔羅 an ancient city and kingdom of Central India, famous for its stupas, reputed birthplace of Krisna.

孔雀明王 'Peacock king, ' a former incarnation of Śākyamuni, when as a peacock he sucked from a rock water of miraculous healing power; now one of the mahārāja bodhisattvas, with four arms, who rides on a peacock; his full title is 佛母大金曜孔雀明王. There is another 孔雀王 with two arms.

Few: also used as a transliteration of ṣat, six.

少光天 (少光); 廅天 parīttābhās; the fourth Brahmaloka, i. e. the first region of the second dhyāna heavens, also called 有光壽.

少室 Shaoshi, a hill on the 嵩山 Sungshan where Bodhidharma set up his 少林寺 infra.

少室六門集 Six brief treatises attributed to Bodhidharma, but their authenticity is denied.

少康 Shaokang, a famous monk of the Tang dynasty, known as the later 善導 Shandao, his master.

少林寺 The monastery at 少室 in 登封 Dengfeng xian, Henanfu, where Bodhidharma sat with his face to a wall for nine years.

少林武藝 Wu-i, a cook of the Shao-lin monastery, who is said single-handed to have driven off the Yellow Turban rebels with a three-foot staff, and who was posthumously rewarded with the rank of 'general '; a school of adepts of the quarter-staff, etc., was called after him, of whom thirteen were far-famed.

少欲知足 Content with few desires.

少淨天 (少淨) Parīttaśubhas. The first and smallest heaven (brahmaloka) in the third dhyāna region of form.

少財鬼 Hungry ghosts who pilfer because they are poor and get but little food.

Collect, mass; to quarter, camp. To sprout; very; stingy.

屯崙摩 Druma, the king of the kinhara, male and female spirits whose music awakened mystics from their trance: v. 智度論 17.

The open hand, palm; to lay hold of; to flatter.

巴利 Pali, considered by ' Southern ' Buddhists to be the language of Magadha, i. e. Māgadhī Prākrit, spoken by Śākyamuni: their Tripiṭaka is written in it. It is closely allied to Sanskrit, but phonetically decayed and grammatically degenerate.

巴思巴 v. 八思巴.

巴連弗 Pataliputra, v. 波吒釐.

巴陵三轉語 The three cryptic sayings of Hàojiàn 顥鑑 styled Baling, name of his place in Yuèzhōu 嶽州. He was the successor of Yunmen 雲門. 'What is the way ? The seeing fall into wells. What is the feather-cutting sword (of Truth)? Coral branches (i. e. moonbeams) prop up the moon. What is the divine (or deva) throng ? A silver bowl full of snow. '


巴鼻 (or 把鼻) ; 巴臂 Something to lay hold of, e. g. a nose or an arm; evidence.

māyā. Illusion, hallucination, a conjurer's trick, jugglery, i. e. one of the ten illustrations of unreality.

幻人 or幻士 An illusionist, a conjurer.

幻力 The powers of a conjurer.

幻化 Illusion and transformation, or illusory transformation.

幻垢 Illusory and defiled, i. e. body and mind are alike illusion and unclean.

幻師 An illusionist, a conjurer.

幻心 The illusion mind, or mind is unreal.

幻惑 Illusory; to delude.

幻日王 Bālāditya, 婆羅阿迭多 the morning sun (lit. mock-sun) king, circa A. D. 191. 幻 probably should be 幼; a king of Magadha, who fought and captured Mihirakula, the king of 磔迦 Ceka, or the Hūnas, who was an opponent of Buddhism.

幻有 Illusory existence.

幻法 Conjuring tricks, illusion, methods of Bodhisattva transformation.

幻相 Illusion, illusory appearance.

幻者 The illusory; anything that is an illusion; all things, for they are illusion.

幻身 The illusion-body, i. e. this body is not real but an illusion.

幻野 The wilderness of illusion, i. e. mortal life.

幻門 The ways or methods of illusion, or of bodhisattva transformation.

To stretch, draw, lead, bring in or on.

引入 To introduce, initiate.

引化 Initiate and instruct.

引出佛性 One of the 三佛性 q. v. the Buddha-nature in all the living to be developed by proper processes.

引導 To lead men into Buddha-truth); also a phrase used at funerals implying the leading of the dead soul to the other world, possibly arising from setting alight the funeral pyre.

引座 A phrase used by one who ushers a preacher into the 'pulpit' to expound the Law.

引接 引攝 To accept, receive, welcome— as a Buddha does all who call on him, as stated in the nineteenth vow 第十九願 of Amitābha.

引果 The stage of fruition, i. e. reward or punishment in the genus, as contrasted with 滿引 the differentiated species or stages, e. g. for each organ, or variety of condition. 唯識論 2.

引業 引因; 牽引業; 總報業 The principal or integral direction of karma, in contrast with 滿引 its more detailed stages; see last entry.

引正太子 Sātavāhana, 沙多婆漢那 a prince of Kosala, whose father the king was the patron of Nāgārjuna; the prince, attributing his father's unduly prolonged life to Nāgārjuna's magic, is said to have compelled the latter to commit suicide, on hearing of which the king died and the prince ascended the throne. 西域記 10.

引發因 One of the 十因 the force or cause that releases other forces or causes.

引磬 手磬 A hand-bell to direct the attention in services.

引請闍梨 A term for the instructor of beginners.

引飯大師 The great leader who introduces the meal, i. e. the club which beats the call to meals.

引駕大師 One of the 四大師 of the Tang dynasty; it was his duty to welcome back the emperor on his return to the palace, a duty at times apparently devolving on Buddhist monks.

hṛd, hṛdaya 汗栗太 (or 汗栗馱); 紀哩馱 the heart, mind, soul; citta 質多 the heart as the seat of thought or intelligence. In both senses the heart is likened to a lotus. There are various definitions, of which the following are six instances: (1) 肉團心 hṛd, the physical heart of sentient or nonsentient living beings, e. g. men, trees, etc. (2) 集起心 citta, the ālayavijñāna, or totality of mind, and the source of all mental activity. (3) 思量心 manas, the thinking and calculating mind; (4) 緣慮心; 了別心; 慮知心; citta; the discriminating mind; (5) 堅實心 the bhūtatathatā mind, or the permanent mind; (6) 積聚精要心 the mind essence of the sutras.

心一境性 one of the seven dhyāna 定, the mind fixed in one condition.

心不相應行 ( or 心不相應行法) The functioning of the mind not corresponding with the first three of the 五法 five laws, of which this is the fourth.

心乘 The mind vehicle, i. e. 心觀 meditation, insight.

心亭 The pavilion of the mind, i. e. the body; cf.|城.

心佛 The Buddha within the heart: from mind is Buddha hood: the Buddha revealed in or to the mind; the mind is Buddha. 心佛及衆生, 是三無差別 The mind, Buddha, and all the living — there is no difference between the three. i. e. all are of the same order. This is an important doctrine of the 華嚴經 Huayan sutra, cf. its 夜摩天宮品; by Tiantai it is called 三法妙 the mystery of the three things.

心作 The karmic activity of the mind, the 意業 of the three agents, body, mouth, and mind.

心光 The light from (a Buddha's) mind, or merciful heart, especially that of Amitābha.


心印 Mental impression, intuitive certainty; the mind is the Buddha-mind in all, which can seal or assure the truth; the term indicates the intuitive method of the 禪 Ch' an (Zen) school, which was independent of the spoken or written word.

心咒 One of the three classes of spells, idem 一字咒.

心命 Mind life, i. e. the life, longevity, or eternity of the dharmakāya or spiritual body, that of mind; also 慧命. v. 智度論 78.

心器 Mind as the receptacle of all phenomena.

心地 Mind, from which all things spīng; the mental ground, or condition; also used for 意 the third of the three agents-body, mouth, mind.

心城 The citadel of the mind, i. e. as guardian over action; others intp. it as the body, cf. 心亭.

心垢 The impurities of the mind, i. e. 煩惱 passion and delusion; the two phrases are used as synonyms.

心塵 Mind dust or dirt, i. e. 煩惱 the passions, greed, anger, etc.

心宗 The intuitive sect, i. e. the Ch'an (Zen) school; also 佛心宗; 禪宗.

心師 The mind as master, not (like the heretics) mastering (or subduing) the mind 師心.

心心 Every mind; also citta-caitta, mind and mental conditions, i. e. 心 and 心所.

心心數 The mind and its conditions or emotions; 心數 is an older form of 心所.

心念不空 Pondering on (Buddha) and not passing (the time) in vain.

心性 Immutable mind-corpus, or mind-nature, the self-existing fundamental pure mind, the all, the Tathāgata-garbha, or 如來藏心; 自性淸淨心; also described in the 起信論 Awakening of Faith as immortal 不生不滅. Another definition identifies 心 with 性 saying 性卽是心, 心卽是佛 the nature is the mind, and mind is Buddha; another, that mind and nature are the same when 悟 awake and understanding, but differ when 迷 in illusion; and further, in reply to the statement that the Buddha-nature is eternal but the mind not eternal, it is said, the nature is like water, the mind like ice, illusion turns nature to mental ice form, awakening melts it back to its proper nature.

心性三千 The universe in a thought; the mind as a microcosm.

心想 Thought; the thoughts of the mind.

心意識 Mind, thought, and perception (or discernment).

心慧 wisdom, i. e. mind or heart wisdom, e. g. 身戒心慧 controlled in body and wise in mind.

心懷戀慕 Heart-yearning (for the Buddha).

心所 (心所法) Mental conditions, the attributes of the mind, especially the moral qualities, or emotions, love, hate, etc.; also 心所有法, v. 心心.

心數 An older term for 心所q. v. the several qualities of the mind. The esoterics make Vairocana the 心王, i. e. Mind or Will, and 心數 the moral qualities, or mental attributes, are personified as his retinue.

心智 Mind and knowledge, or the wisdom of the mind, mind being the organ, knowing the function.

心月 Mind (as the) moon, the natural mind or heart pure and bright as the full moon.

心月輪 The mind' s or heart' s moon-revolutions, i. e. the moon' s varying stages, typifying the grades of enlightenment from beginner to saint.

心根 Manas, or the mind-organ, one of the twenty-five tattva 諦 or postulates of a universe.

心極 The pole or extreme of the mind, the mental reach; the Buddha.

心機 The motive power of the mind, the mind the motor.

心水 The mind as a reflecting water-surface; also the mind as water, clear or turbids.


心冰 The heart chaste as ice; the mind congealed as ice, i. e. unable to solve a difficulty.

心法 Mental dharmas, idea— all 'things' are divided into two classes 色 and 心 physical and mental; that which has 質礙 substance and resistance is physical, that which is devoid of these is mental; or the root of all phenomena is mind 緣起諸法之根本者爲心法. The exoteric and esoteric schools differ in their interpretation: the exoterics hold that mental ideas or 'things' are 無色無形 unsubstantial and invisible, the esoterics that they 有色有形 have both substance and form.

心法身 心是法身 The mind is dharmakāya, 'tathāgata in bonds,' 在纏如來.

心波 Mind waves, i. e. mental activity.

心海 Mind as a sea or ocean, external phenomena being the wind, and the 八識 eight forms of cognition being the waves.

心源 The fountain of the mind; the thought-welling fountain; mind as the fons et origo of all things.

心無所住 The mind without resting-place, i. e. detached from time and space, e. g. the past being past may be considered as a 'non-past' or non-existent, so with present and future, thus realizing their unreality. The result is detachment, or the liberated mind, which is the Buddha-mind, the bodhi-mind, 無生心 the mind free from ideas of creation and extinction, of beginning and end, recognizing that all forms and natures are of the Void, or Absolute.

心燈 The lamp of the mind; inner light, intelligence.

心猿 The mind as a restless monkey.

心王 The mind, the will the directive or controlling mind, the functioning mind as a whole, distinct from its 心所 or qualities.

心王如來 Vairocana as the ultimate mind, the attributes being personified as his retinue. Applied also to the 五佛 and the 九尊.

心王心所 The mind and its qualities, or conditions.

心珠 The mind stuff of all the living, being of the pure Buddha-nature, is likened to a translucent gem.

心生滅門 The two gates of mind, creation and destruction, or beginning and end.

心田 The field of the mind, or heart, in which spring up good and evil.

心目 Mind and eye, the chief causes of the emotions.

心相 Heart-shape (of the physical heart); manifestation of mind in action; (the folly of assuming that) mind has shape.

心相應行 Actions corresponding with mind, or mind productive of all action.

心眞 Our mind is by nature that of the bhūtatathatā.

心眞如門 The mind as bhūtatathatā, one of the 二門 of the 起信論 Awakening of Faith.

心眼 The eye of the mind, mental vision.

心神 The spirit of the mind, mental intelligence: mind.

心空 Mind-space, or mind spaciousness, mind holding all things, hence like space; also, the emptied mind, kenosis.

心經 Hṛdaya or 'Heart' Sutra, idem 般若心經; 般若波羅蜜多心經; styled 神分心經 'divinely distributed', when publicly recited to get rid of evil spirits.

心縛 The mind in bondage— taking the seeming for the real.

心緣 Mental cognition of the environment; to lay hold of external things by means of the mind.

心自在者 He whose mind is free, or sovereign, an arhat who has got rid of all hindrances to abstraction.

心華 Heart-flower, the heart in its original innocence resembling a fower.

心蓮 The lotus of the mind or heart; the exoteric school interprets it by original purity; the esoteric by the physical heart, which resembles a closed lotus with eight petals.


心藥 Medicine for the mind, or spirit.

心行 The activities of the mind, or heart; also working on the mind for its control; also mind and action.

心行不離 Mind and act not separated, thought and deed in accord, especially in relation to Amitābha.

心要 The very core, or essence.

心觀 Contemplation of the mind and its thoughts, v. 一心三觀.

心證 The inner witness, or assurance, mind and Buddha witnessing together.

心識 The mind and cognition; mind and its contents; the two are considered as identical in the Abhidharma-kośa, but different in Mahāyāna.

心趣 The bent or direction of the mind, or moral nature.

心跡 Footprints, or indications of mind, i. e. the mind revealed by deeds.

心路 The mind-road, i. e. the road to Buddhahood.

心量 Mind-measure; the ordinary man's calculating mind; also, capacity of mind.

心鏡 The heart-mirror, or mirror of the mind, which must be kept clean if it is to reflect the Truth.

心靈 The mind spirit, or genius; intelligence; cf. 心燈.

心願 The will of the mind, resolve, vow.

心香 The incense of the mind, or heart, i. e. sincere devotion.

心馬 The mind like a horse, that needs breaking in, or stimulating with a whip, cf. 心猿.

心鬼 A perverse mind, whose karma will be that of a wandering ghost.

心魔 (心魔賊) The māra-robbers of the mind, i. e. the passions.

A spear.

戈追 idem 倶胝 q. v. Koti.

pāṇī; hasta; kara; hand, arm.

手印 mūdra, mystic positions of the hand; signet-rings, seals; finger-prints.

手口意相應 In yoga practices it means correspondence of hand, mouth, and mind, i. e. manual signs, esoteric words or spells, and thought or mental projection.

手執金剛杵 Vajrapāṇi, or Vajradhara, who holds the thunderbolt.

手爐 A portable censer (with handle).

手磬 A hand-chime (or bell) struck with a stick.

手輪 The lines on the palm and fingers— especially the 'thousand' lines on a Buddha's hand.

A branch; to branch, put off, pay, advance.

支伐羅 至縛羅 cīvara. A mendicant' s garment.

支佛, 辟支佛 A pratyekabuddha, who understands the twelve nidānas, or chain of causation, and so attains to complete wisdom. His stage of attainment is the 支佛地.

支具 支度 The various articles required for worship.

支提 支帝; 支徵; 支陀; 脂帝. Newer forms are 制多; 制底 (制底耶); 制地, i. e. 刹, 塔, 廟 caitya. A tumulus, a mausoleum; a place where the relics of Buddha were collected, hence a place where his sutras or images are placed. Eight famous Caityas formerly existed: Lumbinī, Buddha-gayā, Vārāṇasī, Jetavana, Kanyākubja, Rājagṛha 王舍城, Vaiśālī, and the Śāla grove in Kuśinagara. Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the exact connotation of the terms given, some being referred to graves or stūpas, others to shrines or temples, but in general the meaning is stūpas, shrines, and any collection of objects of worship.

支提山部 支提加部; 制多山部; 只底舸部 ? Caityaśaila; described as one of the twenty sects of the Hīnayāna, and as ascetic dwellers among tombs or in caves.

支樓迦讖 支讖 Chih-lou-chia-ch'an, a śramaṇa who came to China from Yueh-chih A. D. 147 or A. D. 164 and worked at translations till A. D. 186 at Loyang.

支用 To divide, distribute for use, i. e. 分用.

支謙 Chih-ch'ien; name of a Yueh-chih monk said to have come to Loyang at the end of the Han dynasty and under the Wei; tall, dark, emaciated, with light brown eyes; very learned and wise.

支那, 指那, 眞丹, 至那, 斯那, 振旦, 震旦, 眞那, 振丹, 脂難, 旃丹; 摩訶至那 Cina; Maha-cina. The name by which China is referred to in the laws of Manu (which assert that the Chinese were degenerate Kṣatriya), in the Mahābharata, and in Buddhist works. This name may have been derived from families ruling in western China under such titles as 晉 Chin at Fen-chou in Shansi 1106-376 B. C., 陳 Ch'en in Honan 1122-479 B. C., 秦 Ch'in in Shensi as early as the ninth century B. C., and to this latter dynasty the designation is generally attributed.


支那提婆瞿恒羅 漢天種 Cīnadeva gotra. The 'solar deva' of Han descent, first king of Khavandha, born to a princess of the Han dynasty (206 B. C. -A. D. 220) on her way as a bride-elect to Persia, the parentage being attributed to the solar deva. 西域記 12.

支鄰陀 Mucilinda, v. 目 or 摩訶 Maha-m.

支郞 Chih-lang, formerly a polite term for a monk, said to have arisen from the fame of the three 支 Chih of the Wei dynasty 支謙 Chih-ch'ien, 支讖 Chih-ch'an, and 支亮 Chih-liang.

Letters, literature, writing; refined; culture; civil; a despatch; veined; a cash; to gloss.

文句 Textual explanation or criticism, also termed 章; 疏; 述義; 記, etc.; the term applies to works on canonical texts in general, but has particular reference to the Lotus Sutra, i. e. the 妙法蓮華經文句.

文來 A portfolio, or satchel for Buddhist books.

文字 The letter; letters; literal; the written word is described as the breath and life of the dharmakāya; cf. 嚕 ruta.

文字人 A literalist, pedant; narrow.

文字法師 A teacher of the letter of the Law, who knows not its spirit.

文尼 muni, idem 牟尼 and 茂尼, e. g. Śākyamuni.

文殊 (文殊師利) Mañjuśrī 滿殊尸利 -later 曼殊室利. 文殊 is also used for Mañjunātha, Mañjudeva, Mañjughoṣa, Mañjuṣvara, et al. T., hjamdpal; J., Monju. Origin unknown; presumably, like most Buddhas and bodhisattvas, an idealization of a particular quality, in his case of Wisdom. Mañju is beautiful, Śrī; good fortune, virtue, majesty, lord, an epithet of a god. Six definitions are obtained from various scriptures: 妙首 (or 頭 ) wonderful or beautiful) head; 普首 universal head; 濡首 glossy head (probably a transliteration); 敬首 revered head; 妙德 wonderful virtue (or power); 妙吉祥 wonderfully auspicious; the last is a later translation in the 西域記. As guardian of wisdom 智慧 he is often placed on Śākyamuni's left, with 普顯 on the right as guardian of law 理, the latter holding the Law, the former the wisdom or exposition of it; formerly they held the reverse positions. He is often represented with five curls or waves to his hair indicating the 五智 q. v. or the five peaks; his hand holds the sword of wisdom and he sits on a lion emblematic of its stern majesty: but he has other forms. He is represented as a youth, i. e. eternal youth. His present abode is given as east of the universe, known as 淸涼山 clear and cool mountain, or a region 寶住 precious abode, or Abode of Treasures, or 寶氏 from which he derives one of his titles, 寶相如來. One of his dhāraṇīs prophesies China as his post-nirvāṇa realm. In past incarnations he is described as being the parent of many Buddhas and as having assisted the Buddha into existence; his title was 龍種上佛 the supreme Buddha of the nāgas, also 大身佛 or 神仙佛; now his title is 歡喜藏摩尼寶精佛 The spiritual Buddha who joyfully cares for the jewel: and his future title is to be 普現佛 Buddha universally revealed. In the 序品 Introductory Chapter of the Lotus Sutra he is also described as the ninth predecessor or Buddha-ancestor of Śākyamuni. He is looked on as the chief of the Bodhisattvas and represents them, as the chief disciple of the Buddha, or as his son 法王子. Hīnayāna counts Śāriputra as the wisest of the disciples, Mahāyāna gives Mañjuśrī the chief place, hence he is also styled 覺母 mother, or begetter of understanding. He is shown riding on either a lion or a peacock, or sitting on a white lotus; often he holds a book, emblem of wisdom, or a blue lotus; in certain rooms of a monastery he is shown as a monk; and he appears in military array as defender of the faith. His signs, magic words, and so on, are found in various sutras. His most famous centre in China is Wu-tai shan in Shansi. where he is the object of pilgrimages, especially of Mongols. The legends about him are many. He takes the place in Buddhism of Viśvakarman as Vulcan, or architect, of the universe. He is one of the eight Dhyāni-bodhisattvas, and sometimes has the image of Akṣobhya in his crown. He was mentioned in China as early as the fourth century and in the Lotus Sutra he frequently appears, especially as the converter of the daughter of the Dragon-king of the Ocean. He has five messengers 五使者 and eight youths 八童子 attending on him. His hall in the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala is the seventh, in which his group numbers twenty-five. His position is northeast. There are numerous sutras and other works with his name as title, e. g. 文殊師利問菩提經 Gayaśīrṣa sūtra, tr. by Kumārajīva 384-417: and its 論 or .Tīkā of Vasubandhu, tr. by Bodhiruci 535. see list in B. N.

文殊三昧 The samādhi of Mañjuśrī styled the 無相妙慧 formless wonderful wisdom, or wonderful wisdom in the realm of that which is beyond form.


文殊五使者 The five messengers of Mañjuśrī, each bearing one of his 五智 five expressions of wisdom; they are 髻設尼; 優波髻設尼; 質多羅; 地慧, and 請召.

文殊八大童子 The eight 'pages' of Mañjuśrī are 光網; 地慧; 無垢光; 不思慧; 召請; 髻設尼; 救護慧, and 鄥波髻設尼.

文殊悔過 The repentance of Mañjuśrī, i. e. of his former doubting mind, cf. St. Thomas.

文殊院 The seventh great court of the thirteen in the Garbhadhātu group; it shows Mañjuśrī in the centre of a group of twenty-five.

文池 The dragon pool by the side of the throne of Vajrapāṇi, called 目眞鄰陀 Mucilinda q. v.

文理 The written word and the truth expressed; written principles, or reasonings; a treatise; literary style.

文證 The evidence of the written word, or scripture.

文陀竭 Mūrdhajāta, Māndhātṛ, i. e. 頂生王 born from his mother's head, a reputed previous incarnation of the Buddha, who still ambitious, despite his universal earthly sway, his thousand sons, etc., few to Indra's heaven, saw the 天上玉女 celestial devī, but on the desire arising to rule there on Indra's death, he was hurled to earth; v. 文陀竭王經.

A bushel, i. e. ten Chinese pints.

斗帳 A bushel-shaped curtain, e. g. a state umbrella.

斗姥 Dame of the Bushel; queen of heaven 天后 or Marīci, 摩利支.

斗父天尊 The husband of the Dame of the Bushel 斗姥, a Daoist attribution.

An adze; to chop; a catty, 1 and 1/3 lb.: penetrating, minute.

斤斗 筋斗; 巾斗 A somersault.

Square; place; correct; a means, plan, prescription; then, now, just.

方丈 An abbot, 寺主 head of a monastery; the term is said to arise from the ten-foot cubic dwelling in which 維摩 Vimalakirti lived, but here seems to be no Sanskrit equivalent.

方便 upāya. Convenient to the place, or situation, suited to the condition, opportune, appropriate; but 方 is interpreted as 方法 method, mode, plan, and 便 as 便用 convenient for use, i. e. a convenient or expedient method; also 方 as 方正 and 便 as 巧妙, which implies strategically correct. It is also intp. as 權道智 partial, temporary, or relative (teaching of) knowledge of reality, in contrast with 般若智 prajñā, and 眞實 absolute truth, or reality instead of the seeming. The term is a translation of 傴和 upāya, a mode of approach, an expedient, stratagem, device. The meaning is— teaching according to the capacity of the hearer, by any suitable method, including that of device or stratagem, but expedience beneficial to the recipient is understood. Mahāyāna claims that the Buddha used this expedient or partial method in his teaching until near the end of his days, when he enlarged it to the revelation of reality, or the preaching of his final and complete truth; Hīnayāna with reason denies this, and it is evident that the Mahāyāna claim has no foundation, for the whole of its 方等 or 方廣 scriptures are of later invention. Tiantai speaks of the 三乘 q. v. or Three Vehicles as 方便 expedient or partial revelations, and of its 一乘 or One Vehicle as the complete revelation of universal Buddhahood. This is the teaching of the Lotus Sutra, which itself contains 方便 teaching to lead up to the full revelation; hence the terms 體内 (or 同體 ) 方便, i. e. expedient or partial truths within the full revelation, meaning the expedient part of the Lotus, and 體外方便 the expedient or partial truths of the teaching which preceded the Lotus; see the 方便品 of that work, also the second chapter of the 維摩經. 方便 is also the seventh of the ten pāramitās.

方便化身土 An intermediate 'land 'of the Japanese monk 見眞 Kenshin, below the Pure-land, where Amitābha appears in his transformation-body.

方便土 Abbreviation for the last and next but one.

方便智 upāya-jñāna; the wisdom or knowledge of using skilful means (for saving others).

方便有餘土 One of the Tiantai 四土 Four Lands, which is temporary, as its occupants still have remains to be purged away.

方便殺生 The right of great Bodhisattvas, knowing every one's karma, to kill without sinning, e. g. in order to prevent a person from committing sin involving unintermitted suffering, or to aid him in reaching one of the higher reincarnations.

方便波羅蜜 upāya, the seventh pāramitā.

方便波羅蜜菩薩 A bodhisattva in the Garbhadhātu group, the second on the right in the hall of Space.

方便現涅槃 Though the Buddha is eternal, he showed himself as temporarily extinct, as necessary to arouse a longing for Buddha, cf. Lotus, 16.

方便門 The gates of upāya, i. e. convenient or expedient gates leading into Truth.

方便假門 Expedient gates or ways of using the seeming for the real.


方典 A term covering the whole of the Mahāyāna sutras, idem 方等經典.

方口食 Opportunism in obtaining a living, i. e. a monk who makes a living by fawning or by bullying, one of the 四邪命 four illicit ways of livelihood.

方外 Out of the world; the life of a monk.

方廣 vaipulya, 毘佛略 expansion, enlargement, broad, spacious. 方 is intp. by 方正 correct in doctrine and 廣 by 廣博 broad or wide; some interpret it by elaboration, or fuller explanation of the doctrine; in general it may be taken as the broad school, or wider teaching, in contrast with the narrow school, or Hīnayāna. The term covers the whole of the specifically Mahāyāna sutras. The sutras are also known as 無量義經 scriptures of measureless meaning, i. e. universalistic, or the infinite. Cf. 方等.

方廣大莊嚴經 A vaipulya sutra, the Lalita-vistara, in 12 chuan, giving an account of the Buddha in the Tuṣita heaven and his descent to earth as Śākyamuni: tr. by Divākara under the Tang dynasty; another tr. is the 普曜經.

方廣道人 Heretical followers of Mahāyāna, who hold a false doctrine of 空 the Void, teaching it as total non-existence, or nihilism.

方相 Square, four square, one of the five shapes.

方等 vaipulya; cf. 方廣. 方 is interpreted as referring to the doctrine, 等 as equal, or universal, i. e. everynwhere equally. An attempt is made to distinguish between the two above terms, 方廣 being now used for vaipulya, but they are interchangeable. Eitel says the vaipulya sutras 'are distinguished by an expansion of doctrine and style (Sūtras developées, Burnouf). They are apparently of later date, showing the influence of different schools; their style is diffuse and prolix, repeating the same idea over and over again in prose and in verse; they are also frequently interlarded with prophecies and dhāraṇīs'; but the two terms seem to refer rather to the content than the form. The content is that of universalism. Chinese Buddhists assert that all the sutras from the 華嚴 Huayan onwards are of this class and therefore are Mahāyāna. Consequently all 方等 or 方廣 sutras are claimed by that school. Cf. 方便.

方等三昧 One of Tiantai's methods of inducing samādhi, partly by walking, partly by sitting, based on the 大方等陀羅尼經; Zhiyi delivered the 方等三昧行法 to his disciple 灌頂 Guanding who wrote it in one juan.

方等懺悔 (方等懺) One of the subjects of meditation in the 方等三昧 on the hindrances caused by the six organs of sense.

方等戒壇 (方等壇) An open altar at which instruction in the commandments was preached to the people, founded on the Mahāyāna-vaipulya sutras; the system began in 765 in the capital under 代宗 Daizong of the Tang dynasty and continued, with an interim under 武宗 Wuzong, till the 宣宗 Xuanzong period.

方等時 The third of the five periods of Tiantai 五時教, the eight years from the twelfth to the twentieth years of the Buddha's teaching, i. e. the period of the 維摩經, the 金光明經, and other vaipulya sutras.

方等部 The sutras taught during the 方等時 expedient period.

方服 A monk's robe 袈裟 said to be so called because of its square appearance; also 方袍.

方規 Square-shaped, properly, according to scale.

方詣 Direction.

sūrya; the sun; a day. 蘇利耶.

日光 (日光菩薩); 蘇利也波羅皮遮那 Sūrya-prabhāsana. Sunlight, and 月光 (月光菩薩) Moonlight, name of two Bodhisattva assistants of 藥師 the Master of Healing; Sunlight is the ninth in the Dizang Court of the Garbhadhātu group.

日出論者 The sunrise exponents, a title of the founders of the 經部宗 before the Christian era.

日域 Japan.

日天 (日天子) sūrya, 蘇利耶; 修利; 修野天子 (or 修意天子) 天子; also 寳光天子. The sun-ruler; one of the metamorphoses of Guanyin, dwelling in the sun as palace, driving a quadriga.

日天衆 The retinue of Indra in his palace of the sun.

日宮 The sun-palace, the abode of 日天子 supra.

日幢華眼鼓 Five characters taken from the names of, and representing five Buddhas in the Vajradhātu 大日, 寳幢, 華開敷, 蓮華眼, and 天鼓雷音.

日想觀 Meditation on, and observing of the setting sun, the first of the sixteen meditations in the 觀無量壽經.

日旋三昧 sūryāvarta-samādhi, one of the sixteen samādhi mentioned in the 法華經, 妙音品; 日輪三昧 is an older name for it.

日星宿 Nakṣatratārā-rāja-ditya; a degree of meditation, i. e. the sun, stars and constellations samādhi.

日曜 The sun, one of the nine 曜 luminaries; one of the retinue of 日天 shown in the eastern part of the Garbhadhātu group driving three horses.

日月淨明德 Candra-vimala-sūrya-prabhāsa-śrī. A Buddha whose realm resembles Sukhāvatī.

日月燈明佛 Candra-sūrya-pradīpa, or Candrārkadīpa. The title of 20, 000 Buddhas who succeeded each other preaching the Lotus Sutra, v. 法華經, 序品.


日本 Japan. Buddhism was introduced there from Korea in the sixth century, and in the seventh from China.

日禺中 10 a. m. styled by Tiantai the hour of 般若 wisdom.

日種 Sūrya-vaṃśa, one of the five surnames of Śākyamuni, sun-seed or lineage, his first ancestors having been produced by the sun from. 'two stalks of sugar-cane'; v. Ikṣvāku.

日精摩尼 A maṇi 摩尼, or pearl, crystal-clear as the sun, which gives sight to the blind.

日蓮 Nichiren, the Japanese founder, in A. D. 1252, of the 日蓮宗 Nichiren sect, which is also known as the 法華宗 or Lotus sect. Its chief tenets are the three great mysteries 三大祕法, representing the trikāya: (1) 本尊 or chief object of worship, being the great maṇḍala of the worlds of the ten directions, or universe, i. e. the body or nirmāṇakāya of Buddha; (2) 題目 the title of the Lotus Sutra 妙法蓮華經 Myo-ho-ren-gwe-kyo, preceded by Namo, or, 'Adoration to the scripture of the lotus of the wonderful law, ' for it is Buddha's spiritual body; (3) 戒壇 the altar of the law, which is also the title of the Lotus as above; the believer, wherever he is, dwells in the Pure-land of calm light 寂光淨土, the saṃbhogakāya.

日輪 The sun's disc, which is the exterior of the sun palace of 日天子; it is said to consist of sphaṭika, or fiery crystal.

candra, 旅達 (旅達羅); 旂陀羅; 戰達羅; 戰捺羅 the moon, called also 蘇摩 soma, from the fermented juice of asclepias acida used in worship, and later personified in association with the moon. It has many other epithets, e. g. 印度 Indu, incorrectly intp. as marked like a hare; 創夜神 Niśākara, maker of the night; 星宿王 Nakṣatranātha, lord of constellations; 喜懷之頭飾 the crest of Siva; 蓮華王 Kumuda-pati, lotus lord; 白馬主 Śvetavājin, drawn by (or lord of) white horses; 大白光神 Śītāṃśu, the spirit with white rays; 冷光神 Sitamarici, the spirit with cool rays; 鹿形神 Mṛgāṅka, the spirit with marks m form like a deer; 野兎形神 Śaśi, ditto like a hare.

月上女經 Candrottarā-dārikā-vyākaraṇa-sūtra of the maid in the moon.

月光 Candraprabha, 戰達羅鉢刺婆 Moonlight. One of the three honoured ones in the Vajradhātu, and in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu, known also as 淸涼金剛.

月光太子 Moonlight prince, name of Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation as a prince, when he split one of his bones to anoint a leper with its marrow and gave him of his blood to drink. 智度論 12.

月光王 Moonlight king, the same as 月光太子, the name of Śākyamuni in a previous incarnation when he gave his head to a brahman.

月光童子 月光兒 The son of an elder of the capital of Magadha, who listening to heretics and against his son's pleadings, endeavoured to destroy the Buddha in a pitfall of fire, but, on the Buddha's approach, the fire turned to a pool and the father was converted; the son was then predicted by the Buddha to be king of China in a future incarnation, when all China and the Mongolian and other tribes would be converted, v. 月光童子經.

月光菩薩 The bodhisattva Moonlight who attends on 藥師 the Master of Healing; also in the Mañjuśrī court of the Garbhadhātu; used for 月光王; v. 月光菩薩經.

月兎 The hare in the moon.

月分 Moon and division, a tr. of candrabhaga, 旃達羅婆伽 The two rivers Candra and Bhaga joined. The Chenab river, Punjab, the Acesines of Alexander.

月壇 An external altar in temples in the open, i. e. under the moon.

月天 Candradeva, or Somadeva. 旃達提婆 (or 蘇摩提婆) The ruler of the moon, to whom the terms under 月 supra are also applied.

月天子 The male regent of the moon, named 寳吉祥, one of the metamorphoses of the Bodhisattva 勢至 Mahāsthāmaprāpta; the male regent has also his queen 月天妃.

月婆首那 Upaśūnya, 高 空 an Indian monk, son of the king of 優禪尼 Udyāna, who tr. 僧伽叱經.

月宮 The moon-palace of the 月天子 made of silver and crystal; it is described as forty-nine yojanas square, but there are other accounts.

月忌 The return of the day in each month when a person died.

月愛三昧 A Buddha's 'moon-love samādhi' in which he rids men of the distresses of love and hate.

月愛珠 Candrakānta, the moon-love pearl or moonstone, which bestows abundance of water or rain.

月支 (月支國) The Yuezhi, or 'Indo-Scythians', 月氏 (國) and a country they at one time occupied, i. e. 都貨羅 Tukhara, Tokharestan, or Badakshan. Driven out from the northern curve of the Yellow River by the Huns, circa 165 B. C., they conquered Bactria 大夏, the Punjab, Kashmir, 'and the greater part of India. ' Their expulsion from the north of Shansi was the cause of the famous journey of Zhangqian of the Han dynasty and the beginning of Chinese expansion to the north-west. Kanishka, king of the Yuezhi towards the end of the first century A. D., became the great protector and propagator of Buddhism.


月明菩薩 idem 月光菩薩; there is a 月明菩薩經. Also 月明童子 (or 月明男).

月曜 Moon-shining, or Moon-effulgence; a group shown outside the Garbhadhātu group in the Diamond Court.

月燈三昧 candra-dīpa-samādhi, the samādhi said to have been given to 月光童子 by Buddha, the sutra of which is in two translations.

月王 Moon-king, 設賞迦 Śaśāṇka, a ruler of Karṇasuvarṇa, who tried to destroy the bodhidruma, Buddha's tree; dethroned by Śīlāditya.

月冑 Candravarma, 旃達羅伐摩 a learned monk of the Nāgavadana monastery.

月眉 New moon eyebrows, i. e. arched like the Buddha's.

月種 Candravaṃśa, descendants of the moon, 'the lunar race of kings or the second great line of Kṣatriya or royal dynasties in India. ' M. W.

月精摩尼(月精) The pearl or jewel in the fortieth hand of the 'thousand hand' Guanyin, towards which worship is paid in case of fevers; the hand is called 月精手.

月蓋 An elder of Vaiśālī, who at the Buddha's bidding sought the aid of Amitābha, 勢至 (Mahāsthamaprāpta) and Guanyin, especially the last, to rid his people of a pestilence. See Vimalakīrti Sutra.

月輦 The chariot of 月天子.

月輪 The moon's disc, the moon.

月輪觀 (or 月輪三昧) The moon contemplation ( or samādhi) in regard to its sixteen nights of waxing to the full, and the application of this contemplation to the development of bodhi within, especially of the sixteen kinds of bodhisattva mind of the lotus and of the human heart.

月面佛 The 'moon-face Buddha', whose life is only a day and a night, in contrast with the sun-face Buddha whose life is 1, 800 years.

月黶尊 One of the names of a 明王 Ming Wang, i. e. 'moon-black' or 'moon-spots', 降三世明王 the maharāja who subdues all resisters, past, present, and future, represented with black face, three eyes, four protruding teeth, and fierce laugh.

月鼠 The moon rat, one of the two rats, black and white, that gnaw the cord of life, i. e. night and day.

Wood; a tree; kāṣṭha, a piece of wood, wood, timber.

木上座 The elder with the tree, or the wooden elder; the elder's staff.

木佛 A Buddha of wood, i. e. an image of wood.

木佉褒折娜 mukhaproṅchana, or face-wiper, towel handkerchief, one of the thirteen articles of a monk.

木叉 木蛇; 波羅提木叉 mokṣa, prātimokṣa 波羅提木叉; mokṣa is deliverance, emancipation; prati, 'towards, 'implies the getting rid of evils one by one; the 250 rules of the Vinaya for monks for their deliverance from the round of mortality.

木叉提婆 Mokṣadeva. A title given by the Hinayanists in India to Mahāyānadeva, i. e. 玄奘 Xuanzang.

木叉毱多 Mokṣagupta. A monk of Karashahr, protagonist of the Madhyamayāna school, 'whose ignorance Xuanzang publicly exposed. ' Eitel.

木底 mukti, 解脫 deliverance, liberation, emancipation; the same meaning is given to 目帝羅 mucira, which has more the sense of being free with (gifts), generosity.

木律僧 A wooden pettifogging monk; a rigid formalist.

木得羅 Mudra, a seal; mystic signs with the hands.

木星 勿哩訶婆跋底 Bṛhaspati; 'Lord of increase,' the planet Jupiter.

木曜 Jupiter, one of the 九曜 nine luminaries, q. v.; on the south of the diamond hall outside the Garbhadhātu maṇḍala.

木槵子 無患子 A tree whose wood can exorcise evil spirits, or whose seeds are used as rosary-beads. It is said to be the ariṣṭa 阿梨瑟迦紫, which means unharmed, secure; it is the name of the soap-berry and other shrubs.

木樂子 Seeds used for rosary-beads.

木瓜林 苦行林 Papaya forest, i. e. Uruvilva, 優樓頻螺 the place near Gayā where Kāśyapa, Śākyamuni, and others practised their austerities before the latter's enlightenment; hence the former is styled Uruvilva Kāśyapa.

木蘭色 Brownish colour made from bark, probably cinnamon.


木頭 Blockhead, a stupid person, one who breaks the commandments.

木香 根香; 薰陸香; 多伽羅 tagara. An incense-yielding tree, putchuk; vangueria spinosa or tabernae montana coronaria; Eitel.

木食 Living on wild fruits nuts, etc.

木魚 The wooden fish; there are two kinds, one round for use to keep time in chanting, the other long for calling to meals. The origin of the use of a fish is unkজxample to monks to be watchful: there is no evidence of connection with the Christian ίχθύς.ί 木馬 Wooden horse, a symbol of emancipation.

To owe: debt; deficient; to bend, bow, yawn, etc.; the Sanskrit sign अ said to imply 大空不可得 space, great and unattainable or immeasurable.

To stop, halt, cease; one of the seven definitions of 禪定 dhyāna described as 奢摩他 śamatha or 三摩地 samādhi; it is defined as 靜息動心 silencing, or putting to rest the active mind, or auto-hypnosis; also 心定止於一處 the mind centred, lit. the mind steadily fixed on one place, or in one position. It differs from 觀 which observes, examines, sifts evidence; 止 has to do with